European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 116 No 4
Jan, 2014

Reviewing the Influences of Citalopram Antidepressant on Motility, Count, and Sperm Viability, Level of BloodTestosterone, LH and FSH in Small Laboratory Male Mouse Balb/C
457-464

Mahsa Hadipour Jahromi, Maryam Khosravi and Golnar Golbaghi
Abstract:
This study was conducted to review the influences of oral use of citalopram- an antidepressant drug with serotonin reuptake inhibitor mechanism- on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and testis tissue and its side effects particularly on the movement, survival and count of sperm and also review of FSH, LH, and testosterone. In this research 35 male mice of BALB/C strain were experimentally used. The mice weighted from 25 to 30 grams. Citalopram was administered by oral gavage method for 7 weeks in doses 0.007 mg/kg, 0.014 mg/kg, 0.021 mg/kg. The day before the last does, animals were euthanized for dissection and anatomy using chloroform in desiccator. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, ANOVA one-way test, and Tukey test. Histograms were drawn and reviewed for comparison of results. P<0.001, P<0.05 is the statistical inference limit for study of the significant difference of mean among experimental and control groups. The results of this research indicate that taking Citalopram has no significant influence on the count and movement of sperm. Sperms stay alive such that their count did not change with increase in the drug dose. Moreover, taking citalopram caused no significant difference in the amount of LH and FSH. Only the thickness of germinal cells layer increased but the sperm tubes diameter did not change. The count of spermatogony cells had no significant difference.
Keywords: Citalopram, spermatogenesis, LH, FSH, testosterone.

Whatin Authentic Leadership Drives Sales Force Psychological Capital Facets?
465-474
Muhammad Ehsan Malik, BasharatNaeem and ArooshIdrees
Abstract:
The objective of the study was to empirically ascertain the role ofgroup level authentic leadership sub-constructs (such as self-awareness, relational transparency, internalized moral perspective and balanced processing) in building group level psychological capitalfacets (such as hope, self-efficacy, optimism and resilience). Structured survey Questionnaire was used to collect the data on the variables of interest. Regression analyses of data of 55 pharmaceutical sales force groups, revealed that self-awareness and balanced processingbut not internalized moral perspective and relational transparency, had significant positive impact on sales force group’s self-efficacy, hope and resilience whereas only self- awareness significantly improved group’s optimism. Implications of study findings for leadership of pharmaceutical companies and researchers are entailed, too.
Keywords: Psychological Capital (PsyCap), Authentic Leadership, Group,Pharmaceutical Sales Force, Pakistan.

Fonctionnement Hydrosedimentaire Et Impacts Sur L’environnement Estuarien de L’embouchure Du Fleuve Comoé à Grand-Bassam (Côte d’Ivoire)
475-483
Adopo Kouassi Laurent, Wango Ted Edgard, Akobé Apie Colette and Monde Sylvain, Aka Kouamé
Abstract:
L’estuaire du fleuve Comoé présente un cordon littoral sableux et une zone de confluence. Des analyses sédimentologiques de la fraction grossière et morphobathymétriques y ont été réalisées. Il en ressort que la granulométrie du sable varie du fin au sable grossier. Ces sables se sont déposés dans un milieu de dépôt fluviatile. En outre, la morphologie du fond fluvial montre, qu’entre les années 2005 et 2007, le Comoé a subi un important dynamisme traduisant des processus soit d’érosion soit d’engraissement. La fermeture de l’embouchure du fleuve Comoé a un impact néfaste sur l’économie, sur l’environnement et sur la pêche.
Mots clés: Estuaire, Comoé, sédiments, granulométrie, morphologie, Côte d’Ivoire.

Depression, Quality of Life and Factors Related to Quality of Life among the Elderly in Two Districts Khon Kean Province, Thailand
484-491
Korravarn Yodmai and Ratana Somrongthong
Abstract:
This cross-sectional study aims to assess depression and quality of life (QOL) among the elderly in two districts in the Khon Kean province, and to determine the factors associated with QOL. Two hundred people aged between 60 – 75 years were randomly selected. QOL was measured with a WHOQOL-OLD questionnaire. Depression was measured with the Thai Geriatric Depression questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between potential factors and QOL. The results showed that the QOL among older people was fair (55.0%), 44.5% of them have good QOL and only 0.5% of them have low QOL. In term of depression symptoms, most of them (84.5%) have no depression symptoms, followed by mild depression symptoms (13%), moderate depression symptoms (2%), and severe depression symptoms (0.5%). Regarding to factors associated with QOL, it found that having a friend as a consultant for stress (OR = 12.36, 95% CI = 1.58 - 96.54) and access to information by mass media (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.17 - 6.48) were associated with QOL. In contrast, being a member of the village committee (OR = 0.098, 95% CI = 0.02 - 0.51).

Studying the Thermal Performance of a Geothermal Heat Exchanger Placed Underground the Kirkuk City
492-498
Amir Kh. Ali
Abstract:
The project is concerning about studying and experiencing the rate of underground temperature degree variation round the year for Kirkuk city , by burying a plastic heat exchanger in depth about two meters and installing thermometers on different levels of the specific depth in order to read the temperature of each level of the ground ,then allowing a specific quantity of water to flow from an outer source into the heat exchanger while reading the temperature of the water at the inlet and outlet and the heat transfer between the water and the underground soil. Results have shown unexpected reading, it was found that the relationship between the geothermal temperature and the climate is a counter relationship, in other wards the rate of temperature degree will increase 2% , every half meter underground depending on the season we are in. Also the project showed that the position of the heat exchanger (whether its vertical or horizontal ) have a very big effect on the change in temperature degrees , also the increase in the length of the heat exchanger and the increase in the number of its loops will increase the rate of change in water temperature degrees. The position of the heat exchanger (horizontal or vertical) depends on the type of the soil, if it was a rocky soil the heat exchanger is better to be placed horizontally and if the soil is loose or sandy it’s better placed vertically.

The Impact of the Problem-Solving Strategy in the Treatment of Mathematics Learning Disabilities in Jordanian Public Schools
499-517
Nedal Mufleh Al Raheem Kawafhh
Abstract:
This study aimed at finding out the effect of problem-solving strategy on treatment of mathematics learning difficulties for primary eighth grade. The researcher adopted (analytical descriptive method and semi--experimental approach) for achieving the study objective. The study sample consisted of 633 male and female students who were selected randomly from the primary eighth grade students from six public schools in Irbid the Second Directorate of Education in Irbid, Jordan, for diagnosis of learning difficulties in mathematics primary eighth grade students, in addition to (159) male and female students from primary eighth grade students who were chosen randomly from other two schools were divided into two groups to apply the study, where the first one is experimental group consists of 79 male and female students, while the other one is control group consists of 80 male and female students.
Keywords: Problem Solving Strategy, Mathematics Learning Disabilities.

The Needs of Families in Critical Care Settings- are Existing Findings Replicated in a Muslim Population A Survey of Nurses' Perception
518-528
Issa M. Hweidi RN and Mohammad F. Al-Shannag
Abstract:
This descriptive correlational study was employed to identify family needs of critically ill adult patients as perceived by nurses working in Critical Care Units in Jordan. Following approval of the study, Jordanian Muslim nurses working in three critical care settings (n=65), located in northern Jordan, were asked to complete the demographic data sheet and the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory (CCFNI) through structured interviews. Findings showed that nurses ranked assurance, information, and comfort as the most important needs, while proximity and support were ranked the lowest. It was also statistically noticed that selected nurse characteristics impact their perception of the identified family needs. Nurses demonstrated a relative underestimation at the levels of both individual needs statements and dimensions of the CCFNI of the family members’ needs, whose primary concern was to be assured and informed about the progress of the patient's health according to the available data from formerly conducted studies within the same cultural context. The results suggest that nurses are not considering the patient family as part of the holistic approach of the patient care. Accordingly, implementing quality family-centered nursing care inspired by early, factual, accurate, and correct family needs assessment which correlates with the patients' health outcomes is imperative.
Keywords: Muslim Family Needs, Critically Ill Patients, Nurses and Family Perceptions.

A Survey Study of Taiwanese Kindergarten Teachers’ Perception of Integrated Curriculum
529-543
Wu, Su-Chiao
Abstract:
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of kindergarten teachers’ perception of integrated curriculum [KTP-IC], as well as examining the effects of school location, work experience, and educational background on KTP-IC. A background sheet and the Questionnaire of KTP-IC instrument were administered to 309 kindergarten teachers for gathering data. Corresponding statistical analyses were applied to the obtained data. The findings showed that their perceptions of integrated curriculum were at lightly-above-average level. It found that school location, work experience, and educational background were all ascertained as critical elements for these teachers’ perception of integrated curriculum. It also revealed that their “knowledge” perception of integrated curriculum could effectively predict both their “disposition” and “performance” perception of integrated curriculum. Consequently, suggestions derived from findings and discussions were proposed for further improvement of these kindergarten teachers’ perception of integrated curriculum and the future study.

Keywords: Kindergarten Teacher, Perception of Integrated Curriculum.

An Enhanced Geometric Wavelet Based Hybrid Image Compression Algorithm for Low Bit Rate Applications
544-555
Rehna. V. J and M. K. Jeya Kumar
Abstract:
In this paper we investigate the relative practical competency of a hybrid image compression technique which combines the advantages of the recent segmentation based coding approaches and the classical transform based coding methods. We propose an improved algorithm for image compression using the geometric wavelets and the tree-structured binary space partition scheme. We enhance the geometric wavelet image coding method further by using the polar coordinate form of the straight line in the binary space partitioning scheme. Also the practise of image tiling is detached. The algorithm is applied on the entire image rather than individually on the tiled regions. The results show a gain of 0.79 dB over the SPIHT algorithm and 1.51 dB over the EZW algorithm at the bit-rate 0.03125 bpp. We also show that the presented algorithm reports a gain of 0.25 dB over the original GW method at the compression ratio of 256 for the Lena test image. Except for the high time complexity of the algorithm, we found better possibility of lessening the cost functional at each step of the BSP scheme and with no tiling its coding efficiency is also increased.
Keywords: Hybrid Image Coding, Binary Space Partitioning, Geometric Wavelet, Compression Ratio.

A Study on Role of Central Courtyard in Constructing Buildings in Hot and Dry Regions of Iran (Case Study: Ardakan Yazd Province)
556-565
Hossein Soltanzadeh and Shervin Teimourian
Abstract:
To provide a good condition for life, humans have always coordinated their shelters with the surrounding environment. Climatic condition helps to provide such a desirable situation. In Iran, according to variety of climatic conditions, different architectures have been developed. Designing central courtyard is included in architectural designs to achieve the mentioned purpose. Regarding climate of Iran, central courtyard is used to decrease high temperature of the environment and provide a small and suitable place for humans’ comfort. In this research, role of central courtyard in constructing buildings in hot and dry regions of Iran, especially city of Ardakan has been studied.
Keywords: Central courtyard, climate, city of Ardakan, Comfort.

A Simple HPLC Method for the Quantification of Cyclosporine-A
566-572
Srinivasan Ramamurthy, Senthil Rajan Dharmalingam and Shamala Nadaraju
Abstract:
A simple, specific, precise, and accurate High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) gradient elusion method was developed and validated for estimation of Cyclosporine-A (CSA) from poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles. The separation of the compound was made on a using Gradient elution. An Ascentis C18 (15cm x 4.6um x 5um) was used, the mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile (A) and water (B) in gradient mode (0 ~ 5 min, A: 85%, B: 15%; 5~ 10 min, A: 95%, B: 05%; 10 ~ 20 min, A: 100%, B: 0%). The flow rate was 1.0ml/min at 50 °C using Phenomenex column heater TS130. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm. The linearity was established over the concentration ranges of 0.1-30??g/mL with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999. Retention time and standard deviation (±SD) was found to be 4.559±0.017 for three replicates. The LOD of CSA was 0.05µg/mL and LOQ was 0.1 µg/mL. The intra- and inter-day variations were in the ranges of 1.82 to 13.78% for precision and 92.00 to 101.33% for accuracy, respectively. The proposed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and can be applied to the estimation of CSA release from PLGA Nanoparticles.
Keywords: Cyclosporin-A, HPLC, gradient elution, PLGA.

Studying the Possible Risk Factors for HBV Infection within HBV Vaccinated Subjects
573-583
Mohamed Mokhles, Hanaa Rasmy, Fatma A. Shaaban, Eman Salama, Haitham Gabr, Ghada A. Abdel-Latif and Ammal M Metwaly
Abstract:
Egypt started compulsory vaccination against Hepatitis B virus(HBV) in infants in 1992, this study aimed at studying the possible risk factors for infection of vaccinated subjects. Out of 2 surveys on 3052 and 2500 subjects >1-<16 years old previously vaccinated subjects in 6 Egyptian governorates during the period from December 2010 till May 2012 , 5 and 3 subjects were found to be HBV infected respectively. Families of the infected subjects were screened for HBV viral markers, filled a questionnaire about possible risky practices for infection. Out of the screened families 37.5% showed infection within one or more of its members, while 62.5% showed evidence of previous exposure to HBV, and 25% showed no HBV viral markers within its members. A risky practice for HBV infection was found in 75% of the families and in 37.5% of the infected subjects. None of the infected subjects demonstrated the immunoprotective level of the surface antibody to HBV (HBsAb=10IU/L), 87.5% were > 10 years old, 62.5% were males and 62.5% were rural areas residents. We concluded that intrafamilial transmission is crucial in infection within vaccinated subjects, as well as the hazardous practices for HBV infection and the time elapsed since vaccination.
Keywords: HBV vaccine, HBV intrafamilial transmission, HBV breakthrough infection, HBV risky practices.

Building Effective Designing Methods in Sustainable Architecture.
584-591
Hossein Sodagar and Sharareh Sodagar
Abstract:
Considering the fact that about 15-20 percentage of Total Energy Consumption in Iran is for buildings. On the other hand, annually very high cost is incurred for fissile fuel and excessive use of energies cause degradation of natural resources and environment, thus saving energy and its optimization seems necessary. Negligence in this regards may lead to reversible financial and personal damages. For prevention of excessive use of energy in building and preventing from environment destruction, following solutions can be applied. First, Architectural design should be so that energy consumption is minimized. To this end, modern and traditional architectural methods can be integrated and an appropriate architectural method can minimize energy consumption in the building. Second, using renewable energy such as wind and solar energy help providing energy for building and prevention of environment destruction.
Keywords: Sustainable architecture, Water heating panels, renewable energy.

The Success Model of Eastern Polymer Group Public Company Limited, Creative Innovation Organization
592-602
Pawat Vitoorapakorn, Chalieo Vitoorapakorn, Ornpapha Chutikorntaweesin, Thuchapon Yodthong and Nichanan Chanchoengrob
Abstract:
The purposes of this research were to study the management of the family structure and the compositions of the business management, and to study the relationship between these compositions and the success of Eastern Polymer Group Public Company Limited. The research finding showed that, the factor of the success of this company is the family governance under the family leader who can be a good example for the family members, who cultivates the family culture with the morality to create love, to harmonize, to respect the elders, to tolerate, to be hard-working, to be grateful and honest, humble, economical, to prioritize the education, to learn to be both giver and receiver. Meanwhile, the quantitative result demonstrates the seven compositions of business management; niche marketing, innovation, network, mass marketing, organization management, speed of business and the morality are the real component factor affect to the success of Eastern Polymer Group Public Company Limited. By the way, the relationship between the innovation and the organization management takes the most important roles in this success.
Keywords: The success model, Innovation, The relationship, The family business.

Tracing Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Benisuef and El Fayoum Governorates: What Does it Take for the Surveillance System to Succeed?
603-616
Metwally Ammal M, Elmosalami Dalia M, Abdallatif Ghada A, Rabah Thanaa M, El Etreby Lobna A and Salama Iman I
Abstract:
Objective: The study aims to determine the significant epidemiological risk factors and causes associated with maternal mortality in El Fayoum and Benisuef governorates. Method: This is a case-control study comparing 54 cases of maternal deaths in the Benisuef and 49 deaths in El Fayoum governorates with controls from the same geographical area. A designed questionnaire was constructed concerning aspects of a woman’s reproductive health status as that which is collected as a part of the national Maternal Mortality Surveillance System. Results: In both governorates, there was more or less three times significant risk of maternal death among women aged 30-35 years and above and among multiparas = 3 compared to controls (p<0.05). In both governorates, the major direct and indirect causes of maternal deaths were obstetric hemorrhage and heart diseases respectively. Conclusion: There is an improvement in maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) reduction in El Fayoum and Benisuef governorates. This pattern of reduction indicates that maternal mortality in both governorates will decline more than the targeted ratio at the national level with a projection of 21.3 deaths per 100,000 live births by 2015.
Keywords: Case control study, maternal mortality, risk factors.