European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 116 No 3
Dec, 2013

Effect of Selenium on Cardiovascular Diseases in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats
294-301

Boussekine.S and Bouzerna.N
Abstract:
Diabetes millitus is characterized by a serious of complications that affect many organs. Aim: To investigate the beneficial effect of selenium (sodium selenite) supplementation in the modulation of cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes mellitus caused by oxidative stress. Methods: Twenty four male albino (wistar) rats of 08 weeks of age were randomly divided into three groups of eight each. The first group was served as the control, the second and third groups were intraperitoneally injected with alloxan (150 mg/kg of body weight) to induce diabetes, and the third group was treated by gavages with sodium selenite (2mg/kg b.w.) for further three weeks. Results: the administration of alloxan significantly increased blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides and total lipids. In contrast, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), liver glutathione content and liver glutathione peroxydase (GPx) activities were significantly decreased. Oral administration of Sodium selenite restore the parameters measured compared to untreated diabetic. Conclusion: To conclude, the present study shows that selenium exerts antioxidant and anti-hyperglycaemic effects and consequently may alleviate cardiovascular damage caused by hyperlipemia and free radicals generated during diabetes.
Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases- Selenium- Alloxan- Rats- Lipids parameters.

Comparison of Emotional Intelligence in Athletes and Non-Athletes, Based on Some Demographic Variables
302-310
Fatemeh Pasand, Noorollah Mohammadi, Esmail Soltani and Behzad Bazgir
Abstract:
Participation in systematic physical activities is one of the best ways for improvement of general health such as physical, emotional and psychological health. The purpose of this research was comparison of emotional intelligence and its subscales between athletes and non athletes based on some demographic variables. So, 200 athletes in different sport fields who had been exercising in Shiraz clubs and 40 non athletes were selected as control group and they were evaluated by Bar- on emotional intelligence Scale and by special sheet of demographic characteristics. One- way variance analysis, t-test and Pearson correlative coefficient were used for data analysis. Results showed that there was a significant difference in emotional intelligence score between athletes and non athletes (P=0.05). Also, this difference was seen in mixed scales of intrapersonal intelligence, adaptability and general mood (P=0.05). In addition to above cases, athletes acquire higher scores in subscales of problem solving, happiness, optimism, assertiveness, flexibility and self- regard than non athletes. Also, results showed that there was a significant relationship between age and emotional intelligence and most of its subscales. And the amount of exercise in week had a significant relation with subscales of self-actualization and assertiveness. So, the importance of participation in physical activities in order to create a motivation for learning high emotional intelligence and for having a more healthy life is clarified.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Athlete, Non-athlete, Age, Amount of Exercise in Week

Effects of Very Short Rest Periods on Cortisol, Testosterone, and Testosterone to Cortisol Ratio During Heavy Resistance Training in Elite Male Volleyball Players
311-317
Ebrahim Fathollahzadeh, Mohammad Hassan Boostani, Saeideh Nikakhtar,I, Fateme Khodaie and Fatemeh Afshari
Abstract:
Athletes in various sports, for success in major competitions (Olympics, World Cup, World Championships and Continental), the physical fitness, body building, technique, and tactics are very good, because at this level, the performances of the athletes will be wonderful and amazing. Today, resistance training exercises are an integral part of various sports and exercises in different time intervals of rest between sets are used for training. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a short rest period of 60 seconds during heavy resistance exercise on cortisol, testosterone, and testosterone to cortisol ratio of elite male volleyball. Ten volleyball men with an age range of 25.53±1.93 on a voluntary basis and random were selected as a group were targeted. Participant’s heavy resistance training, at seven stations intensity 70% of one repetition maximum (1RM) began. In the training session, 60 seconds of rest between sets and stations were used. In order to measure the variables, blood samples before training, immediately after and 30 minutes after the exercise program, as well as in a non-training days were taken in the morning fasting. The results showed that the T/C at rest 60 seconds, significant decreased immediately after and 30 minutes after exercise had (P=0.05), according to the study results, we can say that, whatever Resting is less testosterone and cortisol concentrations 30 min after exercise training increases.
Keywords: Volleyball, Very short rest periods, Cortisol, Testosterone, Heavy resistance training.

Performances Épuratoires Physicochimiques de la Station D’épuration de Settat (Maroc)
318-326
Kaoutar Hajjami, My Mustapha Ennaji, Safae Fouad, Mohammed Bennani and Nozha Cohen
Abstract:
La présente étude, caractérise et analyse les eaux usées émanant de la ville de Settat à l’entrée et à la sortie de la STEP à lagunage se situant à 6 km au nord de la ville. La caractérisation physico-chimique des eaux usées brutes a révélé que ces eaux sont très chargées en matière organique exprimée en termes de DCO (Moy= 804,8 mg/L) et DBO5 (Moy = 416,3 mg/L), et en matière minérale exprimée en terme de Chlorures (Moy= 713,5 mg/L) et en Conductivité électrique (Moy= 3 ms/cm) avec un pH légèrement neutre à alcalin pour les eaux usées brutes comme épurées, où la pollution organique a diminué significativement pour atteindre les valeurs moyennes de DCO et DBO5 de 69,7 mg/L et 22,4 mg/L respectivement, la conductivité électrique (Moy= 2,7 ms/cm) ainsi que la teneur en chlorures ont faiblement diminué (Moy= 689,4 mg/L). L’examen du rapport moyen DBO5/DCO de l’effluent à la sortie de la STEP souligne son caractère biodégradable. En conclusion, l’analyse de ces données physicochimiques montre que le taux de salinité des eaux usées épurées ne répond pas aux exigences de qualité pour les eaux destinées à l’irrigation bien que les autres paramètres de pollution indiquent le niveau acceptable des performances épuratoires de ce traitement par lagunage.
Mots clés: Eau usée, lagunage, Maroc, paramètres physico-chimiques, Settat, Traitement.

Towards Rehabilitation of Urban Ecological Network: The Case of Study of Tabriz City
327-339
Mojgan Sadeghi Benis
Abstract:
Identifying and analyzing and so providing the potentially efficient approaches to rehabilitate the Tabriz ecological network is the aim of the present study. In current age in which the ecological approaches are really considered important issues around the world, human beings are faced with the challenge of increasing urban population and the replacement of natural ecosystems by urban environments which have caused fragmenting natural environment. Then using of ecological concepts in landscape design and land use policies promote from site protection into ecological networks protection. Therefore the new concept of landscape ecology in combination with science and emphasis on spatial patterns has entered into environmental planning and designing. Hence, a concept such as designing urban ecological network has received more attention. The current study has looked into the urban ecological network of Tabriz city in urban scale. At the first stage, the present status of the urban ecological network of Tabriz was studied based on the Mosaic model by using the GIS techniques. As a result of Landsat satellite images, natural and artificial ecological layers were identified and analyzed. Then, the layers were analyzed by landscape metrics (including Number of patches, Mean Patch Size and Mean Nearest Neighbor). This helped us to determine and zoning the network structure and getting rehabilitation solutions at city scale.
Keywords: Ecological network; environmental planning; GIS; landscape elements; landscape metrics; urban ecology

Virtual Mirror – The Next Generation Interactive Virtual Online Dressing Experience Right from Home
340-350
Viswa S.S.
Abstract:
The online shopping industry in India is fast catching on, not just in the larger metros but also in the smaller cities. At present the market is estimated at Rs. 46,000 crores and is growing at 100 per cent per year (India Today). Nevertheless, online sales of fashion items and clothing have been struggling a lot lately. It is estimated that majority of the consumers don’t buy clothing online because they don’t want to take any risk with the sizes. In addition, a large percentage of the purchased items are returned. This brings an additional financial burden to retail companies. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop a Virtual Dressing Room (VDR) application that can run on any device that has a camera and network connection. The idea is to design a human friendly interface which is implemented by a three-stage algorithm: Detection and sizing of the user’s body, detection of reference points based on face detection and augmented reality markers of body, and superimposition of the clothing over the user’s image. Compared to other existing VDR systems, key difference is the lack of any proprietary hardware components or peripherals. It is designed to be universally compatible as long as the device has a camera. The system has the ability to detect person`s hand gestures and open menus and select clothes. Once clothes are selected the user can change the size and thus the cloth is displayed on him/her virtually. This creates an augmented reality experience to the user to try on clothes from home. The user is not in need to travel to cloth shops, which saves a lot of time and fuel. Compared to other existing system, our system proves to be efficient, simple, easily usable and cheap. This application becomes a boom to online cloth stores, because it breaks the barrier of trying the clothes thus increases the revenue greatly in large numbers. This system is implement using Open CV and deployed on website and has given positive results according to the feedback given by the people who tried this application.
Keywords: Computer Vision, OpenCV, Virtual Fitting Room, dressing room, augmented reality.

10 Possible Identification of Size difference Segregation using Electrical Capacitance Tomography and Statistical Analysis.
351-364
Christo Rautenbach, Morten C. Melaaen and Britt M. Halvorsen
Abstract:
Segregation by size difference has been investigated in a bench scale cold fluidized bed at atmospheric pressure. Various continuous particle size distributions of spherical glass particles were employed and compressed air was used as fluidizing fluid. An Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) tomograph was employed to investigate axial and radial segregation at two measuring heights in the fluidized bed. Average solid fraction fluctuations measurements obtained with the ECT tomograph were used to characterise the bed. In particular the standard deviation of the average solid fraction fluctuation values were calculated for experiments with increasing and decreasing increments of the superficial gas velocity. With this procedure the reproducibility of the experiments were evaluated and insights were gained regarding the fluid dynamics of the bed. It was concluded that a change in the gradient of the standard deviation versus superficial velocity curve can not entirely be attributed to regime transition but can also indicate the presence of segregation. This was especially true when not working with a Gerldart B powder or when working with a wide particle size distribution. Qualitative images obtained with the non intrusive ECT tomograph were used to confirm the conclusions drawn from the standard deviation plots and also provide insight into the bed fluid dynamics.
Keywords: Segregation, Fluidization, Particle size distribution, Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT), Standard deviation.

Effect of Foliar Spraying using Ascorbic Acid, Sodium Bicarbonate and Iron (III) Chloride on Mentha Piperita under Different Lights Exposure
365-378
Tahar A. Salah, Mohamed S. Khater, Shaimaa Z. Sallam and Tareq Youssef
Abstract:
The present work aimed to address the effects those might be taken place to the chemical constitution of Mentha piperita due to foliar spraying of 10 ppm ascorbic acid, iron (III) chloride and sodium bicarbonate combined with exposure to different light irradiation, ultra violet –A (UV-A), White light (W), Mixed light ( UV-A+W) and control (C). Rhizomes of Mentha piperita L. were transplanted in 16cm plastic pots (12 pots for each treatment) in a controlled chamber. The experimental results in general revealed that, the tested concentrations of ascorbic acid, iron (III) chloride and sodium bicarbonate significantly deceased the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total amino acids, total phenols and total sugars. While the carotenoids significantly increased. The major effects were observed with the combination between UV-A and the tested materials especially ascorbic acid. That can be correlated to that ascorbic acid has absorption band in UV region which increase the effect of the UV-A more than the use of ultra violet alone. Also the lower rates of chlorophyll synthesis may be attributed to reducing gene expression encoding chlorophyll binding proteins or break down of structural integrity of chloroplasts and also decreasing total amino acids and total phenols respectively.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Mentha piperita, UV-A effect, iron (III) chloride, sodium bicarbonate and foliar spraying

Financement de la Conservation des Aires Protégées par le Mécanisme REDD+: Quel Potentiel Pour Laréserve de Biosphère de Taï en Côte D’ivoire ?
379-392
Elisée Napari Yeo, Bernadette Dossou, Inza Koné, Delfin Ochou , InzanZana Ouattara and Michel Baudouin
Abstract:
La déforestation et la dégradation des forêts contribuent aux émissions des gaz à effet de serre (GES) de deux façons: (1) par la libération de stocks de carbone dans l'atmosphère; (2) par la suppression de la capacité de séquestration du carbone, réduisant la capacité de la forêt à agir comme puits de carbone. Le Parc National de Taï (PNT), créé en 1972, fut respectivement classé Réserve de Biosphère en 1978 et Bien du Patrimoine Mondial en 1982. Il est situé dans le sud-ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire. Pour réaliser cette étude, nous avons eu recours à l’approche participative. Le PNT subit des menaces directes et des menaces indirectes que les gestionnaires essaient de juguler par de nombreux efforts. Cependant, les ressources financières sont insuffisantes pour répondre efficacement et de manière pérenne à toutes les problématique y compris celle liée aux changements climatiques. Cependant, au regard des principaux critères de la REDD+, il ressort que la PNT a un grand potentiel REDD+. Ainsi, la REDD+ pourrait contribuer à diversifier les sources et mécanismes de financement de cette aire protégées, de même qu’à consolider la conservation des stocks de carbone du PNT et à assurer la gestion durable des forêts dans la zone périphérique du PNT.
Keywords: REDD + carbon market, financing of protected areas, Biosphere Reserve, Tai National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

The Communities of Lottery Sellers: Socio-Economic and Cultural Changes in Isan, Thailand
393-397
Weerasak Phuksatewet, Songkoon Chantachon and Sastra Laoakka
Abstract:
The qualitative research was carried out in Amphor Wang Saphung, Loei Province; Amphoe Kranuan, Khon Kaen Province; and Amphor Kaedam, Maha Sarakham Province between October, 2012-April, 2013 using observations, interviews, and focus-group discussions. The 110 sample were divided into groups of 30 key, 50 casual, and 30 general informants respectively. The analysis was based on the research objectives using a triangulation technique and done descriptively. Historically, the people who lived at Amphoe Wang Saphung began to sell lotteries in 1984. Twelve years later, such part-time job spread to Amphor Kranuan, Khon Kaen Province and Amphoe Kaedam, Maha Sarakham Province. Currently, the lottery sellers at the three villages chose to sell lotteries in Bangkok, tourist areas, such as Rayong and Nakhon Ratchasima Provinces. Some decided to sell theirs in their own Province. Each month, they left their homes trice: the second and the fourth weeks. They often went in groups using pickup trucks, vans or buses. If they worked in their own Province, they often used motorcycles. The problems encountered included car accidents, cheats, arrests due to selling lotteries overprice, and school children skipping classes or drung-addicted. For socio-economic and cultural changes, the lottery sellers had improved their lives materially due to their income earning from selling lotteries. They could afford what they needed, such as land, home appliances, and building jobs in their villages. They had new friends and established social network. Young people chose to marry with outsiders. The people set up lottery selling groups of volunteers. They took health care to political representatives, and village leadership.
Keywords: Communities of lottery sellers, Socio-economic and Cultural changes.

Web Service Ranking Based on Collaborative Filtering Approach using Implicit Feedbacks
398-410
G. Vadivelou and E. Ilavarasan
Abstract:
Collaborative filtering based recommender systems have been used to provide personalized recommendations to users and to deal with the information overload problem. As more and more web services are published online, this technique can also be used to recommend and select services satisfying users’ particular Quality of Service (QoS) requirements and preferences. This works introduces a new architecture called centralized server for selecting the web service more efficiently based on users’ QoS preferences by proposing a new collaborative filtering based service ranking mechanism where the invocation and query histories are used to infer the users’ preferences, and user similarity is calculated based on invocations and queries. To overcome the cold start and data sparsity problem with the collaborative filtering systems, the final ranking score is a combination of the QoS-based matching score and the collaborative filtering based score. The simulated experiment proves the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Keywords: Collaborative filtering, Web Service selection, Quality of Service, Cold start problem.

Investigation of the Relationship Spiritual Leadership of Managers with Cognitive Empowerment of Employees (Case Study: Employees and Managers the Customs of the West of Iran)
411-419
Yousef Sharifpour, Inda Sukati, Mohammad Yaser Mazhari, Massoud Alam Dad Mohammadi, Ehsan salavatihesari and Mostafa Alizadeh
Abstract:
The objective of the study is to investigate relationship between spiritual leadership of managers and cognitive empowerment of employees. Spiritual leadership variables of managers are Perspective, Love to altruism, Belief, Membership, Meaningful, Organizational Commitment and Performance Feedback. Also there are five cognitive empowerment variables of employees: Sense of Competence, Sense of Independence, Sense of Efficacy, Meaningful Sense and Trust. In this survey, method and data collection is a form of descriptive research and in terms of purpose this research is applied. In terms of time, research has been done over a range of two phases of six months, i)the last six months of 2012 and ii) the first six month of 2013.In terms of relationship between variables linked to employees research is comparative. There are 384 respondents of the survey who formed the Statistical sample. The required information has been collected by mean of a questionnaire. For hypothesis testing inferential statistics and variance Test Analysis One-way have been used. Results show that there is a significant relationship between Spiritual Leadership of Managers with Sense of Competence, Sense of Independence, Sense of Efficacy, Meaningful Sense and trust in West Iranian Customs staff.
Keywords: Spiritual leadership of managers, Cognitive empowerment, Customs office.

Studying the Effect of Income Smoothing on Systematic and Unsystematic Risks: Evidence from Iran
420-433
Akhgar M. Omid, Jelvezan Soraya and Alikhani Arezoo
Abstract:
Inconstancy theory states that high fluctuation of firms increases the risk of investing in them and companies with smoother income are less risky. In present research first, income smoothing value of Tehran stock exchange’s listed companies is measured and for this purpose, the method of coefficient of income variation to coefficient of sales variation ratio and separating smoothing companies is utilized. This research aims to study the effect of income smoothing on systematic and unsystematic risk in time period between 2002 and 2011 based on a sample including 650 year-company among listed companies of Tehran stock exchange. In following, relation between the factors affecting income smoothing behavior and systematic and unsystematic risks is studied such as company size, liquidity ratio, liability contract, income variability and industry type. Using simple linear regression and multiple regression, research results indicated that income smoothing reduces systematic and unsystematic risks, and company size, liquidity ratio, liability contract, income variability and industry type have significant relation with systematic and unsystematic risks.
Keywords: Income smoothing, systematic risk, unsystematic risk, Eckel model.

Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Egyptian Program for Hepatitis B Virus Vaccination: A Cross Sectional National Survey
434-447
Mohamed Mokhles, Hanaa Rasmy, Fatma A. Shaaban, Nahed A.Emara, Hanaa M. Imam, Mona Hamed Ibrahim, Ghada A. Abdel-Latif, Nihad A. Ibrahim Haitham Gabr, Amr Omaia, Amira M. Gadallah and Ammal M Metwaly
Abstract:
Background: Egypt started a compulsory vaccination program against hepatitis B virus among infants in 1992. Aims: To evaluate the short and long term efficacy of this program. Methods: The survey was implemented in 6 governorates representing the 6 major subdivision of Egypt, on 3052 subjects aged >1–16 years; 396 ( >1-2 years) , 630 (> 2- 6 years), 643(> 6-12 years), 637 (>12 – 15 years) and 746 ( >15- 16 years) for; Hepatits B surface antibody (HBsAb) titre, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) , Hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) and HBV-DNA for HBcAb+ve/HBsAg-ve subjects. Results: HBsAg and HBcAb was found in 0.16% and 4.8% of the subjects respectively. Prevalence of HBsAb (=10 IU/L) dropped from 95% >1-2 years group to 29.7% at >15- 16 years group with a 44 fold risk of losing the protective level among the later over the former group. Among the group showing HBsAb<10IU/L, 37% had a very low titre <2IU/L. Conclusion: Despite of the significant waning of the HBsAb titre, the Egyptian program prevented infection efficiently . A booster dose up to 16 years post vaccination is not mandatory ,but should be considered on individual basis for those showing a nil HBsAb.
Keywords: Waning of HBsAb titre over time, HBV breakthrough infection in vaccinated subjects, HBsAb titre >1-16 years post vaccination.

Optimal Reconfiguration of Distribution Systems using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
448-456
Mohammad Darabi, Mohammad Hadi Eftekharian and Iman Sodeifi
Abstract:
Distribution Feeder Reconfiguration (DFR) is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem which minimizes real power losses, deviation of the node voltages and the number of switching operations and also balances the loads on the feeders. In the proposed method, the distance (norm2) between the vector valued objective function and the worst-case vector-valued objective function in the feasible set is maximized. In the algorithm, the status of tie and sectionalizing switches are considered as the control variables. This paper presents a new method which applies an Artificial Bee Colony(ABC) algorithm for determining the sectionalizing switch to be operated in order to solve the DFR problem. The ABC algorithm is a new population based meta-heuristic approach inspired by intelligent foraging behavior of honeybee swarm. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on 33 bus system and compared with different approaches available in the literature. The proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of the quality of solution and computational efficiency.
Keywords: Artificial Bee Colony(ABC), distribution system, feeder reconfiguration.