European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 116 No 1
Dec, 2013

Study of a Functioning of a Wastewater Treatment Plant by Waste Stabilization Ponds: Evaluation of Physicochemical Parameters
7-17

Houda.Bouziane, Zoulikha.Irzi, Mohamed.Sbaa and Mohammed.Badaoui
Abstract:
This study proposes to monitor the quality of the treated final effluent of an urban wastewater treatment plant “WWTP” by waste stabilization ponds, located in North of Morocco. Physicochemical parameters were assessed by monthly regular monitoring from April 2010 to May 2011. The temperature averages across all sampling points and seasons ranged from 13.63±3.73 °C to 28.8±0.71°C, while the pH varied between 6.94±0.18 and 8.09±0.16. Electrical conductivity (EC) decreases from the upstream to downstream of the WWTP. However turbidity decrease across the sampling points and seasons, best results were recorded in spring and summer. The chemical and organic parameters of pollution were measured in grab samples, the results showed that WWTP eliminated till 49.97% of suspended solid, RW are very charged out of organic matter expressed in term with loads of BOD5 (Avg=455.56 mg/L±162.18) and COD (Avg= 822.22 mg/L±185.59), and fall simultaneously with FE till 50% for BOD5 and 28.19% with COD. The average content of orthophosphates in FE is between 10.58 ±0.00 mg/L a maximum and 4.39±4.81 mg/L as minimum. The examination of report COD/BOD5= 1.82 underlines well the biodegradable character of the received wastewater.
Keywords: Waste stabilization ponds, quality of effluent, physicochemical parameters, Morocco.

Effects of Ectoparasites on Reproductive Performance, Parental Feeding and Nestling Growth of the Atlas Flycatcher Ficedula Speculigera in Algeria
18-26
Khaled Boudeffa, Zahra Brahmia and Slim Benyacoub
Abstract:
The effect of ectoparasites on the growth and survival of nestling Atlas Flycatcher Ficedula speculigera breeding in next boxes were studied during two breeding seasons (2011 -2012) in the EL-Kala National Park in North-East Algeria. The results show that mites (Dermanyssus spp.) are the most abundant parasites and were found in 60.25% of all nests. Atlas Flycatchers chicks in infested nests were significantly smaller and fledged at an earlier age than chicks in nests where no mites were detected, indicating that ectoparasites can reduce the quality of host offspring. Despite this effect, fledged success and nestling mortality were not correlated with nest infestation. No significant differences between infested and uninfested nests in laying date, clutch size, egg size and the number of young hatched were observed. Neither did the laying date which may greatly affect precedent parameters. No significant relationships were found between ectoparasite loads and parental feeding rate or phenotypic characteristics. However, parents increased visiting rate without prey in infested nests. This indicated that Atlas Flycatcher did not compensate for higher parasite loads by increasing feeding but by increasing nest sanitation.
Keywords: Ficedula Speculigera, Ectoparasites, Nestling Growth, Nestling Mortality, Algeria

Effect of Se/Te Ratio on the Structural and Optical Properties of Spray Deposited ZnSexTe1-x Thin Films from an Aqueous Solution
27-36
Moayad A. Al-Sabayleh
Abstract:
Semiconducting ZnSexTe1-x thin films were prepared with SeO2/TeO2 ratio on glass substrates from an aqueous solution using the spray pyrolysis technique. ZnSexTe1-x films prepared using an aqueous solution containing zinc chloride, selenium and tellurium oxides. XRD study show that the aqueous spray deposited ZnSexTe1-x thin films are polycrystalline cubic structure. Structural parameters such as lattice parameter and inter-planar spacing were obtained from Bragg’s angle of predominant orientation <111>. Grain size, dislocation density and microstrain were calculated from FWHM of <111> diffraction line. Extinction coefficient was calculated from optical transmittance and optical absorption values. At the spectral range between 560-830nm (1.5-2.2eV) the average optical transparency of prepared thin films were ranged between 49-58%. The direct optical band gap of the deposited ZnSexTe1-x thin films with different SeO2/TeO2 ratio (0 – 1) were lying in the range 3.58 – 3.66 eV. These structural and optical parameters are found to be very sensitive to the Se/Te ratio.
Keywords: Semiconducting Thin Films, Spray Pyrolysis Technique, XRD, Grain Size, Dislocation Density, Microstrain, Extinction Coefficient, Optical Band Gap.

Predicting Resilience Based on Emotional Quotient and Personality Types in Iranian Elites
37-44
Hanieh Balouchi, Masoud Mohammadi and Ghasem Naziri
Abstract:
The current study investigates the predictive effect of emotional quotient and personality types on resilience. It is a correlation-based study. Corpus of the present study was 169 elites of Iran (Fars province) who were selected and assessed based on convenient sampling. To this end, we utilized the following questionnaires: 1) Connor & Davidson Resilience Scale 2) Bar-On Emotional Quotient 3) Mayers-Brigges Personality Types. To analyze the data, we used Pearson Correlation and Multi-Regression Analysis. Results of the current study showed that there is a strong and significant relationship between emotional quotient and personality types factors with resilience which can be clearly observed in the following factors: optimism, problem-solving, happiness, independence, stress tolerance, self-actualization, emotional self-awareness, impulse control, empathy, interpersonal relationships, extroversion, judging personality and feeling personality. Moreover, there is a negative relationship between introversion and perceiving personality factors. Results also showed that factors of emotional quotient and personality types can predict 61% of changes within the resilience results from which optimism and introversion-extroversion type were the best predictors of resilience. However, judging-intuition type was a weak predictor for resilience.
Keywords: Resilience, Emotional Quotient, Personality Types, Elites

Dynamic Load Balancing of Single-Phase Loads for Reducing Power Losses
45-50
Hossein Aalamshahia, Kazem Zareha, Yahya Naderia, Mohammad Ali Shariatzadehb and Vahid Tabatabaieb
Abstract:
One of the difficulties in distribution networks is unbalanced load that makes undesired troubles and increases losses. Nowadays, rate of unbalanced load is known as one of the indexes of electric energy quality. Factors that make network unbalanced are heterogeneous and uninformed distribution of single-phase consumers between feeder's phase and also random and unsimultaneous behavior of single-phase consumers. Also, load balancing is possible by transferring consumers between phases, but random behavior of consumers says final word and makes network unbalanced. In this article, the latter method is selected , thus based on present consumption and suggested algorithm, consumers will be classified and distributed among phases by the means of suggested device respectively, so that the network will be balanced.
Keywords: Unbalanced networks; Single-phase Consumer; Balancing.

Synthesis of Network Robust Controller for Delayed Biped Robot, Switched System Based
51-62
Elyes Maherzi, Walid Arouri, Mongi Besbes and Safya Belghith
Abstract:
The control of delayed systems is a continuous challenge for researchers. These systems have an infinite dimension, which make more difficult the synthesis of adequate controllers by comparison to the conventional controls. A new emerged approach, issued from telecommunications researches, tends to describe the delayed systems as a set of switching LTI systems orchestrated by a switching polytopic law. The study of the stability of delayed systems is reduced, thus the study of the stability of the equivalent switched system. In this paper we propose to stabilize the walk of a delayed biped robot using switched systems theory.
Keywords: Delay system, Switched system, Stability, Lyapunov method, Relaxation, Linear matrix inequalities (LMI), Bilinear matrix inequalities (BMI).

Antimalarial and Antioxidant Activities of Pterocarpus Indicus Willd
63-69
Supaluk Prachayasittikul, Thummaruk Suksrichavalit , Warawan Eiamphungporn
Sutanun Doungsoongnuen, Kamontip Noibuddee, Somsak Ruchirawat and Virapong Prachayasittikul
Abstract:
Pterocarpus indicus Willd, a medicinal plant, which its flower extracts were first found to be active antimalarials and antioxidants. The dichloromethane extract exhibited good antimalarial activity whereas the ethyl acetate extract was shown to be the most potent antioxidant. Some bioactive compounds, stigmasterol and lupeol were isolated by column chromatography. The study supports the medicinal uses of P. indicus
Keywords: Pterocarpus indicus Willd, antimalarials, antioxidants, triterpenoids

The Effects of Curcumin and Tryptophan on Autoimmunity
70-76
Hana’a A. Abu-Rezq
Abstract:
In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the effects of activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by specific AhR-ligands on autoimmunity. The current review will focus mostly on the effects of curcumin, tryptophan and its metabolites on Th differentiation and consequently autoimmunity. Review findings showed the possibility of using the AhR-ligands to treat inflammation and autoimmune diseases in mice, suggesting that, specific AhR-ligands could be used as a save therapeutic agents in both human and mice.

Keywords: AhR; Th17; curcumin; tryptophan; autoimmune disease.

Etude des Glands du Chêne-Liège des Subéraies du Parc National d’El-Kala. Biométrie, Germination et Développement.
77-87
Rym Ghanem, Hiba Daas, Yasmine Adjami , Mohamed Laid Ouakid and Abdelkrim Tahraoui
Abstract:
Les problèmes dont souffrent les subéraies sont nombreux, ils englobent les ceux liés à la physiologie et l’écologie de l’arbre, comme le vieillissement et l’irrégularité des glandées, aux contraintes biotiques et abiotiques empêchant la régénération naturelle notamment la déprédation exercée sur les glands par les champignons et les insectes carpophages. C'est dans cette optique que s'inscrit notre étude sur les glands du chêne-liège issus d’une subéraie de l’Est Algérien (subéraie d’El Mellah dans le Parc National d’ El-Kala) durant deux saisons (2010 et 2011). Après l’identification les différents insectes déprédateurs des glands, et leur taux d’infestation, nous avons testé l’effet différé d’un biopesticide le Spinosad sur la germination, le développement et la croissance des glands. Les glands étudiés ont été attaqué par deux Lépidoptères, Cydia splendana et Cydia fagiglandana de la famille des Tortricidés, un charançon, Curculio sp de l’ordre des Coléoptères famille des Curculionidé. Suite à un test de germination des glands témoins et traités au Spinosad à 1 g/l, on a observé que les deux lots de glands atteignent presque le même taux de germination mais les glands traités ont été caractérisés par un rythme plus rapide que les glands témoins.
Mot-clé: Quercus suber, gland, Coprophages, Germination; Développement.

Surveying the Influence of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Total Quality Management
88-94
Hassan Mehrmanesh and Nima Divsalar
Abstract:
The purpose of writing the current paper is to survey the influence of organizational citizenship behavior on total quality management in Saipa Company. OCB dimensions in the research are Conscientiousness Courtesy, Sportsmanship, Altruism and Civic Virtue. Two questionnaires were designed and after proving their validity and reliability distributed among participants. The results of applying Spearman and Friedman test show that OCB and its dimensions have positive and meaningful influence on TQM. Meanwhile conscientiousness was the most important one. Also no relationship was found between employees’ demographic characteristics and their OCB. Finally all variables except Conscientiousness and altruism were placed in favorable levels.
Keywords: Organizational citizenship behavior, total quality management, Conscientiousness Courtesy, Sportsmanship, Altruism, Civic Virtue.

Using the Copula Method to Model the Dependence Structure of XAF/USD and XAF/CNY Exchange Rates
95-114
Igor-Mathieu Gondjé-Dacka, Ursula-Christiane Ouaïmon and Zhaojun Yang
Abstract:
The dependence structure of the individual risk factors is the most important problem in financial risk management. In this paper, we study the dependence structure between XAF/USD and XAF/CNY exchange rates using copula method. Various copula functions of the Elliptical and Archimedean form are used to model the dependence structure. We analyze the cointegration, to identify true relationship between two variables. For the purpose, we find a cointegrating vector and eliminate its influence, if any. We further suggest a pragmatic way to fit the dependence structure of bivariate data into Elliptical and Archimedean copulas by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation. We finally establish the relationship strength between two variables. According to our result, the t copula model fits much better than a Gauss copula model and Archimedean copulas.
Keywords: Archimedean copula, Elliptical copula, Cointegration, Maximum Likelihood Estimation.

An Inter-Component Pixels Permutation Based Color Image Encryption using Hyper-chaos
115-121
Musheer Ahmad and Hamed D Al-Sharari
Abstract:
In this paper, a simple and robust color image encryption algorithm based on high-dimensional chaotic maps is proposed. The algorithm employs a 3D Arnold transform to perform inter-component shuffling of plain-image, while a 2D hyper-chaotic map is used to confuse the relationship between the encrypted image and plain-image. The control parameters of Arnold transform are extracted from pending plain-image, thereby establishing a dependency to the plain-image. The confusion process is carried out in cipher-block chaining mode to make it dependent to the encrypted image. This makes the algorithm able to resist the cryptographic attacks. The performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed through computer simulations. The experimental analyses show that the proposed algorithm has desirable properties of high security, robustness to cryptographic attacks and practicability to protect multimedia color images.
Keywords: Image Encryption, Arnold Transform, Hyper-chaotic Map, Cryptographic Attacks

Investigation of Environmental Sustainability Resulted from Housing Development with Emphasis on the Architectural Factors Case Study: Residential Towns in the Vicinity of Tehran
122-130
Saviz Tayyah, Maryam Shadmani Roshan and Sara Mirrazavi
Abstract:
The sustainability in the human-built urban spaces has become essential due to the increased population. Problems of construction in cities near Tehran have doubled the necessity for more research on their sustainability. This study is seeking to investigate four urban settlements including New City of Pardis, New City of Parand, New City of Hashtgerd and Vardavard town. Therefore, the field observations and library studies are applied in this regard. Thus, the issue is investigated after providing the studies in the field of sustainable architecture, designing, implementation and operation. The results have shown that Vardavard town has the worst status. Furthermore, the importance of planning is indicated in designing which leads to the residents' partial satisfaction and decreased changes in constructed spaces in operational phase.
Keywords: Architecture, sustainability, Tehran, construction, residential, structure

Does the Global Financial Crisis Affect the Stock Markets Risk?
131-143
Vítor Gabriel and José Pires Manso
Abstract:
This paper studies the impact of the current global financial crisis on international stock markets risk. With this goal, twelve developed and emerging stock markets are analyzed, for the period between October 4, 1999 and June 30, 2011. To estimate the market risk, the Value-at-Risk metric based on the Extreme Value Theory was considered. To analyze the risk behavior and the influence of the Global Financial Crisis, in the short and long-term, the extreme values test and the principal component analysis were applied. The conclusions revealed that the stock market volatility showed similar behaviors for the two time horizons, and the global financial crisis represented a key role in strengthening and deepening these similar behaviors
Keywords: Global financial crisis, international stock markets, Value-at-Risk, extreme values, principal components analysis.
JEL Classification Codes: G01, G15

The Effect of Training on Local Vegetable Songkhram Watershed Conservation for Second Primary Education in Srisongkhram District Nakhonphanom Province
144-147
Kiattisak Charoensook, Prayoon Wongchantra, Banyat Salee and Chaitach Jansamood
Abstract:
This research aimed to study the effect of training on local vegetable Songkhram watershed conservation for second primary education in Srisongkhram district Nakhonphanom province to comparing their knowledge and attitude before and after training. The sample composed of 30 students of Oumpai school Srisongkhram district Nakhonphanom province, which have been selected by a purposive sampling technique. The research design was just one group pre-test and post-test. The data collection was analyzed by mean, standard deviation and testing hypothesis by t-test. The study results are as following: The result of this study showed that total knowledge and attitude on local vegetable Songkhram watershed conservation of second primary education after training was rated higher than before training (p<0.05).
Keywords: Knowledge, Attitude, Local Vegetable, Watershed, Conservation