European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 115 No 4
Dec, 2013

Modelling Nigerian Peak Petroleum using Production on Hubbert’s Concept
C.I.O. Kamalua, M.S. Nwakaudu and A.C. Nkwocha
In this study, a petroleum production depletion model was developed and tested with the petroleum data collected as the aggregate of the petroleum production data in the whole of Nigeria from 1958. The statistical goodness of fit of the data ion the model for oil and gas are encouraging. A high coefficient of correlation of 99.61% and 99.73% for oil and gas are put at 808.5MMB and 39Tscf corresponding to the peak years of 2008 – 2023AD and 2878 – 2982AD The ultimate value for oil and gas are put at 77.82BB and 507.32Tscf (50.732 Quadrillion square cubic feet) respectively corresponding to the exhaustion years of 2250 – 2288AD and 5848 – 5878AD.
Keywords: Depletion, Peak pPetroleum, Hubbert, Modeling, Production.

Building Community Capacity for Tourism Development in Transitional Countries: Case of Kosovo
Faruk Ahmeti
This study highlights the importance and explores the contributions of community capacity building (CCB) to achieving a sustainable tourism. Community capacity building is extensively recognized as a significant tourism development tool, which if implemented properly can contribute in community development and prosperity. In order to be able to create new successful strategies on building capacities of communities related to tourism, often is required to investigate existing problematic issues and to create a clear picture of the current state of community capacities and all related community capacities pertaining to tourism development in particular region. Community capacity building not only represents a step toward creating a sustainable tourism industry, but it is an essential ingredient for the overall development of the community. Tourism development and capacity building, within the communities where tourism is seen as a community opportunity, are closely linked and need to evolve and prosper simultaneously. It is important the fact that CCB programs help communities to increase their capability to contribute in the tourism decision-making processes, rather than being a spectator on its own playground. Especially the developing countries and regions, in particular rural and peripheral regions, benefit the most from the CCB. They inspire community participation in tourism development, and through CCB the communities gain the tools that empower them to do so. This paper attempts to examine the impact of the community capacity development in tourism development in transition countries.
Keywords: Tourism, Community Capacity Building, Tourism Development, Local Communities, Community Development

Growth Ability of Sago Palm Suckers of Yebha Cultivar in the Nursery
Barahima Abbas, Abdul Wahid Rauf and Florentina Heningtyas Listyorini
Sago palm need to be managed wisely and sustainably in order to contribute and improve of community income. This study aims to reveal the affect of growing suckers in the nursery. The study consists of two series of experiments are diameter size of the hump and rhizome length of the suckers. The results showed that the ability to grow suckers can reach 100% in the nursery if the suckers take out from the mother clusters carefully, no injury to the hump of the suckers, and there rhizome accompanying of the suckers. The size of the hump diameter not show any difference in growth response among the treatment is tested. Sucker has rhizome with a length of 5 to 10 cm have a high ability to grow, reaching 100%, but that is not accompanied by rhizome has not ability to grow.
Keywords: Sucker, seedling, sago palm, nursery, Yebha cultivar.

Evaluation of Excellent Quality in Software Project Development Using Six-Sigma and Fuzzy Approach
Chandrakanth G Pujari and Seetharam.K
Six- Sigma is a skillfully planning tool of important value in achieving operational excellence. The choice of software project decision, under a resources constraint, is the early stage of execution for a Six-Sigma intervention. The choice of software project decision is challenging due to its fuzzy group decision-making aspect inherent to the problem. The present study proposes a hierarchical human criteria and sub-criteria evaluation process. The strategic criteria are evaluated by the software top management team using a fuzzy multiple criteria decision-making method. Then, the tactical human sub-criteria which contain additional operational issues are evaluated by the Six Sigma expert. The proposed methodology is applied in solving the choice of software project problem deriving from a software component developer. The empirical results are promising. Moreover, the results show that the higher a software project’s priority is, the greater the financial profits will be on end of the completion of the software project. Accordingly, the proposed methodology can prioritize the financial profit – which is the major performance for a Six Sigma software project. Additionally, the quality and reliability status of the case organization has been significantly improved through execution of the Six-Sigma software project. The evaluation process also influences software developers to adopt an analytical operations philosophy. The business objectives of the organization are brought into focus by the proposed methodology.
Keywords: Human criteria; Human sub-criteria; Fuzzy set; Six-Sigma; Software project management; linguistic parameters.

Role of Surface Complexation on the Magnetite Flotation
Hyonseung Dho
Micro and batch flotation test results showed that CMC depressed the hematitic ores, however, the poor selectivity was obtained for the magnetite. The iron oxides present present in the ores have zero point charge in the pH range of 6.5. Thus at a flotation pH of 8-9, the surface has a negative charge and adsorbs the cationic collector. Although zeta potential and adsorption measurements revealed that cationic chelating agents adsorbed magnetite effectively, the adsorptive characteristics was rather complicated to explain. When magnetite is in contact with chelating agents, several phenomena are expected during adsorption and dissolution processes; the dissolution of magnetite, surface chelation, and bulk chelation in the solution phase. From the surface complexation model, phen is the only adsorbing species for 1,10 phenanthroline. For 8-quinolinol, the neutural species and the negatively charged ion are present. The isoelectric point of magnetite was at pH 9.2 in the presence of 1,10 phenanthroline. The i.e.p of 8-quinolinol was pH 5.2. The adsorption mechanism of 8-quinolinol on magnetite was the formation of a negatively charged chelate in the magnetite /solution interface. The adsorption of the selected chelating agents was expected to depend on the combined effect of electrostatic forces.
Keywords: Magnetite, CMC, Depressant, Flotation, Chelation, Surface complexation

An Empirical Investigation of Fiscal Policy Effects on Economic Growth in Ghana
Godfred M. Aawaar, Thomas Adomah Worae and Isaac Twenboah-Koduah
This study examines the effects of fiscal policy on economic growth in Ghana using time series data spanning the period 1981 – 2012. An endogenous model fashioned in line with the standard production function is specified for the analysis. Real GDP is regressed on a set of fiscal variables including government consumption expenditure, government investment expenditure, taxes, and transfer payment and non-fiscal variables including private investment, terms of trades and labour force. The Augmented Dicker-fuller (ADF) test for stationarity and the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model for cointegration test were applied in estimating the short-run dynamics and long-run effects of fiscal policy on economic growth. The empirical results suggest that all variables included in the model are integrated of order one I(1), and are stationary after the first differences at the 5% significance level. The study lends support of a long-run relationship between economic growth and fiscal variables. According to the results in this study (1) economic growth is positively and significantly affected by fiscal variables in the long run; (2) government investment expenditure, transfer payment, labour and private investment positively and significantly affect economic growth; while terms of trade positively but insignificantly affect economic growth; and (3) government consumption expenditure and taxes negatively and significantly affect economic growth. The study recommends the design and implementation of measures to widen the tax net rather than increasing taxes and reduce trade deficits in the country.
Keywords: Fiscal Policy, Non-fiscal variables, Economic Growth, ARDL.
JelClassification Codes: E60, E62, H00, H20

Multimodal Analgesia Prolongs Duration of Postoperative Analgesia and Decreases Postoperative Pain Intensity in Short Surgical Procedures: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Hazem E. Elsersy and Magdy Ch. Metyas
Background: We examined the effect of preoperative combination of different analgesics and the role of each individual analgesic compared to control regarding postoperative pain,
Methods: patients were randomly allocated into either control; multiple treatment, perfalgan, opioid and voltaren group. The time for first request for analgesia and visual analogue score were compared by analysis of variance and tuckey Kramer test.
Results: There was a main effect of treatment p>0.0001 in favor of multi-analgesia and opioid groups. Multi-analgesia group was better than opioid group p=0.016. There was a little improvement with paracetamol (perfalgan) but no effect of voltaren on duration of analgesia nevertheless; both have reduced VAS relative to control.
Conclusion: Combination of non-opioid analgesics Diclofenac Na (voltaren), Paracetamol (perfalgan) with low dose morphine and dexamethasone have greatly prolonged duration of analgesia and reduced pain intensity without displaying notable side effects.
Keywords: Pain, postoperative; multimodal analgesia; analgesics nonopioid, diclofenac Na; analgesics non-opioid, paracetamol; analgesics opioid, morphine; dexamethasone.

Evaluate Affecting Factors in Teens Modeling
Razieh Didani, Masoomeh Karimi, Nayereh Shahmohammadi and Abdulamir Gilak
Present study tries to evaluate affecting factors in receive behavior of adolescent include girls and boys (2nd and 3rd level) in Tehran city. In order to attain related factors and answer to questions, some questionnaires prepared by two phases: elementary and final according to confirm its validity and reliability. By using of Volume Determine table, we selected 388 students and they answered to our questions. Resulted data analyzed by two levels of descriptive and inferential so the following results attained:1. In sum, the girls of two levels of education selected some backgrounds like sports, arts, religious, occupational, professional, academic, social communication, consultation and scientific consultation, artists, religious leaders, IRIB, teachers - artists, mothers and so on. 2. The boys in the total selected education with basis of the question, athletes, artists, religious leaders, brothers - Teachers, parents, and teachers have chosen. 3. Between girls and boys in the study of gender and vulnerability patterns are different. 4. There was no difference between teens modeling and basic educational in our study.
Keywords: Modeling, teens, socialization.

Detection of Mycotoxin (Deoxynivalenol) in Wheat Seeds Infected with Fusarium Graminearum
Mohammed.A.Fayyadh, Halema.Z.Al Behadli and Fadhila.S.Al-Shakoor
This study was conducted in Mycotoxin laboratory/College of Agriculture /University of Baghdad to evaluate seeds contamination of local and imported wheat with Deoxynivalenol(DON),and to test the ability of sodium sulfate and Fylax for detoxification of DON toxin . Results of fungal isolation showed that several fungi such as Alternaria. Aspergillus .Penicillium and Fusarium were associated with wheat samples for both local and imported wheat.Thin layer chromatography showed that 54.16%of Fusarium graminearum isolates were able to produce DON toxin on rice media .Results also showed that Fylax and Sodium sulfate inhibited the growth of the fungus F.graminearum and reduce toxin level from 45.6mg/g to0.27and 1.14 respectivily.
Keywords: Deoxynivalenol ; wheat seeds ;Fusarium graminearum

Optimization of Power Flows in an Electrical Power Transmission System
H. Mousavi, M. Mohseni and H. Jazayeri-Rad
A congestion management system is defined as a systematic method that starts from a part of the grid and then progresses to normalize the congested system. This can safely be accomplished through providing new transmission facilities. In this work, we try to consider some of the current aspects of the congestion management. A hybrid model of electricity market combined with the Benders technique which is an optimal power flow (OPF) problem solver are used to solve congestion in the grid. The Benders algorithm decomposes the main problem into a master problem and a sub-problem. The master problem concentrates on the economic aspects of the grid and the sub-problem solves the grid and accurately determines the respective conditions. The Benders algorithm is then tested on a standard 24-bus IEEE grid. The MATLAB software package is employed to implement the proposed algorithm.
Keywords: Electricity Market, Congestion Management, Benders Technique, Optimal Power Flow, Restructured Systems

The Implication of the Practice of Afiye (Caste System) on Human Development Among the Yala Communities of Cross River State of Nigeria
Onah Gregory Ajima
The practice of Afiye (Caste System) among the Yala communities of Cross River State of Nigeria, settled in Yala Ogoja, Yala Obubra, and Yala Ikom, is an age long practice, which no one today can precisely point to its exact origin. The practice of Afiye and the Ayiwoole (slaves and freeborn), without considering the grave consequences, here analysed as implication of the system. The implication involves the political implication which tends to hinder the political rights of members of this caste, through its social structure. There is also the implication on Human Right, whereby members of this caste are denied freedom of association and movement. There is also social discrimination, which has equally affected their social standing in their different communities, such that they cannot be Ochuole (Traditional Rulers) or be allowed to participate in traditional burial rites of the traditional ruler that is regarded as the father of all. The economic factor is not left out as dispute bothering on land matters are usually and often settled in the palace and since they are the unwelcome species of human beings in the palace, there are left with no other opportunity than to be disempowered. Of course, there is the strained relationship and conflicts between the Ayiwoole and the Afiye, what Ralph Darendorf called the dialectical conflict theory. This has led to under development, Anger, bitterness and uncooperative attitude and indeed suspicion and all manners of negative tendencies among the Yala communities. It is the submission of this paper therefore, that the practice of this caste with its antecedent implications be put to a stop in order to bring about a meaningful development to Yala land.

The Influence of Information Technology on Organizational Structure
Kaveh Teymour Nejad and Maryam Hamzei
The purpose of writing the current paper is to survey the influence of information technology on organizational structure and its dimensions include formality, complexity and centralization. The research is applicable from goal view and descriptive from data collection view. To gather data, a questionnaire with separated parts about information technology and organizational structure was applied and after proving its validity and reliability distributed among statistical society- 113 counselors, assistants, auditors and supervisors of audit department. The results of applying Spearman test show that there are meaningful relationships between information technology with organizational structure which relationship between centralization with information technology was negative. Meanwhile complexity was selected as the most important one and all variables include organizational structure and its dimensions were placed in favorable levels.
Keywords: Information technology, organizational structure, organizational formality, organizational complexity, organizational centralization.

Comparison of Industrial Components Manufacturing Companies using Hierarchical Fuzzy Decision Making Model
Peyman Gholizadeh
Nowadays evaluation and comparison of Industrial Components Manufacturing Companies has become important due to ensuring effective selection of manufacturers. In this work, companies manufacturing internal and external industrial components are compared using a hierarchical fuzzy TOPSIS model. To this end, in the first step effective factors in comparison and evaluation process are extracted and then they are specified using expert ideas. In addition, data related to these criteria regarding manufacturing companies are extracted using questionnaire. Due to uncertainty in evaluation and comparison of manufacturing companies, a model is proposed based on MCDM and fuzzy concepts. Application of the proposed model has been suggested for a case study comparing 3 domestic and 2 foreign companies which manufacture industrial components mostly active in producing Oil and Gas components.
Keywords: Evaluation and comparison of companies, effective criteria in evaluation, industrial components and equipment, hierarchical fuzzy TOPSIS model.

A New Plan for Marine Green Energy System; Gravity Buoyancy System in Deep Waters
Moonesun-Mohammad and Asadi-Behrouz
The present study is a modern design to generate electric energy by buoyancy gravity, which has been described in details. The design is a backup system beside other modern systems of energy generation such as wind, tide, solar energy, and sea waves. The system could be considered as an efficient unit for energy generation. Gravity Buoyancy (GB) method would be able to generate electric energy through using deep waters of sea, wells, or lakes. To estimate and prove the system, a small sample would be made in laboratory and its characteristics would be presented in the study.
Keywords: Green energy, new energy, electric energy, gravity buoyancy, diving.

The Assessment of Stability and Hydrostatic Curves for Submarines at Surface and Submerged Conditions
Moonesun-Mohammad, Asadi-Behrouz and Abedi-Khoram Ali
In present paper, the stability curves for submarines at surface and submerged conditions have been presented in which the stability of ship has not been mentioned. The submarine due to the points such as diving and going under water are different from the ships. Three various conditions of stability in submarine have been considered which are as surface, transition and submerged conditions. The ballast tanks are provided for “submerging” process, so that the ballast tanks play important role in making the submarines stable and Equilibrium. The present paper is provided to give the results about the stability of submarine and it‘s difference points with the stability of ships.
Keywords: Hydrostatic curve, stability, submarine, surface, submerge, ballast tanks