European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 115 No 1
Nov, 2013

An Investigation of the Impact of Instruction Cache (I-Cache) Organization on Power-Performance Trade-Offs in the Design of Scalar Processors
7-26
Mutaz Al-Tarawneh

Abstract:
This paper investigates the impact of different instruction cache (I-Cache) organizations on the power-performance trade-offs of scalar processors with a two-level cache hierarchy. Each cache organization is a combination of cache size, cache associativity and replacement policy and defines a unique processor configuration. A cycle-accurate full-system simulation has been used to obtain power and performance readings of all processor configurations. All simulations were performed using a randomly chosen benchmark applications. Power-performance trade-offs have been quantified in terms of two metrics: Energy Efficiency (EF) and Energy-Delay-Product (EDP). Simulation results have revealed a strong correlation between I-Cache organization and the aforementioned metrics; a well-organized cache hierarchy can achieve a significant improvement in both of them. In other words, a carefully-organized I-Cache will result in processor designs with high performance improvement and low power consumption. On the other hand, EF has been identified as an appropriate metric for throughput-oriented processors while EDP has been recognized as a suitable metric for latency-oriented processors.
Keywords: Instruction Cache, Cache Miss Rate, Processor Performance, Energy Efficiency, Energy-Delay Product, Design Trade-offs.

The Simultaneous Study of Shoe Industry Buyers and Suppliers' Objectives in Terms of Production Technology with MCDM Approach (Case Study: Wahid Shoe Co.)
27-34
Hadi Hosseini, Ghanbar Abaspour Esfadan and Aboutorab Alirezaei

Abstract:
There are many issues related to buyer relation with supplier and also useful works have been done on the issue of technology selection, but in the case of simultaneous use of these two categories little work has been done. Certainly, in this regard two subjects come into the mind, first it should be considered how to select the proper technology, for which we have used indices that a suitable technology could be selected by it, so that be responsible for both manufacture and supplier's objectives; and second issue is the working method, which we have used ideal programming due to its various objectives. After performing work stages, two technologies were properly selected which had greatest harmony and less conflict with each other.
Keywords: Choice of technology, production technology, buyer-supplier relation, ideal programming.

The Effectiveness of the Brain-Based Learning Strategy to Train Students on Problem-Solving from the View Point of Teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
35-47
Kawthar Jubara and Maha Shahrouri

Abstract:
The study aimed at investigating the teachers' perspectives towards the effectiveness of brain-based strategy on training students on problem-solving principles, and also to know the effect of experience, gender, and qualification of teachers on their perspectives. The sample of the study consisted of 370 teachers, 188 males and 182 females from public schools in Hail Region in Saudi Arabia. Means and standard deviations and T-test were used to analyze the results. Results showed that there are statistically significant differences in teachers' perspectives towards the effectiveness of brain-based strategy on training students on problem-solving, it also shows that there are statistically significant differences at (α= 0.05) in their perspectives due to experience variable, and no statistically significant differences at (α= 0.05) in their perspectives due to gender variable, there are a clear statistically significant differences in teachers' perspectives towards the effectiveness of brain-based strategy due to qualification variable.
Keywords: Teachers' Perspectives, Brain-based Strategy, Problem-Solving


The Attitudes of Special Education Female Students at Princess Alia University College Towards Future Career and the Motives Behind Joining the Specialization

48-58
Areen A.Q.Bajes Al Jadeed Majali


The Relationship between the Management of Small Projects and Economic and Social Development of the Family
59-80
Ameera Ahmed Salim Balkhior


Introducing an Appropriate Active Control Algorithm for the Reduction of the Destruction Caused by Near- Field Earthquakes

81-99
Yousef Zandi and Seyed Arash Musavi Gasemi

Abstract:
The ground motion of near-field earthquakes is characterized by a high peak acceleration and a velocity pulse with a long period component as well as a large displacement. Such characteristics are responsible for severe damages to urban infrastructures, including buildings, bridges, lifeline systems, etc. Unfortunately, design specifications for civil infrastructures subject to near-field earthquakes have not been established to date. In this article, the application of the concept of active control for the reduction of the destruction caused by near-field earthquakes in third generation benchmark structures is investigated. In this vein, artificial neural network and fuzzy logic and combination of artificial neural network and fuzzy logic for the design of active algorithm are used.A step-by-step non-linear analysis is done using new-mark-B, and for better represent the non-linear behavior, a bilinear hysteresis model is used to model plastic hinge. In this article, for the evaluation of the control algorithm efficiency designed, some near-field records are used. These records consist of seventeen (17) evaluation criteria and are compared using LQG style. The evaluation criteria used are divided to four categories: 1. Structural responses 2. Structural damage 3. Control devices 4. Control strategic requirements The comparison of the results obtained in case of evaluation criteria of active control algorithm designed in this article and LQG style, firstly was the transformation shown in the appropriate algorithm for near- field and far-field earthquakes and secondly it is assumed that the active control algorithm designed with the fuzzy logic is the most appropriate algorithm for the reduction of the destruction caused by near- field earthquakes.
Keywords: Neural networks, near-field earthquakes, fuzzy logic, non-linear analysis, LQG method

Nutrient Composition, Phytochemical and Anti-Nutrient Constituents of Leaves of the Wild Simsim (Sesamum Anguistifolium(Oliv.) Engl.) from Zimbabwe
100-109
Chidewe.C, Zvidzai.C, Muzaka.A, Mushipe.S and Nyanga.L.K

Abstract:
Proximate, ascorbic acid, mineral, phytochemical and antinutrient composition of fresh leaves of Sesamum angustifolium (oliv.) Engl. were determined using standard analytical techniques. The findings indicated that, the ash content was 7.4 ± 0.5 g/ 100 g, moisture 78.9 ± 3.1 g/ 100 g, crude protein 3.1 ± 0.9 g/ 100 g, crude fibre 2.2 ± 0.4 g/ 100 g, crude fat 0.6 ± 0.1 g/100 g, carbohydrate 9.7 ± 0.1 g/ 100 g, gross energy 39.4 ± 3.2 kcal/ 100 g and ascorbic acid 144 ± 10 mg/ 100 g. The mineral content (mg/ 100 g) was calcium 158.2 ± 11.1, potassium 272.3 ± 10.3, sodium 95.4 ± 2.0, iron 7.1 ± 1.3, phosphorus 52.7 ± 5.1, magnesium 48.6 ± 3.1 and zinc 1.3 ± 0.1. The antinutrients determined included phytates at 0.87 ± 0.04 g/ 100 g, oxalates 4.1 ± 0.2 g/ 100 g, and cyanogenic glycosides 0.4 ± 0.1 ?g/ 100 g. Quantitative phytochemical analyses showed saponins at 12.8 ± 2.7 g (diosgenin equivalents) DE/ 100 g, alkaloids 0.9 ± 0.3 g/ 100 g, total phenolics 54.2 ± 5.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/ 100 g and flavonoids 25.9 ± 2.0 mg (catechin equivalents) CE/ 100 g. The results of this research indicated that the leaves of the wild simsim plants have nutritional qualities that could provide users and consumers with additional nutrients and presence of phytochemicals indicated that it can be a potential source of such phytochemicals derived from plants.
Keywords: Antinutrients, mineral, nutrition, phytochemicals, Sesamum angustifolium (Oliv). Engl.

A Study of Emotional Intelligence Effect on Iranian Couples’ Marital Relation.
110-121
Heidar Imanian

Abstract:
Researches show that humans need to know the causes of emotions, the kinds of emotions they like to experience and possible consequences of expressing emotions. Emotional awareness has a wide range, evidence shows that majority of people have the minimum emotional awareness. Regarding the importance of the issue, the present paper aims to find out to what extent emotional intelligence (EI) affects couple’s close relationship. Results show that there is a significant difference between couples’ emotional intelligence and their participation in life affairs. In order to recognize different degrees of participation and emotional intelligence, L.S.D statistic has been used. Achieving significant confidence level equal to 0/99 is one of the purposes of the research.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence, emotional perception, emotion management, marital relation.


Relation Entre Éclairs Nuage-Sol et Précipitations Pendant la Mousson de 2006 au Bénin

122-132
Houngninou B. Etienne, Adéchinan A. Joseph, Moumouni Sounmaïla, Guédjé K. François, Allé C. S. Ulrich Y, Kougbéagbédè Hilaire and Houngninou T. Erik

Abstract:
Cette étude présente la relation entre les éclairs nuage-sol (CG) et les précipitations pendant la mousson de 2006, à l’Observatoire Hydrométéorologique de la Haute Vallée de l’Ouémé (OHHVO) au Bénin. Les données d’éclairs sont obtenues à partir du réseau LINET et celles des précipitations proviennent de 49 pluviographes. Les résultats montrent que la densité spatiale des éclairs (fl pour flash) varie considérablement. La moyenne est de 26 fl / km2. Le nombre d’éclairs nuage-sol croît globalement avec la latitude mais décroît avec la longitude. Les échelles temporelles et spatiales considérées pour déterminer le ratio pluie-éclair sont respectivement, 1 mois et 100 km2. Ce ratio est le rapport entre la masse des précipitations (en kg) et le nombre d’éclairs nuage-sol (fl), sur un espace commun. Les valeurs de ce ratio varient entre 1,5 107 et 49 107 kg/fl avec une moyenne de 7,2 107 kg/fl. Le coefficient de corrélation moyen entre les éclairs nuage-sol et les précipitations au cours de la mousson de 2006 est de 0,55. La part des précipitations convectives sur l’ensemble des précipitations enregistrées est estimée à 50% au Nord-Ouest, 40% au Sud-Est, 22% au Nord-Est et 21% au Sud-Ouest de l’OHHVO.
Mots-clés: éclair nuage-sol, précipitation, ratio pluie-éclair, mousson.

Computation Less Radon Based Palmprint Characterization
133-140
Jitendra P Chaudhari, Pradeep M Patil and Y P Kosta

Abstract:
Palm based biometric based individual identification is proposed in this paper as palmprint recognition can be done in low resolution images and contains significant unique features. In this paper, principle line based approach is presented as principle line extraction is easy as compared to other ridge and valley and minutia point detection. Here radon based approach is presented for palm feature point extraction and matching. From the radon coefficients, the corresponding points in spatial domain are identified. From obtained points, using outlier points, polygon is formed. The area and periphery of obtained polygon are utilized as feature vector for matching purpose. Results on polyU database concludes that proposed model is efficient and has less computational complexity as compared to Gabor and other radon based model.
Keywords: Biometric, Palmprint identification, Radon transform, Polygon.

Invoice No. 9151,EJSR, Carcass Characteristics, Culinary Suitability and Technological Quality of Meat of the Indiginous Autochthonous Busha Cattle and Pramenka Sheep Breeds in Bosnia
141-146
Ghassan Altabari

Abstract:
This project was carried out to determine certain carcass characteristics and the effect of selected meat processing technologies on raw meat quality and on cooked meat sensory scores of the indiginous Autochthonous Buše cattle (Busha cattle) and Pramenka sheep meat and their crosses. Before sloughtering, animals were divided into 3 groups according to sex and live body weight. Respectively, the body weight catigories for Buše cattle and Pramenka sheep were: upto 300kg and 30kg (group I), 300-400kg and 30-40kg (group II), and over 400kg and 40kg (group III). The average yield of meat of Buše cattle and Pramenka sheep was 50.47% and 47.19%, respectively. In Buše cattle, the leg produced the largest amount of meat relative to the carcass weight (29.9%), while in Pramenka sheep, the leg plus the knucle produced the most meat percentage (29.09%). In both Buše cattle and Pramenka sheep, electrostimulation of the carcass significantly improved sensory scores of cooked m. longissimus dorsi samples. Electrostimulation significantly improved tendrness of meat of Buše cattle, but negatively affected its color scores. Electrostimulation of the carcass of Buše cattle improved the shelf-life of vaccum packed meat stored at 2 ?C, but had no effect on Pramenka sheep meat.
Keywords: Raw meat?Cooked meat?Quality?Culinary processing.

Causal Relationship Model of Environmental Conservation Involved Psychological Factors for Agriculturist
147-165
Supayon Chomputawat, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Tanarat Khoowaranyoo Thiengkamol

Abstract:
The global citizen has extensively used chemical substance over the world in every region including developed, developing and least developed countries. The amount of chemical substance has been utilized are different in terms of type and quantity. It depends on purpose of each country or each activity. The chemical substances utilization is an origin of environment, ecosystem, health and hygiene system impact for user and accidental people. The expert committee of World Health Organization on pesticide and herbicide forecasted that about 500,000 peoples around the world got pesticide toxic effect and the mortal rate was about 1-10 percents. It depends on the condition of treatment. Though, the data was estimated by WHO that it might be lower than the actual situation since these data were mainly collected from only 19 countries and majority were developed countries. This research objective was to develop a causal relationship model of environmental conservation involved psychological factors for agriculturist. This research was a survey research and the questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection from agriculturists in Roi - Et Province in year of 2012. Population was 1,377 agriculturists. Multi-stage random sampling was employed for sampling sample group of 310 agriculturists. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used for model verification. Research results were as followings. The component analysis of Knowledge and Understanding on Chemical Substance (Kno), Environmental Education (EE), Psychological Trait (PsT), Psychological State (PsS), and Inspiration of Public Consciousness (IPC) had direct effect to Environmental Conservation Behavior (BEH) with statistically significant at 0.01 level with effect of 81.00 %. The structural equation can be written as the following. BE=0.69*IPC0.56*PsS + 0.16*Kno + 0.09*EE-0.60*PsT (1) R20.81 Considering of components that effected to Inspiration of Public Consciousness (IPC) of agriculturist, it was revealed that Environmental Education (EE) was the most effect. Subsequence was Psychological State (PsS) Knowledge, and Understanding on Chemical Substance (Kno), and Psychological Trait (PsT), these were able to explain the variation of Inspiration of Public Consciousness (IPC) with 86%. The structural equation can be written as the following. IPC=0.92*EE+0.0016*PsS-0.11*Kno-0.15*PsT (2) R20.86 Therefore, the model of Kno, PsT, PsS, and EE influencing through IPC to BEH was verified the proposed model was fitted with all observed variables according to criteria of Chi-Square value differs from zero with no statistical significant at 0.01 level or Chi-Square/df value with lesser or equal to 5, P-value with no statistical significant at 0.01 level and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error Approximation) value with lesser than 0.05 including index level of model congruent value, GFI (Goodness of Fit Index) and index level of model congruent value, AGFI (Adjust Goodness of Fit Index) between 0.90-1.00.
Keywords: Causal Relationship Model / Environmental Conservation / Psychological Factors / Agriculturist.

Casual Relationship Model of Biodiversity Conservation Integrated with Psychological Factors
166-182
Sattra Saisunantharom, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Chatchai Thiengkamol

Abstract:
This study was survey research. The populations were 30,895 high school students from school under Secondary Service Area Office 32 (Burirum), Northeastern region of Thailand in academic year of 2012. The sample was collected by Multi-stage random sampling to collect 400 high school students. The results revealed that when considering on structural model of confirmatory factors of Biodiversity (BD), Psychological Trait (PsT), Psychological State (PsS) and Environmental Education (EE) were able to explain the variation of endogenous factors of Inspiration of Public Consciousness (INS) to caused Environmental Conservation Behavior for Global Warming Alleviation (BEH) with 87.00 percents as following in equation (1). BEH=0.29*INS-0.043*BD+0.21*PsT+0.21*PsS+0.48*EE (1)(R2=0.82) Moreover, confirmatory factors of Biodiversity (BD), Psychological Trait (PsT), Psychological State (PsS) and Environmental Education (EE) were able to explain the variation of confirmatory factors of Inspiration of Public Consciousness (INS) with 95.00 percents. Therefore, the equation can be written as following in equation (2). INS=0.23*BD-0.23*PsT+0.30*PsS+0.57*EE (2)(R2=0.95)Considering on Chi-Square value/df was = 1.348 therefore it was lesser than 5, therefore it was accepted that hypothetical model of research was congruent to empirical data. Moreover, it was considered on other statistical values to identify the congruence that were Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) and Adjust Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) were 0.94 and 0.91 respectively (GFI > 0.90 and AGFI > 0.90) and critical number = 346.14 which is more than 200. It indicated that model was congruent to empirical data.
Keywords: Casual Relationship Model / Biodiversity Conservation / Psychological Factors

Causal Relationship Model of Four Noble Truths Integrated with Psychological Factors
183-198
Aekwin Koonboonchan, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Tanarat Khoovaranyoo Thiengkamol

Abstract:
The populations were 37,156 undergraduate student of Mahasarakham University in academic year of 2012. The Multi-stage simple random sampling technique was employed to collect the sample for 400 undergraduate students. The research instrument was the questionnaire and it was used for data collecting. LISREL was used for model verification. The objective of research was to develop the structural relationship model of environmental education and four noble truths affecting to environmental behavior for global warming alleviation through inspiration of public consciousness. The results revealed that when considering on structural model of confirmatory factors of Psychological Trait (PsT), Psychological State (PsS), Environmental Education (EE), and Four Noble Truths (FNT) were able to explain the variation of endogenous factors of Inspiration of Public Consciousness (INS) to caused Environmental Behaviors for Global Warming Alleviation (BEH) with 82.0 percents as following in equation (1). BEH=0.93*INS+0.16*FNT+0.40*PsT+0.46*+0.27*EE (1) R2=0.82 Moreover, confirmatory factors of Environmental Education (EE), Four Noble Truths (FNT), Psychological State (PsS), and Psychological Trait (PsT), were able to explain the variation of confirmatory factors of Inspiration of Public Consciousness (INS) with 76.00 percents. Therefore, the equation can be written as following in equation (2). INS=0.012*FNT-0.65*PsT-0.62*PsS+0.68*EE
(2) R2=0.64
Keywords: Causal Relationship Model / Environmental Education / Four Noble Truths / Inspiration of Public Consciousness / Environmental Behavior for Global Warming Alleviation

Causal Relationship Model of Holistic Tourism Integrated with Psychological Factors
199-214
Ratchanee Petchang, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Chatchai Thiengkamol

This research was a survey research and the questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection from tourism administrative committee and involved sectors in Uttaradit Province. Population was 5,000 peoples. Multi-stage random sampling was employed for sampling sample group of 400 peoples. Research results were followings. The component analysis of Characteristics of Holistic Tourism (CHT), Environmental Education (EE), Psychological Trait (PsT), Psychological State (PsS), and Environmental Conservation Inspiration (ECI) had direct effect to Holistic Tourism Behavior (HTB) with statistically significant at 0.01 level with effect of 74.00 %. The structural equation can be written as the following. HTB=0.88*ECI-0.12*CHT+0.12*PsT+0.054*PsS+0.0020*EE
(1) R2=0.74 Considering of components that effected to environmental conservation inspiration (ECI) of committee, it was discovered that Characteristics of Holistic Tourism (CHT) was the most effect. Subsequent were Psychological State (PsS), Psychological Trait (PsT), Environmental Education (EE) respectively, these were able to explain the variation of inspiration of Environmental Conservation Inspiration (ECI) with 92%. The structural equation can be written as the following.ECI=0.97*CHT-0.072*PsT+0.16*PsS-0.0019*EE (2) R2=0.92 Therefore, the model of CHT, EE, PsS and PsT influencing through ECI to HTB was verified the proposed model was fitted with all observed variables according to criteria of Chi-Square value differs from zero with no statistical significant at 0.01 level or Chi-Square/df value with lesser or equal to 5, P-value with no statistical significant at 0.01 level and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error Approximation) value with lesser than 0.05 including index level of model congruent value, GFI (Goodness of Fit Index) and index level of model congruent value, AGFI (Adjust Goodness of Fit Index) between 0.90-1.00.
Keywords: Causal Relationship Model / Holistic Tourism / Psychological Factors.