European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 114 No 4
Nov, 2013

Effets de Differentes Frequences Annuelles de Stimulation Ethylenique sur les Parametres Agrophysiologiques et la Sensibilite A L’encoche Seche des Clones D’hevea Brasiliensis Au Sud-Est de la Côte D’ivoire: Cas de la Classe D’activite Metabolique Lente (PB 217)
447-465
Traoré Mohamed Sahabane, Dick Acka Emmanuel, Angeline Angeline Elabo Agnyman Eliathe, Soumahin Eric Francis, Coulibaly Lacina Fanlégué, Camara Brahima, Allé Yamousso Joseph, N’guessan Angelo Evariste Badou, Kouamé Christoph and Obouayeba Samuel

Abstract:
La stimulation hormonale de la production de caoutchouc permet d’accroître la productivité des plantations d’hévéa. Cependant, son utilisation abusive et inadaptée peut entamer considérablement celle-ci. Pour prévenir cette contrainte, une étude prospective des régimes annuels de stimulation permettant au clone PB 217 d’Hevea brasiliensis, à métabolisme lent, d’exprimer au mieux sa productivité, a été entreprise pendant 9 ans au sud-est de la Côte d’Ivoire. Les hévéas ont été plantés à une densité de 510 arbres/ha (7 m x 2,80 m) selon un dispositif complètement randomisé. Ils ont été saignés en S/2 d4 et stimulés à l’Ethéphon à 2,5 % aux fréquences annuelles de 0, 2, 4, 8, 13, 26, 39 et 78. Les paramètres mesurés ont été la production de caoutchouc, la croissance isodiamétrique du tronc, le profil physiologique et la sensibilité à l’encoche sèche des arbres. Les résultats ont montré que, la pratique de la stimulation a une influence soit positive, soit négative sur la production de caoutchouc, la croissance isodiamétrique du tronc et les paramètres physiologiques des hévéas du clone PB 217. En outre, la teneur en saccharose du latex a été un paramètre déterminant de la réponse à cette stimulation. Elle a participé de l’amélioration de la productivité et surtout de l’amoindrissement du stress pouvant susciter la fatigue physiologique, voire l’encoche sèche. Quant à la sensibilité à l’encoche de ce clone, elle n’est pas directement liée à la stimulation hormonale. Treize stimulations annuelles suffisent à ce clone pour parvenir à la production optimale sans dommages sur les paramètres agrophysiologiques et sanitaires.
Motsclés: Hevea brasiliensis, S/2 d4, stimulation hormonale, croissance isodiamétrique, profil physiologique, encoche sèche, Côte d’Ivoire.

The Relationship between Demographic Characteristics the Faculty Members Burnout.
466-475
Vahid Sharafi, Navid Fallah Hagh Mohammadi and Sakineh Bazdar

Abstract:
This study examined the relationship between demographic characteristics and job burnout among faculty in public and private universities in Ilam. Research method is descriptive and correlational research. The sample of research is 210 individuals among 460 faculty members of the University of Ilam, which were selected using simple random sampling. The sample size was determined by reference to Morgan table. Data were collected by taking advantage of Maslach burnout inventory questionnaire. In order to data analysis and hypothesis testing, correlation analysis and structural equation modeling were used. The results of the analysis indicate that demographic characteristics have positive, direct and meaningful effect on job burnout. Also, job burnout among faculty members of public universities is less than burnout in non-public universities. In additional, amount of burnout of faculty members is meaningfully lower than mean.
Keywords: Job burnout, university faculty, age, sex.

An Investigation of Judicial Precedent as One of the Legal Resources in Public Rights of Iran and France with Emphasis on the Judgments of Court of Administrative Justice
476-481
Nastaran Khorsand Movaghar and Abolfazl Ranjbary

Abstract:
Law is considered as an institution that it is created to manage and control the human relationship. Since the laws are approved considering specific needs of its time, changing of needs and social conditions can be considered as ambiguity in the law enforcement about a particular case. In this context, the judge that deal with this issue has to do a correct interpretation of the Law, and consequently different branches that deal with legal, criminal and administrative matters may issue contradictory judgment about a same subject. In this respect in Iran Constitution, the Supreme Court is responsible for issuing judicial precedent about different judgments that have been issued by courts, and this judgment is necessary to be followed in similar cases. In administrative law, the Court of Administrative Justice, accordance with law that is approved by them, has the authority for issuing judicial precedent. The aims of this study are to investigate the place of judicial precedent as one of the legal resources in public rights of Iran and France with emphasis on the judgments of Court of Administrative Justice.
Keywords: Court of Administrative Justice, Judicial precedent, Law, Public rights


Isna Ashari Shias (Twelver Imami) Shi’ism in India

482-491
Jalal Jafarpour and Shahram Basity

Abstract:
South Asians adopted Imami, or Twelver, Shi’ism in great numbers, mostly after the Safavid conquest of Persia in the first decade of the 16th century. Many Persians had emigrated to southern India during the Mongol period (13-14th centuries), and when Imami Shi’ism became the state religion of Persia in the 16th century they tended to adopt the new creed. Shi’ism was also spread by later Persian immigrants, including nobles, merchants, and olama, and by indigenous sayyeds (those claiming descent from the Prophet Mo?ammad) and Shi’ite Sufis. As the Persian immigrants tended to become bureaucrats and landholders, they were in a position to promote their beliefs through patronage. Shi’ites probably now constitute about 5 percent of Indian Muslims.In three south-Indian kingdoms (Adil shahi, Nizam Shahi, Qutub Shahi) the state also promoted Twelver Shi’ism in the 16th century. There is no certainty as to when the Shia community first established itself in the Indian Subcontinent. As per historical evidences and the genealogy maintained by the Sayyeds who migrated to India from Middle East the history of Shia Islam traces long back around 1000 years. The real introduction of Islam to India was through Iran and Shiism; it was Iranian scholars, clerics, literati and politicians who took refuge in different states of India with their Persian language i.e. the language of politics and literature under the support of Indian powers in northern and southern India. Among the Shias of India an overwhelming majority belongs to the Isna Ashari (Twelver) division.
Keywords: Shia India,Twelver Shi’ism, Isna Ashari, Bahmani Dynasty.

Simulation of Causes of Occupational Hazards and Accidents in the Gas Company of Isfahan
492-504
Sayed Fakhreddin Dadgar, Ahmad Reza Shekarchi Zade, Majid Nili, Sayedeh Tahereh Hashemian and Mohsen Javadian

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate solutions to reduce incidents Gas Company operating in the province of Isfahan. Statistical methods used in this research survey. The population of the present paper is all employees of the gas company. Random sampling was done in this study is to determine the sample size formula is used in the present study. This study used a questionnaire to collect data univariate statistics and regression t-test and Friedman ranking is performed. Of the SPSS software was used for data analysis. The AMOS software was used to investigate the hypotheses. The results were significant at 5%, indicating that the poor state of the environment, protection unavailability, inappropriate gas company personnel training, compliance and ethics training factors, organizational factors and work-related accidents are related.
Keywords: Accidents, work accidents, organizational, environmental, financial, and technical factors, the availability of protective devices


The Health Consequences of Trade: Evidence from Subnational Trade Flows

505-512
Pandej Chintrakarn

Abstract:
Building on previous work concerning the environmental impact of trade and the link between environmental quality and health, we utilize state-level data from the US to analyze the impact of subnational trade (i.e., interstate commerce) on state-level measures of health. Overall, we do find some evidence of the harmful impacts of subnational trade on health status.
Keywords: Infant mortality; Trade; Economics openness
JEL Classification Codes: I12; I18; F10

A Study of Financial Distress Companies Listed in the Malaysian Stock Exchange using Financial Liquidity Ratios and Altman's Model
513-525
Ng Kim-Soon, Ali Abusalah Elmabrok Mohammed and Fathi Khalifa M. Agob

Abstract:
PN17 Company is a listed company in the Malaysian Stock Exchange that is facing financial difficulties. Company listed in this list does not owned a core business and its shareholders’ fund is below 25% of their total paid-up capital. As of 9th August 2010, there were thirty-four companies listed in the Malaysian Stock Exchange classified as PN17. These companies had entered into PN17 list in accordance with the existing standards. There are investors who are not aware of the status of these listed companies. A real and full attention has not been given yet for these companies. Thus, the aims of this research work include examining whether there is a significant difference between the use of financial liquidity ratios (cash ratio, current ratio, quick ratio) and Altman's model in determining the financial situation of Companies, whether there is a significant difference in the financial situation between PN17 companies and Non-PN17 companies, determining whether all the PN17 companies listed are financial failure companies, and to determine whether there is financial distress company listed as Non-PN17 companies. The data from the year 2003 to year 2009 were used for analysis in this study. It was found that Financial Liquidity ratios and Altman Z-score can be used to detect financial distress of companies and that not all the PN17 Companies listed are financial failure. On the other hand, this work also found that there are financial difficulties companies listed among the Non-PN17companies. It is recommended that all Companies should emphasize on the issue of accounting disclosure.
Keywords: PN17 Troubled Companies, Bursa, Investments, Markets, Statistics and Financial Analysis.

Contribution of Both Central and Peripheral Fatiguing Factors on Muscle Force Output.
526-536
Sameh R. Ahmed, Osama A. Khaled and Ahmed E. Elerian

Abstract:
Background: The factors that contribute to fatigue from voluntary activity are numerous and in complex multifactorial process. Theoretically every step in the chin that leads eventually to muscular contraction has been studied under a variety of circumstances. As a result, many theories of fatigue have been discussed. Objective: to determine changes in muscle force output and blood markers during voluntary and electrically induced fatigue. Design: 60 male healthy subjects (randomly assigned into two groups equally) were recruited with mean age of 29.9±5.5years. Group one underwent both voluntary and electrically induced fatiguing protocols on left limb, while the right limb underwent electrically induced fatiguing protocol, Group two underwent both voluntary and electrically induced fatiguing protocols on left, while the right limb underwent voluntary induced fatiguing protocol. Results: there were significant difference in the amplitude of compound muscle action potential, serum lactate, and serotonin levels between pre-test values and post-test values of both groups. Also there were significant changes in difference values of compound muscle action potential and serotonin between limbs in group I only, while there were significant changes in difference values of serum lactate levels between limbs in both groups. Conclusion: it is concluded that both central and peripheral fatiguing factors contribute to the difference in muscle force output and both played an important role in the difference of compound muscle action potential, serum lactate, and serotonin levels measured.
Keywords: Central fatiguing factors, Peripheral fatiguing factors, and Muscle force output


Student’s Difficulties in Reading

537-546
Azizi Yahaya, Gooh Mo Lee, Halimah Maalip, Baharudin Arus, Zahari Hamidon, Gan Lui Nam and Khogilah A/P Kanganyu

Abstract:
This research was conducted to identify the difficulties faced by the students in reading based on vocabulary, style of writing, complexity of concepts and graphic aids in SJK (T) Ladang Rini, Johor. Participants in the research were made up of 30 respondents from a population of year 5 students. The questionnaire was distributed to the respondents to collect information concerning the pupils proficiency in reading. The questionnaire consisted of 7 sections: Respondent’s Background, Family Literacy Background, Food At Home, Learning Aids and Entertainment At Home, Facilities at Home and Respondent’s Literacy – Reading Skills. Data is analyzed via SPSS program elaborate in order to explore the possibility of Remedial Teaching Approach to overcome the problem of reading disability in Malay Language of Year five students in SJK (T) Ladang Rini. The descriptive statistics has indicated that Level of Proficiency for “Vocabulary” (M = 2.43) is the most dominant of reading problems. there is a significant relationship between reading problems variables by factors of reading proficiency and reading proficiency by reading problems variables. In addition, t-test results showed that there is significant difference between genders with Reading Problems where male respondents shows more tendency (mean=2.40) compared to female respondents (mean=2.21) towards gender with Reading Problems. Several recommendations were presented to parents, teachers, school administrators and Malaysian Ministry of Education to overcome the students; difficulties in reading. Parents should pay additional attention to early development of child's reading literacy and proficiency during the pre-school age period and teachers to stimulate pupils interest in reading by having suitable full texts of literary works in the targeted language that is appropriate to the primary school level.
Keyword: Reading, vocabulary, proficiency, teachers.

Contribution Factor of using Information Communication and Technology in Teaching and Learning among the Engineering Teachers in Technical School
547-555
Azizi Yahaya, Gooh Mo Lee, Halimah Maalip, Baharudin Arus, Zahari Hamidon and Gan Lui Nam

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to identify the preparation of using Information Communication and Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning from aspects of knowledge, skills, attitude and confidence among the technical teachers of technique schools in Johore, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan. A total of 92 teachers from nine technical schools in three states were randomly selecting (cluster over cluster method) in this study. The findings showed that the preparation of Technical teachers’ knowledge, skills, attitude and confidence in using Information Communication and Technology in teaching and learning was at high level. The findings also showed that the level of preparation have significant difference with frequency in using computer and computer ownership.
Keywords: Knowledge, skills, attitude, confidence and teaching and learning.

Rates of Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Genital Herpes Before and After Spring Break and Homecoming at a Southeastern American University
556-565
Macaulay Okwuokenye, Karl Peace, Brian DeLoach, Paul Ferguson and Gulzar H. Shah

Abstract:
Objectives: This study estimates the rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and genital herpes simplex virus before and after spring break and homecoming week (and during summer terms) at a southeastern American university. Participants: Participants comprised students who utilized the campus student health center from January 1st 2006, to December 31st, 2008. Methods: Retrospective de-identified participants’ data were extracted using the specific diagnoses codes for each illness via the on-campus student health center’s electronic medical record and practice management system. Enrollment data were obtained from the university’s catalogue on the registrar’s website. Results: The rates of the three illnesses and average times to diagnoses from the first date of infected participants’ enrollment are estimated. Conclusions: The rates of these illnesses at this campus’s student health center were higher after spring break, homecoming, and summer Term A. Infected participants were on average diagnosed within their first two years of enrollment at the university.
Keywords: Sexually transmitted diseases, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Genital Herpes, College students

The Guide to Developing Lao Films into the Industrial System
566-573
Nattapong Yamcharoen, Souneth Phothisane and Donruetai Kovathanakul

Abstract:
The Guide to Developing Lao Films into Industrial System is both qualitative and quantitative research. Data was collected through multiple method integration. The study results are as follows. The Lao film industry is now in its budding stage and gradually on its way to play a bigger role in the country’s entertainment business. “Good Morning, LuangPrabang”—a collaboration and joint-investment between Laos and Thailand in 2008.Considered the first commercial movie in 33 years, its success marked the turning point for the Lao film industry. Nonetheless, the industry has so far progressed with no clear directions. Research shows that in order for a strong and steady growth, the industry needs to improve the following areas.1) Input: Human resources, more emphasis should be put into film studies as opposed to the almost solely on-the-job learning today. Equipment, Equipment used is usually rented from Lao companies. Laos still lacks its modern technology equipment rental services. Funding, the industry has limited budgets for movie production. Funding is mostly from the private sector. Fundraising from the private and public sectors should be encouraged. 2) Process: Production, The movie production procedure is clearly planned out but, unfortunately, not followed. If fixed, work efficiency will greatly improve. Marketing, Too little market research has been conducted, especially in regard to viewers’ needs and broadcast channels.3) Output: Traditionally, Lao films tell about everyday life anecdotes and stories that offer nothing new. Different plots can give the audience more depth and new experiences.4) Outcome: There are as few as three cinemas in Laos nationwide. Developing more distribution channels can bring in more revenue and rescue the industry. Nonetheless, copyright laws are not strictly enforced, leading to a large number of movie piracies. Even though Lao films are not highly profitable, the trend is looking up thanks to growing broadcast and distribution channels. National and international film festivals as well as nominations in film contests can lift the industry to another level and bring prestige and pride to the industry.
Keywords: Lao Film, Lao Movie

The Survey of Role of Technology in Insurance Companies’ Agility (Case Study: Iran Insurance Company and Razi Insurance)
574-580
Maryam Ghandvar, Seyyed Vali Tabatabaei and Gholamreza Hashemzadeh

Abstract:
Agility increases the ability to provide products and high quality and services, thus it is important to increase the competitiveness of company. This paper is to survey the role of technology in agility of insurance companies in Iran. This study was conducted Iran insurance company and Razi Insurance of Tehran Province. After identify the criteria affecting the agility, using Questionnaire and its analysis by software SPSS, the effect of Technology (software technology: Skilled human and Hardware technology: information technology) on the agility variables (designed based on customers idea, identify and understand the changes, planning for following changes to, quality, stand against the top Competitors, offer different products than competitors, positive utilization from political, social and economic changes, ability to solve the problem, new products supply, the ability to respond to changes in the needs) has been investigated. The estimated Reliability of questionnaire is equal to 0.769 and for hypothesis testing, t student statistics is used. The positive sign of t for hypothesis shows that the mean is greater than 3 and hypotheses were confirmed. For data analysis, SPSS and EXCEL are used.
Keywords: Information technology, the Agility, Human Force, Insurance Company

Design of Wave Pipelined Circuit of LDPC Decoder
581-585
Muthammal. Rr and S. Srinivasa Rao Madane

Abstract:
In this paper we have designed a wave pipelined LDPC decoder architecture and its comparison with pipelined, non-pipelined and wave pipelined architectures, the results shows that the wave pipelined method LDPC decoder architecture will take low area and minimal power when compared with other pipelined architectures. The hardware implementation was targeted on FPGA, because it has the advantage of flexibility over traditional ASIC implementation. Due to their near Shannon limit performance and inherently parallelizable decoding scheme, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes; have been extensively investigated in research and practical applications. Recently, LDPC codes have been considered for many industrial standards of next generation communication systems such as DVB-S2, WLAN (802.11.n), WiMAX (802.16e), and 10GBaseT (802.3an). For high throughput applications, the decoding parallelism is usually very high, hence a complex interconnect network is required which consumes a significant amount of silicon area and power.

The Relationship of Career Interest, Aptitude, Happiness, Mental Health and Academic Performance in First Year High School Students 2012-2013
586-593
Maryam Mehri, Fatemeh Rezaei and Mohammad Reza Abedi

This study examined the relation between career interests, aptitude, mental health, and happiness and academic performance in first-year high school students. 370 first-year students by using descriptive research are selected by multistage random cluster survey, to collect data; also strong career interest questionnaires, Oxford Happiness test, health and aptitude test scores and the semester GPA scores were used. Research data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and stepwise regression procedures. Results indicate that there is a significant direct relation between realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, convention and academic performance; but there is a significant inverse relation between realism and academic performance.
Keywords: Career interest, mental health, happiness, Aptitude, Academic performance.