European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 114 No 3
Nov, 2013

Food Crop Diversification and Production Efficiency: Insights from Parametric Estimations in Southern District of Ondo State
316-324
David Awolala and Igbekele Ajibefun

Abstract:
Increasing pressures on arable cropland and rapidly diminishing traditional fallow period are the ultimate challenges to minimize risks faced by small farmers as they attempt to improve their productivity and efficient in resource use in the tropics. This study investigated the influence of extent of crop diversification on technical efficiency among small scale farmers in the southern district of Ondo State, Nigeria. Household data collected on the arable farmers were analyzed using entropy diversification index, stochastic frontier production function and maximum-likelihood estimation. Results found that highly diversified farmers were more technically efficient than those in low diversification. The technical efficiency of farmers in low diversification group ranges between 14% and 85%. The technical efficiency of highly diversified farmers ranges between 23% and 95%, with a mean of 68%. Maximum-likelihood estimates result shows that low diversified famers recorded returns-to-scale of 1.15 compared with highly diversified farmers of 1.18. The two groups of farmers used production inputs within the rational zone of production space, yet they were still operating at sub-optimal levels. Farmers’ age and farming experience were inversely related to extent of crop diversification while education and family size positively influenced the extent of diversification.
Keywords: Crop Diversification, Entropy Index, Food Crop, Technical Efficiency, Ondo State
JEL Classifications Codes: C10, C81, Q10, Q12, Q18

Applications of SNP Markers for Genotyping of Plant Pathogenic Microorganisms.
325-337
Setti Benali, Bencheikh Mohamed and Henni Jamel Eddine

Abstract:
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) has recently become a new marker of interest to plant pathologist because of their abundance, high density within the genome, their low rate mutation as well as the advances technologies with which SNPs are discovered. Increasing high throughput technologies have been developed recently for optimal and efficient discovery of SNPs like the matrix assisted laser desorption ionization – time of flight (MALDI-TOF), the pyrosequencing, the method involving 5’exonuclease assay such as TaqMan, Single Strand Confirmation, Allele specific hybridation (ASH). The choice of one among these technologies depends on the objective of the research and the availability of laboratory equipments. On the other hand, a computational approach to SNP mining is becoming more popular with the increasing of the freely databases as well as the number of bioinformatics pipelines such as software, and packages modules developed for interrogating, detecting, retrieving SNPs automatically. This great popularity of the computational method has led to the construction of huge numbers of SNP databases for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes organisms including phytopathogenic microorganisms. SNP markers have proved to be useful in studies such as population genetic diversity, population structure and differentiation, diagnostics and strain fingerprinting, associations and genetic mapping studies. The purpose of this review is to present the most relevant published reports with emphasis on the use of the SNP markers in plant pathology. Among the aspects reviewed in this paper includes Distribution, abundance and variability of SNPs, the main method used for discovery and the detection of SNPs and the in silico mining through the publicly databases. Thereafter, we present the various applications of SNP markers in molecular plant pathology.
Keywords: SNPs, SNP discovery, SNP mining, Plant pathology, molecular markers, population genetics.

Synthesis, Characterization, Kinetics and Reaction Mechanism of the Zinc (Ii) Complexes of Barbtturic Acid
338-346
Oladipo M. A, Adekunle F.A.O and Bello I.A

Abstract:
Three complexes of barbituric acid with zinc (II) were synthesized and isolated. The compounds were characterized by microanalysis, infrared spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The infrared spectra showed that the frequencies of the asymmetric C=O, C=C stretching vibrations were lowered from their ligand values indicating complexation. The electronic spectra data have been interpreted in terms of the p3-p4 and d-d transitions. The room temperature magnetic moments suggest diamagnetic complexes. The kinetic data are consistent with a mechanism which follows a rapid pre-equilibrium in which the rate is independent of the metal concentration, suggesting an interchange associative mechanism.
Keywords: Barbituric acid, microanalysis, infrared, magnetic susceptibility, diamagnetic, complexation


Fostering Knowledge Management through Learning Organization: A Case of Tehran Education Department

347-355
Mehdi Shariatmadari and Fatemeh Rostami

Abstract:
The present study aims to evaluate the association between learning organization (LO) and Knowledge management (KM) among school principals in education department of Tehran. The current study is descriptive in nature and, correlational method was used. To collect the required data a researcher made questionnaire was used and to test the hypotheses of the study and data analysis multivariate regression independent sample t-test were used. The findings of the study indicate that according to the teachers, there is a significant correlation between LO indicators and knowledge creation, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge transfer and knowledge application.
Keywords: Learning Organization, knowledge management, Tehran

The Effect of Reduced Growth Hormone and Artificial Pollination on Traits of Alfalfa Seed Germination
356-359
Setareh Nikzad, Amin Nezami, Golnar Zibagar, Sepehr Zibagar and Milad Izadkhah

Abstract:
In order to study of the effect of Cycocel (CCC) dosages and pollination methods on alfalfa seed production an experiment was conducted using split plot design based on randomized complete block with three replications in Borujerd agricultural research station, Iran for two years (2011-12). In split plot design three artificial pollination systems (control, pulling rope over flowers in 70% and 100% pollination stages) were used as main plots and the four hormone dosages (0, 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 liter per hectare) as sub plots.The resultsof theanalysis of variancetable indicated that cycocel hormone and their reaction on each other are meaningful in germination percentage and seed vigor index in 1% level and effect of artificial pollination treatment is significant in 5% level. At whole, in this research observed the most effect of traits in treatment of artificial pollination in hormone level 70%,100% and 6.4 litr in Hectare.
Keywords: Alfalfa seed, artificial pollination, Cycocel.


Impact of Leadership Qualities on the Negotiation Style: A Quantitative Study

360-367
Melahat Öneren and Gamze Ebru Çiftçi

Abstract:
Negotiationis one of the most important activities within a leader’s management function. A leader is in continous and simultaneous negotiations both organizationally and externally, hence the style of negotiation is an eminently significant personal success factor. Based on this premise, the present study has investigated the leadership qualities and negotiation style relationship of92 managers through a survey form.Validated and reliability assured “Multifaceted Leadership Inventory” and “Negotiation Styles Scale” adapted to Turkish in previous studies has ben used in the Survey Form of this study. According to the analyses results of acquired data, study participant managers with transformational leadership qualities elected more frequently the “cooperative and collaborative” negotiation style. Participants with interactionalist leadership qualities preferred the “competitive” negotiation style.
Keywords: Leadership, Transformative Leadership, Interactional Leadership, Negotiation, Negotiation Styles.

Architecture of Buildings using Renewable Energies in Harmony with Sustainable Development
368-375
Mahdi Zandieh, Parisa Sadeghi and Maral Abolghasemi Moghaddam

Abstract:
Harmony with sustainable development and energy efficiency and using renewable energy sources are some issues that should be considered by designers and architects in designing and architecture of the building. In this paper factors such as designing buildings with free natural energies and the creation of a modern architecture in harmony with sustainable development are discussed. This study is based on library studies according to a descriptive approach. In this paper, the role of renewable energies such as solar energy, biomass and wind energy in sustainable architecture will be explained. Based on the material presented in this study, the use of renewable and clean energy resources can bring us closer to sustainable architecture. Then, an outstanding example of the sustainable architecture is presented (council house 2) where renewable and clean energies have been used very well in this architecture.
Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, Renewable Energy, design, buildings, council house 2

Sustaining IT PMOs during Cycles of Global Recession
376-385
Parvez Mahmood Khan, M M Sufyan Beg and Musheer Ahmad

Abstract:
Growth in the number of PMOs established by the industry over last decade and ever growing body of literature on PMO related research in academia is a clear indication that there is very clear interest of researchers, practitioners and industries across the globe to understand and explore value propositions of PMO. However, there is still a lack of consensus on many critical aspects of PMOs. While there are many PMOs being established, but there are also many being closed and disbanded, which is definitely a matter of concern. In industry environment, a narrow majority of PMOs are well-regarded by their organizations and are seen as contributing business value, many of the others “are still struggling to show value for money and some are failing, causing a high mortality rate among PMOs”. This paper is the result of a study undertaken to get a deeper understanding of factors that may be causing mortality and failure of PMOs. Post Implementation Reviews of 4-failed & 3-challenged PMOs in IT-Industry were carried out with concerned Project Managers & PMO-staff, using grounded theory research method, with support from the concerned enterprise from IT-Industry.
Keywords: PMO, IT PMO, Project Office, Project Management Office.


Not Happy Moving Back to Homeland? Why People Re-Migrate to Foreign Countries?

386-394
Benish Chaudhry

Abstract:
Brain drain and reverse brain drain is a key phenomenon in human migration. However, re-migration has now become a contemporary field of research where people move back to foreign lands. This study tries to find the push and pull factors involved in re-migration. ‘Foreign Faculty Hiring Program’ a project initiated by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan tried to bring highly qualified people back to Pakistan. The faculty that returned through this program has been surveyed to find factors that forced people to move back to foreign countries. A total of 149 observations were recorded. It has been found that Unemployment in home country (push) and better environment in foreign countries to raise children (pull) are major factors in re-migration. Difficulty to settle in home country and better opportunities abroad were also observed as factors involved in re-migration. Interview was also conducted to find reasons for people leaving the program. It was found that they left because they were unhappy with their jobs. Some left because they found better jobs in other local or international universities. However, it was also found that some faculty members came on sabbatical leave and left because they thought their job was only for a year.
Keyword: Education, migration, Pakistan.
JEL Classification Codes: F22, F20 I20, I21, J10, J40

Image Compression using Improved Wavelet Shrinkage and Artificial Neural Network
395-401
Seyed Mahmoud Anisheh and Davud Asemani

Abstract:
This paper presents a novel approach for image compression using improved wavelet shrinkage method in combination with artificial neural networks. In the proposed method, a new method for choosing threshold value is presented for wavelet shrinkage. It is proposed to select the threshold value considering two parameters including mean square error (MSE) which is utilized to evaluate the image compression quality and compression ratio (CR). A cost function is also proposed in terms of the mentioned parameters. Then, it is minimized using Cuckoo optimization algorithm. In the second step, an artificial neural network is used as encoder. Performance of proposed method is evaluated using peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) criterion. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed technique for image compression compared to earlier works
Keywords: Image Compression, Improved Wavelet Shrinkage, Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm, Artificial Neural Network, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio.

Dietary Pattern of People with Migraine Compared with Healthy Subjects in Ahvaz
402-407
Seyedahmad Hossieni, Reza Malihi and Hushang Rushanmehr

Abstract:
Background: of Migraine is a headache that occurs due to abnormal vascular phenomena. At least 40% of people will suffer. One of the factors that trigger headaches in patients with migraine is food ingredients. Purpose this study was to compare the dietary pattern of patients with migraines and healthy individuals. Methods: This case - control study of 40 patients referred to a hospital clinic in Golestan migraine patients and 40 healthy controls were considered. Data were collected using interview from both groups. Inventory number (1) including age, sex, weight and some general questions. Questionnaire (2) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the food consumption pattern based on daily, weekly and monthly. Questionnaire number (3) only the group was completed by including a list of foods suspected to exacerbate or mitigate disease. Result: Based on the result of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) between daily and weekly food consumption in both cases and control wasn’t significant. While the results from the questionnaire number (3) that the results was completed by patients showed that sausages, salami and onion 47%, cheeses and beverages 40%, garlic 37% saturated, 35% cocoa, chocolate and fatty foods in 25% and 27% from Chaclate trigger migraine attacks. Also the food extenuating cited by patients can be tea and coffee (roughly "half of the patients), dates (37% of patients), carrot juice (in 25%), fruits and sweets (roughly" in 20 percent), and fruits, including grapes, apricots, cherries, apples and pears (on average 19% of patients) include Food frequency comparisons between two groups showed that daily consumption of ice cream, hot dogs, chocolate ,sausage and salami taking us a significant difference (05/0> P).. CONCLUSIONS: These results coincide with previous studies on the impact of food such as Sausage, salami, cheese, similar cocoa and fatty foods increase the intensity of migraine attacks. But the impact of the attacks can be reduced food intake due to their effect on blood glucose level.
Keywords: Dietary, patterns, Migraines, headache

Systematic Review on Mobile Learning Research Initiatives and Implementation
408-422
Sheila.M, Faizal .M.A and Shahrin.S

Abstract:
Mobile Learning is a new paradigm in learning environment. Mobile technology has become the lime light in recent years as it is a powerful tool to be integrated with education environment. This study aims to assess the current state and direction of Mobile Learning. A systematic review of learning technologies using mobile devices literature between 1990 and 2013 of theoretical review and empirical study including survey, case study, project and workshop reports, and conference and journal papers were searched and revised. This review considers individual experience of mobile learning for global best practice in m-learning, models, adoption and perception, gaps in the literature. Besides that it analyzes the issues and challenges of mobile learning implementation in higher education. The results were then compared with existing literature study and highlight the direction of mobile learning in Malaysian Higher Education.
Keywords: Mobile Learning, Literature Review, higher education.

Polymorphisms of PFCYTB and PFMDR-1Genes of Plasmodium Falciparum Isolates Associated with Atovaquone and Lumefantrine in Abidjan
423-430
Trebissou Jonhson Noel David, Beourou Sylvain, Yavo William, Tano Konan D, Yapi Houphouet Felix and Djaman Allico Joseph

Abstract:
To analyze the polymorphism of pfcytb and pfmdr-1genes of Plasmodium falciparum isolate in Abidjan. After extraction, malarial DNA fragments were amplified by PCR method. The study of polymorphism of pfcytb and pfmdr-1 gene was performed after sequencing of amplicons. The molecular studies have revealed that all pfcytb genes sequenced (29 isolates) were all wild type at codon Y268. Contrary to pfmdr-1 genes (28 isolates), where 11% (3isolates) had the mutation N86Y while 57% (16 isolates) had the Y184F mutation. Mutations affecting pfmdr-1 gene may play an important role in the resistance to LUM, this could compromise the effectiveness of artemether-lumefantrine recommended in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Côte d'Ivoire. Moreover, atovaquone / proguanil is a suitable therapy for malaria prophylaxis.
Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, pfmdr-1, pfcytb, Atovaquone, Lumefantrine, Abidjan

Studying Effect of Nonfinancial Attributes on Quality of Financial Reporting of the Companies Accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange
431-438
Shiva Salahian, DariushJavid and Mahmoud Hemmat Far

Abstract:
In this research, effect of nonfinancial attributes including corporate size, type of industry, corporate life, corporate ownership (private, institutional, managerial, corporate ownership) on quality of financial reporting in Iran among 55 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange in time periods of 2007-2011 has been studied. . The present research method is descriptive and based on correlation, so, regression analysis has been used and results obtained from regression have been studied using F and T tests. To collect the desired data for the research sample, TadbirPardaz and RahavardNovinSoftwares as well as information available in site of Tehran Stock Exchange and E Views software have been used. The obtained results indicate that corporate size and institutional ownership have positive and significant relationship with quality of financial reporting and managerial ownership and type of industry have reverse and negative relationship with quality of financial reporting and corporate life, private ownership, and corporate ownership have no relationship with quality of financial reporting.
Keywords: Corporate size, corporate ownership, type of industry, corporate life

Surveying the Relationship between Servant Leadership with Employees’ Empowerment in Central Bureaus of Maskan Bank
439-446
Hassan Mehrmanesh, Abdollah Kouloubandi and Seyedeh Maryam Hosseini Nodehi

Abstract:The current study with the purpose of surveying the relationship between servant leadership and human resource empowerment was done in a society includes 294 people of central bureaus of Maskan Bank in Tehran (Iran). For the research which is descriptive and fieldwork, for data gathering two separated questionnaires were applied. The results of applying Spearman test show that there is positive and meaningful relationship between servant leadership and its dimensions with human resource empowerment. Meanwhile agapao love, serving and humility were selected as the most important dimensions. Also the result of using Chi Square test illustrates that between job experience and empowerment. No relationship was found between other demographic characteristics and human resource empowerment. Finally applying Binomial test shows that all variables apart from humility and trust were placed in high levels.
Keywords: Leadership styles, servant leadership, empowerment.