European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 114 No 2
Nov, 2013

Contraceptive use Behavior Encouragement in Myanmar Migrant Women in Thailand: A Quasi-Experimental Study.
167-179
Thaw Htwe Min, Surasak Taneepanichskul and July Moe

Abstract:
Contraceptive use among Myanmar migrant women in Thailand was uncommon. Improving the knowledge and self-efficacy would improve the contraceptive use. The objective of this study was to apply self-efficacy theory and group process and evaluate its effect on contraceptive knowledge, self-efficacy, outcome expectation and contraceptive use among young, unmarried, female Myanmar migrant workers, Mae Sod district in Tak Province, Thailand. This research applied a quasi-experimental study design with control, selecting intervention factories and control factories. Inclusion of eligible women from factories was randomized. The intervention group received nine intensive training sessions about anatomy and physiology of female reproductive system and different methods of contraception within 30 weeks. During training sessions, participants had a chance to reflect their experiences and develop awareness, skills and confidence in contraceptive use. Both groups received a family planning brochure. A self-completed questionnaire was collected at baseline, 6 and 30 weeks. There were significant increases in contraceptive knowledge (P=0.001), self efficacy (P=0.001), outcome expectation (P=0.001), contraceptive use (P=0.008) and consistent use (P=0.002), among participants of intervention group. Therefore, providing health information materials about contraception alone is not enough and intensive interactive training sessions are necessary for improving contraceptive use among migrant women.
Keywords: Contraceptive use, Myanmar migrant women, Thailand, self-efficacy intervention, contraceptive knowledge, outcome expectation

Hardware Efficient Processing Elements for Motion Estimation
180-188
Agasthya Sneha, B. Subhasree and K. Sivasankaran

Abstract:
Motion Estimation (ME) is the most computationally intensive part of any video coding process. This work explores Full Search Motion Estimation (FSME). In this architecture 16 Processing Elements (PE) work in parallel to match a 4×4 block against its reference area. Distortion criteria used is Sum of Absolute Difference (SAD), which demands efficient architectures for its calculation. Architecture of PE is modified to achieve area efficiency. PE using [3:2] and [4:2] compressor trees are implemented in this paper as they provide compact hardware architectures. The PE using [3:2] and [4:2] compressor trees provide 9.7% and 10.9% less area respectively, when compared with the basic adder tree. The design was described in Verilog HDL and synthesized in Cadence RTL Compiler. Synthesis results are presented for TSMC 45 nm CMOS technology. The architecture was implemented in Cadence SoC encounter tool.
Keywords: Motion Estimation (ME), Full Search (FS), Compressor Tree, Sum of Absolute Difference (SAD).

Natural Killer Cells Compliment the Anti-Thyroglobulin and Anti-Thyroperoxidase Antibodies Indices Expressed in Infertile Euthyroid Women
189-196
O.S. Oladimeji

Summary:
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed, to provide the local records of the infertile African women, immune reproductive assessment, with Anti-thyroid antibodies. The T-lymphocyte CD - clusters of differentiation markers, monitored as indicators of immunological expression in some volunteer Nigerian women residing in Lagos experiencing recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA) and infertility of immune etiology. DESIGN: Ninety five (95) women volunteers took part in this study and of these included, thirty (35) women attending the obstetrics and gynecology unit of Ayinke house at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. Twenty (20) of the women volunteers were diagnosed of experiencing Primary infertility and fifteen (15) were categorised as having RSA these were grouped as the test subjects. The control group of nulligravida and multiparous non-pregnant women were made up of thirty (30) women each, (assessed a week after their menses). Anti-thyroid antibodies (i.e. anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), or anti -thyroglobulin (anti-Tg)) were determined, using meridian Bioscience Europe anti-TPO or anti-Tg ELISA kits assay. The immuno-phenotype assay was carried out using flow cytometer by labeling a sample of blood with fluorescent dyes directed to specific markers for each type of lymphocyte to determine the relative percentages of the different lymphocyte subsets. RESULT / OUTCOME: The age distribution in Table 1 showed that the majority of the nulligravida and multiparous women in the control groups were within the same age brackets compared with the majority of women in the test groups of the primary infertile, and spontaneous aborter groups. The Pearson (2 – tailed) correlation showed that there was significance correlation at 0.01 between each of the anti – TPO and anti –Tg value with all the species of T – cell lymphocytes CD counts determined, as obtained in Table 1. There was significance correlation at P < 0.01 with CD 56 and CD 3 and at P < 0.05 between the CD 56 + 16 and the Anti-thyroid antibodies.
Keywords: : Auto anti-microsomal antibodies, NK cells, RSA, nulligravida, multiparous non-pregnant women and primary infertility.


Keratosis Obturans: A Rare Cause of Facial Nerve Palsy

197-200

Ahmad Nasrat Al-Juboori

Abstract:
Keratosis obturans is a rare condition characterized by the accumulation of desquamated keratin material in the bony portion of the external auditory canal (EAC). It is thought that keratosis obturans is due to abnormal epithelial migration of ear canal skin. Classically, it is reported to present with severe otalgia, conductive deafness and global widening of the canal. The frequency of keratosis obturans has been estimated as 4-5 in 1000 new otological cases. Extensive erosion of the bony meatus, with exposure of the facial nerve, has been previously reported as one of the complications, on Medline the 1st published such complication in 2006. The purpose of this case report was to presents a rare and probably the first reported keratosis obturans in Iraq that caused facial palsy.
Keywords: Keratosis obturans, external auditory canal cholesteatoma.

Comparison between the Antitumor Effect of Direct Current and Ultrasound on Ehrlich Solid Tumor in Vivo
201-219
Ahmed Ebrahim Elerian, Neveen A. Abdelraouf and Eman Bakr Mohamed

Abstract:
Purpose: To determine and compare the effects of direct current and ultrasonic on Ehrlich solid tumor. Study Design: It is a randomized control study. Methodology: Forty five mice have been divided into three treated groups according to treatment methods and control group, every group have been subdivided into two subgroups according to the time of excision; stage one: sacrificed a week after the time of intervention (1st week), stage two: sacrificed after two weeks of the time of intervention (2nd week).The main four groups are: group A treated with direct current, group B treated with ultrasonic, group C treated with both direct current and ultrasonic, group D was control group was taken sham therapy. Comparison between groups in each stage was done for measuring tumor necrotic area length and tumor cell viability through histopathology examination, and for measuring Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor expression through immunohistochemistry examination. Also comparisons in-between treated groups of both stages were done. Results: The study revealed that there were significant differences in the measurements of tumor necrotic area length & tumor cell viability and VEGF expression and in between treated and control groups in 1st and 2nd stage. Also there were significant differences in between 1st and 2nd stages for measurements of tumor necrotic area length in all experimental groups. And there were no significant differences in between 1st and 2nd stages for tumor cell viability and VEGF in all experimental groups. Conclusion: direct current destroy tumor cell and ultrasonic particularly targeted the vascular structures of tumor, and may prevent further tumor growth. Combination of Direct current and ultrasound can provide more safe and more economic method of treating tumor
Keywords: Direct current, Ultrasonic, VEGF, Angiogenesis, Tumor cell viability.


Performance Evaluation Analysis of Wireless Network on Chip in a 3D Environment

220-228
Atiyeh Hosseinmardi, Mohammad Ali Jabraeil Jamali and Ahmad Habibi Zad Novin

Abstract:
Network on Chip (NoC) appears as an attractive solution for integrating enormous numbers of embedded cores in a single die and is a proper candidate for implementing interconnections in System on Chip (SoC). Development in the number of Intellectual Properties (IP) blocks in conventional two dimensional (2D) NoC will cause an increased number of hop counts, latency and area. A three dimensional (3D) paradigm is a revolutionary design in a single die and it is capable of achieving better performance than the conventional NoC. Additionally, in 3D NoC, average interconnect delay is significantly shorter. According to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), new interconnect paradigms are in need for longer terms. Among different possible alternatives for NoCs, wireless communication network is envisioned as a suitable design, which is able to result in convincing performance gains. Wireless 3D NoC architectures combine benefits of 3D and wireless paradigms. In this paper, a wireless 3D network was proposed on chip architecture, known as 3D WiNoC, which combined potential benefits of both 3D integration and wireless NoCs. Besides, performance of wireless 3D NoC paradigm was evaluated. Additionally, performance of the proposed 3D WiNoC was evaluated using several traffic patterns. As a result, 3D WiNoC had higher performance and less latency than traditional 2D implementations.
Keywords: Network on Chip; Wireless Network on Chip; 3D Network on Chip; Packet injection rate; Routing; Router.

Endorsement Exemplary for Web Service Maneuvering using Street Automata
229-239
N. Danapaquiame, E. Ilavarasan and Neeraj Kumar

Abstract:
Web services increase productivity and help businesses to address changing demands more effectively. Web Service Composition (WSC) is the ability to combine the services together to form a new value services. WSC offers complete platform independence, thus easing integration issues between systems as well as easing interoperability challenges between users. WSC is a complex and error –prone process. To guarantee its correctness, Revise Streett Automata (RSA) is exploited as a formal model for WSC verification which is applicable for non-deterministic system. Initially Web Services (WS) are created using java and composed using Web Service Choreography Description Language (WSCDL). This WSCDL can be converted to Revise Streett Automata (RSA) in terms of transition diagram. A novel algorithm called Stalemate fudging has been proposed for avoiding the deadlock in the non-deterministic systemby which the dynamic behaviors of the model can be verified. It gives 95 % of performance efficiency which is compared with existing models. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.
Keywords: WSCDL, RSAand Stalemate fudging

Effect of Low Intensity Ultrasonic on Ehrlich Solid Tumor in Vivo
240-255
Ahmed Ebrahim Elerian, Sameh R. Ahmed, Osama A. Khaled and Mostafa Mohamed Sayed

Abstract:
Purposes: To determine the effect of low intensity ultrasonic on Ehrlich solid tumor in vivo. Study Design: It is a randomized controlled study. Methodology: Thirty one mice were divided into 2 experimental groups. Experimental group I (which started after 4 weeks from induction of Ehrlich solid tumor) contained 17 mice, which subdivided into treated group contained 10 mice, and the control group which received shame ultrasonic and contained 7 mice. Experimental group II (which started after 2 weeks from induction of Ehrlich solid tumor) , contained 14 mice, which subdivided into treated group contained 7 mice, and the control group which received shame ultrasonic and contained 7 mice. Comparison in between both groups in each experiment was done for measuring tumor cell size and tumor necrotic area through histopathology examination, and for measuring Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expression through immunohistochemistry examination. Also comparisons between treated groups of 2 experiments were done. Results: The study revealed that there were significant differences in the measurements of Tumor cell size between treated and control groups in 1st and 2nd experiment. For tumor necrotic area measurements and for VEGF there were highly significant differences between treated and control group in 2nd experiment, and no significance difference in 1st experiment. And for all variables there were significant difference in between 1st and 2nd experiment Conclusion: Low intensity ultrasonic particularly targeted the vascular structures of tumor, and may prevent further tumor growth.
Keywords: Ultrasonic, Antitumor, VEGF, Angiogenesis.


Anti–Rotavirus (RV, SA-11) Property of Polar Substances Isolated from M. Gonoclada (Celastraceae)

256-268
Regina A. G. Assenç, Fernando C. Silva, Maria C. S. Lanna, Cintia B. Magalhães, Lucienir P. Duarte, Grácia D. F. Silva, W. G. Lima, F. Oliveira and Sidney A. Vieira Filho

Abstract:
Maytenus gonoclada is specie of the Celastraceae family that occurs endemically in the Cerrado regions of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The anti-Rotavirus property of five polar extracts and three constituents isolated from different anatomical parts of M. gonoclada were subjected to in vitro assays against Rotavirus (RV, SA-11) of the Reoviridae family, through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric Method. Among these polar substances two presented anti- Rotavirus (RV, SA-11) property with values of EC50 ranging from 62.97 to 504.9 µg/mL. The ethanol extract from branches and proanthocyanidin A isolated from roots of M. gonoclada showed activity against Rotavirus (RV, SA-11) and were considered promising for future studies of other anti-viral assays.
Keyword: Maytenus gonoclada, Celastraceae, MA-104 cell, anti-Rotavirus (RV, SA-11).

Volatile Compounds from Maytenus Imbricata (Celastraceae) and from its Endophytic Fungi, Identified by GC-MS
269-278
Izabel Cristina Trindade, Luiz Fernando Teixeira de Medeiros, Sidney Augusto Vieira Filho, Silvia Ribeiro de Souza, Adriana Akemi Okuma, Roberta Lambertucci Glueck, Sueli Fumie Yamada-Ogatta Lucienir P. Duarte and Gracia Divina de Fátima Silva

Abstract:
Maytenus imbricata (Celastraceae) is a plant commonly found in the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah) regions of Brazil. Extracts from leaves and stems, and from oil of seeds and elaiosome of M. imbricata, and from its endophytic fungi were subjected to GC-MS. Through these processes were identified 8 volatile constituents in polar extracts from leaves and stems, 18 compounds in the oil from seeds and 15 from elaiosome of M. imbricata. And, 22 volatile compounds were identified in the extracts obtained from in vitro cultures of endophytic fungi isolated from M. imbricata. Some compounds were found has being constituents of M. imbricata and its endophytic fungi which permit to suppose a symbioses process.
Keywords: Maytenus imbricata, Celastraceae, endophytic fungi. GC-MS.

Towards the Visualization of Congestion Control
279-283
Bred Proverkov

Abstract:
The implications of trainable technology have been far-reaching and pervasive. Here, we show the deployment of kernels, which embodies the typical principles of cryptoanalysis. Strid, our new framework for B-trees, is the solution to all of these problems. We question the need for wide-area networks. On the other hand, distributed archetypes might not be the panacea that scholars expected. We view cryptography as following a cycle of four phases: management, observation, provision, and development. Thus, Strid is derived from the principles of cyberinformatics. In this paper we concentrate our efforts on arguing that extreme programming and e-business can cooperate to accomplish this intent. The basic tenet of this solution is the emulation of red-black trees. Though conventional wisdom states that this riddle is largely answered by the development of redundancy, we believe that a different approach is necessary. Next, for example, many methodologies control collaborative modalities. Continuing with this rationale, even though conventional wisdom states that this riddle is usually overcame by the deployment of the memory bus, we believe that a different method is necessary.
Keywords: congestion control, visualization, B-trees, trainable technology

Evaluation Quantitative des Hydrocarbures toTaux de la Zone Côtière de Skikda (Nord est, Algérie)
284-294
Maatallah, Razika, Mezedjeri Lyamine and Djebar Abdallah Borhane

Résumé:
L’appréciation du niveau de contamination par les hydrocarbures totaux du golfe de Skikda, a été effectuée au niveau de 12 stations localisées entre la plage saf saf (36º52´48?N; 06º55´51?E) à l’Est jusqu'à la plage le ravin des lions à l’Ouest (36º53´57?N ; 06º 52´50?E). Les prélèvements d'eau de mer ont été effectués au mois de juillet 2008. Quatre paramètres physico-chimiques ont également été mesurés (pH, température, pourcentage de saturation en oxygène et salinité). Nous avons adopté la méthode AFNOR (Norme NF T90-114) de dosage des hydrocarbures totaux (teneurs globales) dans l'eau de mer. La lecture est réalisée par Spectrométrie infrarouge (spectrophotomètre FTIR de marque Nicolet, type MAGNA ESP 560), équipé d’un logiciel (Cx Hx). Les teneurs sont exprimées en ppm. Les résultats ont montré que les HCT sont présents dans les 12 stations. Les teneurs les plus élevées ont été enregistrées au port de pêche de Stora (S3 st.1: 3,41±0,97 ppm) et à l’embouchure de l'O. Saf Saf (S1 st.1: 2,49±1,02 ppm). Initialement la station S3st.6 est prise comme référence, limite Ouest de notre étude, mais le seuil des concentrations détecté est non négligeable (1,10±0,82 ppm). Toutes les concentrations mesurées ont été en dessous de la norme algérienne préconisée par le JORA (2006).
Motsclés: Hydrocarbures totaux-Evaluation-Pollution-Paramètres physicochimiques- Skikda

Simulation Results of Forward Converter with Improved Efficiency for SMPS System
295-303
P. Vijaya Kumar and S. Rama Reddy

Abstract:
Simulation of DC-DC converter side in SMPS system is discussed in this paper. A forward type soft switching DC-DC converter topology with neutral point inductor connected Auxiliary resonant snubber (NPC-ARS) circuit and the double forward converter circuit with constant load are presented in this paper for the switching mode power supply applications. Its circuit operation and its performance characteristics of the forward type soft switching DC-DC converter and the double forward converter are described and the simulation results are presented.
Keywords: Forward type DC - DC converter, Zero voltage soft switching, Zero current soft switching, neutral point inductor connected Auxiliary resonant snubber (NPC-ARS) circuit, Double forward converter.

Evaluating Role of Combined Group Therapy for Couples in Creating Intimacy for Infertile Couples
304-309
Zeinab Taheri, Mahtab Zeinalzadeh and Ramezan Hassanzadeh

Abstract:
Marriage as the most important and excellent social tradition has always been confirmed to meet the emotional needs. Marital relationship can provide happiness and composure for both man and woman; otherwise, it can be problematic. Pregnancy and reproduction are a common marital issue. Pregnancy is considered as a high value issue in most cultures and having dreams about a baby is a human motivation). Infertility is defined as a couple’s pregnancy disability without applying means of preventing pregnancy after a year of intercourse. The present paper has been conducted to evaluate role of combined group therapy for couples in creating intimacy for infertile couples. The results show that infertile women’s sexual self-concept unlike the men’s is affected by couple therapy and combined group therapy based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Also, the infertile couples’ intimacy is affected by this type of therapy. The results of this research are aligned with previous researches done regarding this issue and it is confirmed that paying attention to therapy and applying ACT can help solving and reducing the infertile couples’ problems.
Keywords: combined group therapy, couple intimacy, infertile couples

The Impact of Couple Therapy and Women’s Sexual Self-Concept on Acceptance and Commitment in Life
310-315
Zeinab Taheri, Mahtab Zeinalzadeh

Abstract:Couple therapy includes five common principles of changing couples’ attitude toward expressing their sexual problems, decreasing emotional and unhealthy behaviors, combining personal; avoided, and emotional behaviors, increasing constructive communication patterns, and confirming the strengths. The main purpose of the present paper is to study role and impact of couple therapy and women’s sexual self- concept on acceptance and commitment in life. Today, the couples marry in order to meet their expectations. In fact, understanding the expectations, expressing them, and meeting them based on a balance lead to satisfaction in the marital relationship. In other words, people expect to benefit from their relation with their spouses specifically, and from marriage, generally. In the modern industrial-technological society, couples have in mind a deeper concept of expectations. In fact, they will not be satisfied with the house keeping or providing the family needs, they accept nothing less than perfection and this perfection is not based on a simple concept of happiness. In the modern world, various wrong beliefs have been accepted. For instance, couples have accepted the belief that marriage meets all psychological needs; consequently this unrealistic belief leads to a kind of marital disappointment. Everlasting joy and happiness, meeting needs and being supported forever, and finally everlasting sense of being confirmed are all samples of the mentioned unrealistic beliefs associated with marriage.
Keywords: Couple therapy, sexual self-concept, commitment in life