European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 114 No 1
Nov, 2013

Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Descriptive Evaluation from the Perspective of the Managers of Elementary Schools
7-17
Amir Hossein Mohammad Davoudi and Reza Norouzi Kouhdasht

Abstract:
The present study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing the effectiveness of descriptive evaluation from the perspective of the managers of elementary schools in Kouhdasht, Iran. The target population included all the managers (158) who executed descriptive evaluation in 2012 school year. Using simple random sampling method, the sample size was determined to be 108 based on Morgan’s estimation table. Ten out of 108 were put aside as outliers due to the incompleteness of the data. The data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the researcher. Chronbach’s Alpha was used for reliability analysis and found to be 0.92. In order to assess validity of the questionnaire, the views of two university professors and 5 experts in the field were sought. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. One-sample t-test on the SPSS software was used to test out the hypotheses. The results of the study showed that managerial factors, improvement in mental health, behavior improvement, technology, promotion of interest in learning, and higher level of interaction between the parents and the school authorities have an influential role in effectiveness of descriptive evaluation.
Keywords: descriptive evaluation, behavior improvement, effectiveness, elementary schools.

Traditional Thai Medicine: Applying Indigenous Knowledge for Health Treatment of Cancer Patients of Aphinyan Arokhayasan Foundation
18-23
Sayan Promdee, Anchalee Jantapo and Wisanee Siltragool

Abstract:
Indigenous knowledge concerning health care and treatment of cancer patients has been handed down to Thai people who intent to study in this field. The traditional Thai practitioners working for Aphinyan Arokhayasan Foundation and using a traditional Thai medical examining and diagnosis to classify the patients into some kinds of cancer. They compound herbal medicine to treat their patients according to their symptoms and kinds of cancer. All patients staying in this Foundation are looked after by modern physicians, Traditional Thai physicians, relatives, and service-minded volunteers and are treated with a combination of herbal medicine, exercise, and Buddhist meditation. This research will reflect all details of the application of indigenous knowledge for health treatment of cancer patients. Organizations concerned can use some ideas from the research results for treating their patients. Organizations concerned can use some ideas from the research results for treating their patients.
Keywords: Traditional Thai Medicine, Indigenous Knowledge, Health Treatment, Cancer Patients, Aphinyan Arokhayasan Foundation.

The Relationship between Application of Good Governance Principles and Small and Medium Enterprise’s Business Sustainability: A Case Study of Service Entrepreneurs in the Areas of Bangkok Metropolis
24-33
Prapas Siripap, Chalieo Vitoorapakorn, Thuchapon Yodthong and Ornpapha Chutikorntaweesin

Abstract:
The purposes of this research were to study an application of good governance principles in service business of SMEs and to study the causal relationship between an application of good governance principles and sustainability of service business of SMEs in the areas of Bangkok Metropolis. Quantitative method was used in this research. The research findings showed that, in total, an application of good governance principles in service business of entrepreneurs in Bangkok areas was at highest level. In particular, merit had the highest mean value, followed by legitimacy, worthiness, participation, responsibility, and transparency respectively. The results of hypothesis testing showed that latent variables are positively related to the observation variables and relevant to the framework and model of causal factors created by the researcher. The six observation variables i.e. law, morality, accountability, participation, responsibility, and economy are the real components of factors influencing business sustainability of entrepreneurs. The relevant index was achieved at a well accepted standard, which presents that the model of factor theory influencing business sustainability of entrepreneurs is relevant to the empirical data and is a real component of the model of factor theory influencing business sustainability of entrepreneurs.
Keywords: : Relationship, Good Governance Principles, SMEs, Service Business, Bangkok Metropolis


The Inclusion of Autistic Children in Ordinary Classes in Public Schools in Jordan and Teachers' Attitudes Towards it

34-55

Ibrahim Shihab

Level of Empathy among Talented and Ordinary Students and its Relationship with Some Variables
56-72
Iyad Jaris Al Shawareb and Yacoub Fareed Al Farah

Abstract:
This study aimed at identifying the level of Empathy among talented and ordinary students and its relationship with some variables. The sample of the study consisted of (172) students; (62) males and (111) females. The same sample was divided into two parts; (139) male and female students from government schools and (33) male and female students from King Abdullah II Schools for Excellence. The sample was chosen from two academic streams; (102) male and female students from scientific stream and (70) male and female students from the health stream. In order to identify the level of empathy among this sample, the measure of empathy with its dimensions had been used after subtracting the coefficient of validity and reliability.The results of the study showed in general that the level of empathy among male students was at the average level.Also, the level of empathy among female students’ increases in general among female students compared with their colleagues of male students. The equality of level of empathy among students was in positive sharing and contagion. While the higher level of sympathy among students in government schools, was high compared to their colleagues in King Abdullah II for excellence schools.Different levels of empathy among students in the academic streams in the dimension of responsive crying which was proved to be in favor of students of the health stream.

Edge Enhancement by Frequency Wavelet Technologies

73-81
K. Mathew and S. Shibu

Abstract:
Recent years have witnessed growing interest in the field of super resolution of digital images. In image resolution, all details about the images are clearly exhibited. In this context edges of a structure are the most significant feature. Edges mark the boundaries of an object and enable to identify the object. A comparative study of different techniques of edge detection is presented in this paper. Then we propose wavelet techniques for edge enhancement. A fundamental analysis of wavelet technique is introduced and we point out different steps leading to edge detection and point out the relative merit of this technique over other methods.
Keywords: Super resolution, Edge detection, Scaling Function wavelets, Marr Hildreth detection, canny edge detection, Inverse diffusion.

The Survey on the Relationship between Organizational Health and Job Satisfaction in SUT Organization
82-86
Maryam Dehghani Mohammad Abadi and Marjan Fayyazi

Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the effect of organizational health on job satisfaction, the relationship between them, and also how this relation differs according to the demographic variables like age, gender and years of experience in a population of 1100 staff in SUT (Sharif University of Technology) in 2013. A sample size of 287 staff was selected to make the outputs reliable. In order to conduct this research, a standard questionnaire was used including 44 questions as well as the SPSS software in order to analyze the data. This research revealed that OH and job satisfaction are strongly related and this relationship is stronger in females than males. Moreover, it is stronger for the staff falling in the age range of 31-40 than other ages and higher correlation was observed between the two variables for the staff who have 15 to 20 years of experience in comparison with other ranges of years of experience.
Keywords: Organizational Health, Job satisfaction, OH

The Role of Material Requirements Planning (MRP) to Increase Productivity (Case Study: Yadak - Resan Company)
87-98
Seyed Hasan Kia and Mehrdad Orouei

Abstract:
The course seeks to impact paper materials planning systems (MRP) messenger in enhancing productivity in Yadak - Resan Company. In this study, descriptive method is used. This means that the status of the company and primary data is collected for the MRP. Then a matter for the planning system is designed and its impact on company productivity has been expressed. All results have led to the confirmation of hypotheses have been proposed in the end.
Keywords: Material Requirements Planning, MRP, productivity, Yadak - Resan Company


Effect of Petrochemical Complex Incinerator Ash on the Compressive Strength of Concrete against Sulfate and Chloride Attack

99-113
Mojtaba Noorpour, Arash Mousavi, Samad Noorpour, Reza Karbati Asl and Ali Karbati Asl

Abstract:
Incinerator system is used for reducing volume of wastes in Tabriz petrochemical complex. It generates incinerator ash. Incinerator ash stream will end in landfill. This research is being carried out for waste management of ash and its possible large-scale utilization in making concrete. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate resistance against sulfate and chloride attack on compressive strength of concrete mixtures in which Portland cement type II was partially replaced with petrochemical complex incinerator ash powder (PCIAP). Tests were performed for the properties of fresh concrete and compressive strength. Test results indicated that with using PCIAP as partial replacement of Portland cement resulted in stabilization, solidification and neutralization treatment processes for management of incinerator ash and the mixture M-2 (5% PCIAP) can be used in making concrete that was resistance against sulfate and chloride attack.
Keyword: Concrete, Incinerator Ash, Compressive Strength, Sulfate Attack, Chloride Attack

Pharmacocinétique de L’enrofloxacine et du Florfenicol Après Administration Orale Chez le Poulet Fermier
114-120
Asmaâ Tajjiou, Fouad Ouhame, Abdelaaziz Benjouad and Mohamed Oukessou

Abstract:
La présente étude a été menée pour déterminer les paramètres pharmacocinétiques de deux fluoroquinolones : L’enrofloxacine et le florfenicol, après administration par voie orale d’une dose unique de 10mg/kg et de 20 mg/kg respectivement par poids corporel. Huit poulets adultes mâles on fait l'objet de notre expérimentation. La technique HPLC a été utilisée pour la détermination des concentrations de médicaments dans le plasma. Différents paramètres pharmacocinétiques, y compris la surface sous la courbe (AUC), la concentration plasmatique maximale (Cmax), le temps de la concentration maximale (Tmax) et le temps moyen de résidence (MRT) ont été déterminées pour l’ENC et le FFC. La concentration plasmatique maximale Cmax a été en moyenne (3,11 ± 0,98 µg/ml pour ENC) et de (10.56 ± 2.85 µg/ml pour FFC), Tmax (5,66 ± 2.66h pour ENC) et de (1,25 ± 0,654 h pour FFC). La surface sous la courbe (AUC) était (40,31 ± 16,04 µg.h / ml pour ENC) et de (38.805 ± 10.15 µg.h/ml) le temps moyen de résidence (MRT) (8,90 ± 2,00 h pour ENC) et de (4,99 ± 2,61 h pour FFC). Les résultats obtenus suggèrent que la dose recommandée d’ENC (10 mg/kg) est suffisante pour obtenir un maximum d'effet thérapeutique. En conclusion, l’ENC a présenté des résultats pharmacocinétiques plus favorable chez le poulet fermier par rapport au poulet de chair. De même le FFC a montré une meilleure absorption ; un faible métabolisme et une faible excrétion chez le poulet fermier par rapport au poulet de chair.
Mots clés: Pharmacocinétique, Poulet fermier, Enrofloxacine, Florfenicol

Presentation of a Pattern for Claim Management and Prevention in DB and EPC Contracts
121-130
Eghbal Shakeri and Hasan Aghakhani

Abstract:
In each country, a significant portion of annual budget is allocated to construction projects. If project is successfully delivered, the country will experience development process. Iran construction projects indicates that project owners are willing to make contracts in great projects based on industrial and non- industrial construction methods. Since delivering projects based on this method does not have a long history in Iran and contract parties are not fully familiar with it, occurrence of some claims and disputes between project parties is inevitable. The main objective of the present paper is to present a pattern for claim management and prevention in DB and EPC contracts. In this research, in order to prevent claims in design- build projects, factors that affect claims presence in design- build projects have been specified via a library study that includes articles, books and different reports regarding characteristics of design-build projects. In order to increase validity and reliability of the research provided materials are discussed and studied by interviewing some of the experts and professors. Consequently, some factors have been corrected and some others added to the list.
Keywords: claim management, design- build (DB) contract, EPC

Toward a Pattern for Competency Based Training (CBT) for Training and Development Managers
131-138
Mojgan Abdollahi, Kourosh Fathi Vajargah, Hamid Rahimian and Ali Taghipour Zahir

Abstract:
This article was part of a research done for designing a Competency based training (CBT) pattern and shows the results of semi-structured interviews conducted with Training & Development (T&D) managers and specialists for this reason. For designing a pattern, we needed to verify its characteristics, dimensions, variables and components. Therefore, the main purpose of this article was verifying the elements of CBT pattern. In doing so, an exploratory mixed -qualitative-quantitative- design was applied. Data collection included two parts: At first, ten managers and specialists were invited for interview through purposeful sampling. Then 150 experts and managers were chosen to answer the questionnaire. The findings of qualitative and quantitative part encompassed ten principles and assumptions, twelve dimensions and variables, seven obstacles and eleven facilitators for applying the pattern. Data in quantitative research were analyzed with chi-square. The results showed high level of conformity in all aspects of the pattern's elements. Distributions of answers showed the highest accumulation around two options of completely right and right. The options wrong and completely wrong showed weak frequency (almost zero). The significance values calculated (0.01) with chi-square for most aspects showed significant relationship (except some aspects related to obstacles of applying pattern). The results showed expected frequencies and observed frequencies were real.
Keywords: Competency, CBT pattern

The Assessment of Needed Workload for Manpower Approximation in Health Houses in Iran‘s Villages
139-148
Saeid Pour Doulati, Javad Farahiye Shahgoli, Hasan Jahanbin, Ahmad Kousha and Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi

Abstract:
Constantly, developed countries involve different population ratios to assess manpower; the population ratios are appropriate indices to solve the main problems related to manpower approximation and educational needs. The success in controlling epidemic diseases and changes in people‘s life styles has brought about changes in epidemiology of diseases. Consequently, according to the necessity of health programs for people, some certain programs related to health centers workers have to be developed. Health workers’ various duties would lead to high workloads. According to the point that manpower is the most important resource in the work management system, the present paper tries to determine the ratio of needed health workers regarding their workload. The present paper as a case study has studied the needed manpower regarding workload in health house, the primary health services provider, in Iran. Moreover, in the present study, WISN method (workload indicators for staffing needs) has been used to estimate the needed number of health workers as following, calculation of the work time within the vacations and missions, determination of activity standards, determination of repetition of each activity over a year, calculation of standard workload, calculation of extra activities, calculation of the first and the last needed personnel. According to the results, the summation of the manpower in 1500 population is equal to 2.7. In this relation, it has to be considered the unexpected duties such as cooperation in issuing the insurance ID, cooperation with certain offices, training the students, and etc. Regarding to integration of new services in the health network system, reviewing the manpower approximation in health houses, reviewing the type of services in health houses, reducing the unnecessary works are all unavoidable and essential tasks.
Keywords: health workers, standard workload, manpower approximation, health house, workload of personnel

Protection Management in Smart Grids
149-159
Reza Dashti, Reza Sarlak, Mohsen Iranshahi, Masoud Mansoori, Rahim Eskandari and Reza Nakhaei

Abstract:
In this article we explain protection and management of electricity distribution systems its implementation methods of it. At first, for this purpose management principles has been described and the effect of other processes of distribution on protection has been studied. Therefore by determining conservation management inputs framework and processes of the discussed system is located. For this purpose by identifying types of Errors and distribution on system assets we tried to present a comprehensive framework for the protection and management of devices and different types of needed protection and also related activities with conservation management process. This framework can be place as a structure for other conservation studies. At the end by combining conservation management framework and its process, influence factors will identify and the concept of dynamic conservation management is described.
Keywords: protection, distribution system, process, asset management, framework

Brain MRI Segmentation: Utilizing Strengths of Fuzzy G-K Clustering Algorithm
160-166
Sidra Minhas, Saad Rehman and Aasia Khanum

Abstract:Segmentation of brain’s soft tissue can be accurately handled by unsupervised fuzzy clustering techniques for fast detection and diagnosis brain abnormalities. A unique method is proposed for T2 weighted axial brain MR images by exploiting the properties of Gustafson-Kessel clustering algorithm. Three major contributions are presented: First, by means of texture extraction, the effect of noisy pixels and partial volume is countered. Second, initial coarse segmentation is performed to locate the potential clusters. Third, parameters are calculated to estimate relative cluster sizes. As a result, non-overlapping clusters of hyper-ellipsoidal shapes and correct sizes are produced. Effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated by improved robustness and accuracy of the resulting tissue segments over those detected by conventional G-K or FCM algorithms.
Keywords: Clusters, fuzzy clustering, Fuzzy c means, Gustafson-Kessel, MRI