European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 113 No 4
Oct, 2013

An Optimized Controlling and Designing Robot Thermal Pain Detection System
487-499
Ahmad Ghanbaria, Farshid Tabatabaieb, Arash Rahmania and Yashar Sarbaza

Abstract:
Recently, as robots and human have started to share daily life with each other, an interaction between human and robot is being highlighted because of these share and proximity. Thus, in order to make a safe interaction among them, it will be essential to optimize the abilities of robot by adding a pain detection system in it. In this paper, based on skin tissue functions, we have presented a set of design criteria for how “thermal pain detection system” should be designed. The objective of this study is to determine the process of perception pain intensity in human, so we would be able to implement this complex process in robots. Thus by implementing this system in robots or other machines, they would have the capability to sense, think and react automatically to be safe in hazard situations. The fuzzy logic controller provides a means of converting a linguistic control strategy based on expert knowledge into an automatic control strategy. The first aim of this study is to analyse the heat transfer problem in skin tissues based on the Pennes bioheat equation by using biological data. Afterward, we have simulated the skin behavior to design and implement this system in robots. Finally, to emulate the thermal pain system, we have designed a controller based on the thermal pain model and also applied this system in a robotic finger which is designed in Matlab software. The results of this study show that by applying this system, robot behavior can be one step closer to human behavior.
Keywords: Skin tissue, Thermal pain, Fuzzy controller, Robotic companions, Intelligent safety system.

The Effects of Specific AhR-Ligands on Autoimmunity
500-512
Hana’a A. Abu-Rezq

Abstract:
The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the effects of activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by specific ligands, on the expression of responsive-genes. Specific AhR-ligands were reported to play an important role in immune-regulation. The activation of AhR with specific ligands was reported to be effective in playing important role in autoimmune therapy. The current review will focus mostly on the effects of activating AhR with different ligands in autoimmunity. AhR ligation with specific ligands can affect T-cell differentiation, through activation of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells and down regulation of the pro-inflammatory T-helper 17 cells. Review findings showed the possibility of using the AhR to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in mice. This review showed the effects of specific AhR-ligands on the production of pro-inflammatory and/or anti-inflammatory T-cells subsets, the potential to use AhR-ligands in regulating the inflammation of organ/tissues in various diseases, suggesting that, specific AhR-ligands could be used for immune regulation in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases of human and mice.
Keywords: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor; T helper 17; T regulatory cells; autoimmune disease; immunoregulation.

Parameters Estimation of Fractional Order Systems with Dominant Pole using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithms
513-523
Mahmood Ghanbari, Ali Motalebi Saraji and Amir Ahmadian

Abstract:
This paper shows a procedure for estimating the parameters of fractional order systems.in some cases such as: identifying fractional order systems, to obtain parameters estimation with conventional identifying methods, leads to solve complex nonlinear optimization problems and this is one of challenging problems. therefore, in this paper with assumption of having input-output data corrupt with noise, by assistance of particle swarm optimization algorithm and by taking account of the model structure of linear combination of fractional order orthogonal basis functions and related to the level of complexity original systems, so method presents good or acceptance approximation of parameters of fractional order systems. Because of presence of non-periodic multiple modes in fractional order systems and due to non existance of this behavior in integer order system, therefor necessity of fractional order modeling for such are doubled. finally, by simulating of typical sample and applicable systems in noisy conditions. We take action to estimate free parameters of model structure that gained results from it shows the effectiveness of this method.
Keywords: Fractional order systems, Parameter estimation, System identification, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithms


Evaluating Two Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Datasets using Machine Learning Algorithms

524-528
Milad Momtaz Azad, M. Ali.Afshar Kazemi, Hadi Kargarazad and Golnaz Resaleh

Abstract:
New attacks to computer networks are so complicated that cannot be detected using elementary methods. Although static protection mechanisms such as firewall can provide an acceptable level of security, there a need of dynamic systems including intrusion detection systems (IDS) and network analyzer. Therefore, appropriate IDS equipments are necessary to reinforce security infrastructures for network of any organization. The purpose of the present study is to investigate two anomaly-based intrusion detection datasets using machine learning algorithms. MLP neural networks and SVM in NSL-KDD and KDDCUP`99 datasets consisting of selected records of whole KDD dataset have been used. Based on the research findings, detection rates of KDDCUP`99 and NSL-KDD datasets is 97/6% and 76/4%, respectively.
Keywords: Anomaly, intrusion detection systems, support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron, NSL-KDD, KDDCUP`99

Race-Related Disparities in Infant Mortality in the United States
529-537
Shannon Cearley, Gulzar H. Shah, Padmini Shankar and Bushra Shah

Abstract:
Objective The purpose of this research is to describe race-related disparities in infant mortality rates, their geographic variation and trends, and to highlight the contributory factors for existence and persistence of disparities. Methods We used data from secondary sources, with infant mortality data from CDC Wonder. Results Despite efforts in the United States at local, state, and federal levels to lower the rates of infant mortality and eliminate the subgroup differences, there is little success in reducing the disparities. Our research suggests that race-related differences in infant mortality not only exist presently, they have persisted for years, and the gaps among different race/ethnicity groups are not narrowing. Conclusions Disparities among black and white infants continue to persist, and cannot be narrowed to a small set of determinants. Instead, a multitude of factors seem to be interconnected, preserving the gaps in infant mortality rates among different race/ethnicity groups. Consequently, Healthy People 2020 objectives still seek to reduce LBW, VLBW, total preterm births, and overall infant mortality rates.


Comparative Hydraulic Simulation of Water Hammer in Transitional Pipe Line Systems with different Diameter and Pipe Types

538-546
F. Sharif, E. Merufinia and M. Esmat Saatlo

Abstract:
The transient pressure caused by water hammer events is sufficient to fracture pipes and some equipment, and for this reason alone the study of the phenomenon in transitional pipe line system is of considerable practical importance. In addition, the diameter and pipe type should be considered to attenuate the transient pressure wave. The paper describes the theory about transient analysis and shows technique in numerical simulation of water hammer in transitional pipe line systems by substituting for different pipe types and diameter or both simultaneously and analyzing the velocity and the type of direct or reflected transitional waves which will the intensities in places where these changes occur and also in boundary conditions. The results indicate that pipe selection and substitution should be from low elastic modulus to high elastic modulus .In order to reduce pressure fluctuation it is advisable to choose pipes with most similar elastic modulus and one greater diameter size.
Keywords: Water hammer, transient pressure, pipe line

Examining Infant and Neonatal Mortality by Community Health Center Concentration
547-553
Priscilla A, Melody S. Goodman, Arlesia Mathis, Gulzar H. Shah and Masayoshi Oka

Abstract:
Expanding community health centers is one strategy proposed by the 2010 Patient Protections and Affordable Care Act to reduce infant mortality and prematurity by increasing access to health services. This study examines the association between CHC concentration and infant and neonatal mortality rates across 45 large (population = 250,000) LHD jurisdictions in 10 Midwestern states. We extracted variables from the 2010 Health Resources and Services Administration, the 2008 National Association of City and County Health Officials, the U.S. Census and the 2007 National Center for Health Statistics datasets. These variables included infant and neonatal mortality rates for each jurisdiction, physical location of CHCs, and percent poverty. Using logistic regression analyses, we examined the associations between the number of health centers and infant mortality and neonatal mortality rates. The study revealed large variations in CHC concentration across jurisdictions. Our study also found that CHC concentration was associated with neonatal mortality (p=.016) rate even after controlling for poverty rates within jurisdictions. Results suggest that public health practitioners and primary care providers should consider CHC concentration of large communities as important indicators when examining infant health outcomes. Future studies exploring intra-organizational factors, such as type and quality of infant health services offered by CHCs as well as training of personnel, and inter-organizational alliances existing between CHCs and LHDs are needed to gain better insight into the mechanisms that impact infant health outcomes.
Keywords: Community health centers, resource availability, infant mortality, neonatal mortality

Cadmium Stress Effects on Respiratory Activity and Antioxidative Mechanisms in Nicotiana Tabaccum.
554-559
Chagra Ali, Grara Nedjoud, Djebar Mohamed Reda and Berrebbah Houria

Abstract:
The effect of Cd-Toxicity on germination seeds of tobacco plants (Nicotianna tabaccum), Weights, Respiratory activity, activity of Antioxydant enzyme Catalase and Malondialdehyde levels of root. Tobacco organs (seeds and roots) were exposed to four concentrations of CdCl2 (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100µM). Results obtained showed that the (%) of germination of tobacco seeds and dry weights of root were negatively affected by Cd-treatment. The increase of catalase activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were observed. Theses observations were enregistrated with a significantely loss in respiratory activity of roots. This study suggested that Cd interact with the germination process of seeds and the growth of tobacco plants particulary by decreasing respiratory activity and perturbation of membrane cell integrity by lipid peroxidation. This suggestion could be considered as a responses (Adaptation/Resistance) of tobacco organs to Cd-Stress.

Hardware Accelerated Embedded Block Coding with Optimised Truncation Design
574-580
Arun Kumar P, Rony K Roy, Hareesh H and M Jaipal Reddy

Abstract:
Image Compression systems mainly employ Embedded Block Coding with optimized truncation (EBCOT) Processor which offers high throughput and also meets the timing constraints when employed in real time systems where the frame rate varies for each application. The speed of the processor mainly depends on matrix quantiser which is sequential in nature and to speed up the design, we employ the parallel architecture which takes the inputs parallel and does the operation concurrently. The delay in our design is mainly reduced by the pipelining the stages which still offers high speed to work for real time high end applications such as in satellite image processing. As all the real images contain multiple frames, it is very difficult to increase the throughput when employed in the software mode as it will create more latency thus reducing the speed of the operation. In our method, we propose a hardware accelerated method which will reduce the latency and makes the whole process concurrently thus increasing the speed of the processor. The architecture has been implemented in Altera DE2 Processor and the area, delay and power analysis has been evaluated at a frequency of 1GHz.
Keywords: Low Power, EBCOT, JPEG2000, FPGA

The Comparative Examination of Conflict from Management Scientists and Islam Fundamentals Perspective with Focus on the Thoughts of Prophet of Islam
581-587
Mohamad Hasan Sanei Por, Mohamad Ali Sarlak, Ali Nasr Esfahani and Mostafa Rabbani

Abstract:
The conflict is one of the main obstacles of achieving organizational goal among employees. It is considered as an inevitable and essential part of organizational life that usually is derived from organizational characteristics. Whether conflict is a desirable or undesirable phenomenon in the organization, it is an inevitable phenomenon. The conflict will be formed when there is constrict between individuals’ goal. The natural and normal reaction to the organizational conflict is that it can be considered as a disincentive factor that is formed in the especial conditions. Conflict exists in every organization at any time. Islam pays attention to the issue of conflict in terms of disagreements and disputes. From Islam perspective, conflict is a desirable phenomenon in some cases and is an undesirable one in others. Examining the history of Islam will results in many conflicts in the period of Islam’s dear prophet that he solved them with tact and though. Therefore, the present study was aimed to compare the conflict management styles from management scientists and Islam perspective with focus on the thoughts of dear prophet of Islam.
Keywords: Conflict, Conflict Management, Islam, Dear Prophet of Islam

Assessing Prohibition of Women Judgment in Viewpoint of Islamic Jurisprudence
588-594
Ramin Faghani

Abstract:
The term “judiciary” refers to many concepts such as vote, verdict, will and commitment. It has been also used in Persian as judgment. Term “judiciary” in “Lesan-al-Arab” has been presented as verdict. The present study has investigated prohibition of women judgment in viewpoint of expert jurists and Holy Quran. Prohibition of women judgment in Islamic law has caused that some critics criticize Islamic basis and jurisprudence with no fear and claim that this is a step toward violating women’s rights. However, any sentences for women in Islam are based on their mental and physical personalities. The study tries to assess basis of prohibition of women judgment in addition to describe some materials of this verdict.
Keywords: Islam, jurisprudence, judgment, women, men, difference

Irrational Behavior of Tadawul Investor
595-603
Mohd I M Alnajjar

Abstract:
Behavioral finance is a widely accepted phenomenon which deals with the investigation of attitude of market participants in the stock exchange. This study makes available the understanding of irrational attitude of Tadawul stock exchange investor. A self-administered survey is used for retrieving the data from 134 market participants. Correlational stats are used to describe the correlation among study variables and linear regression model is used to describe the causal relationship between the hypothesized links. This study confirms the irrational attitude of investor. Information asymmetry, risk propensity, variation in stock market policies and improper management of listed companied are depicting a positive correlation with risk perception. Another astonishing finding of positive correlation of risk perception with investment satisfaction is also vital result of this study which depicts the irrational and risk taking behavior of investor in Tadawul. This study confirms that Saudi investor is irrational and highly risk taker. They act like speculators and bear high risk which leads to the increased investment performance.
Keywords: Risk Perception; Risk Propensity; Return Expectations; Behavioral Finance

Transient Thermal Analyses of Thickness Variation on Fibre Metal Laminates
604-615
Sundaravalli. S, Majumder M.C and Vijayaraghavan G.K

Abstract:
The composite material called GLARE Fibre Metal Laminate is used as heavy structures in load carrying applications especially in aircrafts. The benefits of combining both metallic and non-metallic materials are to provide the enhanced performance with increased strength. The challenges are superimposed in its use at elevated temperature due to anomalies existing in GLARE FML such as local thickness variation caused by defects. A numerical review is conducted to analyse the effect of thickness variations of delaminations, aluminium layers and glass reinforced epoxy layers in GLARE FML specimens. This study spotlights the numerical simulations on fibre metal laminate based on Step Pulsed Active Thermography of infrared Thermography which employs the heat transfer principle. The investigation concludes the necessity of accounting the variations in delamination thickness and aluminium layer thickness in the analysis of GLARE FML structures.
Keywords: Fibre Metal Laminates, GLARE, Infrared Thermography, Step Pulsed Active Thermography, Delaminations.

Chemical Speciation of Zn in Water of the Lake Modrac and Assessment of Toxicity of Water
616-624
Amra Odobašic, Indira Šestan, Sead Catic, Husejin Keran and Almir Šestan

Abstract:
Overall concentration of metal is an indication of system pollution but it is significantly more important is the distribution of different forms and types of metal traces [1]. Interaction of Zn ions in water and sediment is determined by numerous physico-chemical processes which can be of natural or anthropogenic origin. With the aim of assessment bioavailability/toxicity of Zn in water and sediment, it has been determined the overall concentration of Zn ions by applying DPASV. Physical and chemical parameters of water and sediments: pH, temperature, phosphate content, sulphate, chloride, organic and humic matter, ionic strength and conductivity were monitored.On the basis of thisparameters chemical speciation was done. Inorganic speciation was performed using the software program HYDRA/MEDUSA. The samples taken from four different locations of the lake Modrac in the period from January to December 2012 were used. The obtained results showed significant increased (about 10 times) concentration Zn ions in samesamples water, after UV radiation. Also, results showed high concentration of humic matter in all examination samples of water (>10 mg/L) and high share in samples of sediment. The obtainedresults of the chemicalspeciationof Znindicate thatsediment andwater of Lake Modrac do not fallinto the categoryof toxicsediment/water.
Keywords: Natural water, sediment, speciation, toxicity, zinc (Zn), DPASV