European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 113 No 3
Oct, 2013

The Impact of Transmission Range on the Performance of Single-Path and Multi-Path MANET Routing Protocols
290-301
V. Lalitha and R.S. Rajesh

Abstract:
In Mobile Ad hoc Network routing process, the number of hops in a route will be decided by the factors like basic transmission power of the nodes, transmitter antenna gain, receiver antenna gain and the receiver threshold. The nodes transmission range/power plays a vital role in choosing the next hop. Also Transmission range is one of the controlling factor of topology. In a typical MANET, the transmission power of nodes are set as equal to have a bidirectional link between them. Transmission power control with topological information provides major benefits in network capacity and energy consumption. And it also makes each links in the network as energy efficient as possible. The objective of this work is to study the behavior and performance of unipath routing protocols and multipath routing protocols with respect to different transmission range/power of individual nodes of the network to find out the optimal transmission range for the nodes in the network. Algorithms analyzed here are AODV, DSR, DSDV, MDART and AOMDV. The observations and findings can be used to design a new power aware and topology aware routing protocol for MANETs.
Keywords: MANET, Mobile Adhoc Network, multi hop network, transmission power, Power Aware Routing

Surveying the Influence of Organizational Commitment on Employees’ Performance in Bureaus of Maskan Bank in Tehran Province
302-308
Hassan Mehrmanesh, Abdollah Kouloubandi and Fahimeh Salehi

Abstract:
The purpose of writing the current paper is to survey the influence of organizational commitment on employees’ performance in Tehran Maskan Bank in Tehran province. In the research which is descriptive survey if to view from data gathering aspect and as an applied research if to investigate the goals of the study, 2 questionnaires were applied to collect data from statistical society (323 employees of Maskan Bank). The results of utilizing Kendall and Friedman tests proved positive and meaningful influence of organizational commitment and its dimensions (affective commitment, normative commitment and continuance commitment) on employees’ performance, meanwhile continuance one was the most important dimension. No relationship was found between employees’ demographic characteristics with their performance. Finally all variables’ levels were surveyed which all of them except normative commitment were placed in high levels.
Keywords: Organizational commitment, affective commitment, normative commitment, continuance commitment, performance.

The Economical and Social Effects of CO2 Gas Emission in OPEC Member States
309-315
Saied Hasan Nia Khosravi and Soheila Kaghazian

Abstract:
The increasing amount of polluting gases and especially CO2 resulting from industrial developments, has gained the attention of a lot of countries to stop and prevent this. Therefore recognizing the reasons involved in polluting gas emissions is essential. The present study investigates the economical and social effects of CO2 gas emission in OPEC member states. Due to large amount of fossil fuels in these countries, saving energy is not a big concern, so it is inevitable to put the focus on saving energy because if its disastrous environmental effects during producing, changing and using energy is inevitable. In this study, the effect of GDP, energy usage, urban population and population density on CO2 gas emission in OPEC countries using WDI’s development index in 1980 to 2009 using Econometrics data has been investigated. The results shows those aforementioned values have a significant and direct effect in OPEC countries and GDP,energy usage,trade liberalization, the ration of urban population and population density increased the amount of CO2 gas emissions. Reduction in fossil fuel usage, and using sustainable energy resources to reach sustainable development and investing on new sources of energy,increasing energy efficiency and population control to reduce pollution and polluting gas emissions has been the central focus of the present study.
Keywords: OPEC member states, CO2 gas emission, economic developments, energy consumption, population, and panel data.


An Empirical Study on Turnover Intentions Based on Job Satisfaction Parameters Applied Over IT Professionals in Chennai

316-325
M. Kannan and K. Vivekanandan

Abstract:
Workplace is the materialistic pronounce of any employee insulated with monetary value and benefits. In today work places donot encourage the employees to insulate with monetary benefits and it is elevated with workplace job satisfaction. The level of job satisfaction significantly correlates with the intentions of turnover. It differs from industry to industry in general and employee to employee, between and within industry in particular. The factors leads to job satisfaction and its influence on turnover intentions will differ in various circumstances. Especially sectors like IT which is compounded with professional employees with well determined monetary benefits invariably influence the level of job satisfaction. The IT is an industry where turnover intentions are induced through the factors like competition, career advancement, source of exposure and job satisfaction. The current study aims to identify and address the correlation between job satisfaction factors on turnover intentions. The Sample Unit [N = 1097] drawn from three major IT Sectors situated in Chennai, where attrition is high in past years. The results were tabulated and interpreted using SPSS 18. Recommendation was given for the IT sectors to alert and retain the talented IT employees’.
Keywords: Workplace, Job Satisfaction, Turnover Intentions, IT Sectors

Effects of Insurance Industry and Financial Services on Economic Growth in Selected Countrie
326-342
Monireh Dizaji, Khadijeh Khadivi Javanghaleh and Arash Ketabforoush Badri

Abstract:
Nowadays, insurance industry is an integral part of the financial system in each country. Insurance companies are important institutions in the capital market and have an important role in economic development through accepting various risks and equipping and strengthening the financial resources for investment in money and capital market.The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of insurance and financial services on economic growth in selected 70 countries around the world using panel data and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) over the period 1999-2009. First of all, the collective panel unit root test is done on model variables to avoid spurious regression analysis and static test of variables. For estimating the empirical model of economic growth in selected countries, insurance and financial services have significantly positive relationship with economic growth. Employment in service sector, the degree of openness, physical capital and human resources education have positive effect but inflation has negative effect on economic growth respectively.
Keywords: Insurance and financial services, Economic growth, Panel data and GMM
JEL Classification Codes: C23, O47, G22


The Quality of Urban Life and Territorial Management an Average Inner City. Case of the City of Khenchela (East Algerien).

343-367
Djebnoune Brahim and Boukhemis Kaddour

Abstract:
During the last decades (especially the black Decade), Algerian cities have experienced a remarkable upset: a pace accelerated, a spread, a transformation on themselves. They have become spatially exploded, socially heterogeneous and composite, economically complex and difficult to manage and environmentally unviable. They take a lawless space configuration and countless pressures that affect the quality of life of its inhabitants into the most intimate dimension. And yet the environmental dimension of the actions of development is often obscured in Algeria. Also the issues of environmental quality and the quality of life arise relevant way and guide reflection on spatial practices and the strategies of the players behaviour. The objective of this paper is to assess the quality of life in neighbourhoods of the city of khenchela, an inland city of the East Algerian. To do this, he was initiated an investigation by questionnaire on land between 15 and 30 March 2013 at the level of five neighbourhoods in the city basically differentiated in terms of geographical location, age and typology of habitat. Their residents give special attention to the perception of the quality of the framework of life and the urban atmosphere of these neighborhoods. Map of the results of the survey and statistical representation allows visualizing the practices of the inhabitants in neighbourhoods, and guiding the actions of development specific to advocate for each neighbourhood to improve their quality of life in urban areas.
Keywords: Environmental quality; quality of life; sustainable development; neighbourhood, factorial correspondence analysis (CA).

Performance Enhancement of Secondary Network using Fuzzy Rule Based System in Cognitive Relay Networks
368-378
Kiran Sultan, Ijaz Mansoor Qureshi, Waseem Khan and Atta-ur-Rahman

Abstract:
Relay selection is an efficient cooperative communication technique, that has gained tremendous attention in cognitive radio networks to enable secondary transmissions in the frequency band of the primary users. Fuzzy logic has been recently employed in cognitive radio networks to handle the issues related to spectrum sharing, interference management and power control. In this paper, we suggest a novel idea of fuzzy rule based system for multiple relay selection in amplify-and-forward based cognitive relay networks over Rayleigh flat-fading channels. The proposed scheme aims to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio received at the destination, while guaranteeing to satisfy the interference constraint of the primary network. The simulation results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Keywords: Cognitive Radio Network, Underlay Spectrum Sharing, Fuzzy Rule based System, Amplify-and-Forward

Role of Technology and its Outcomes in Contemporary Architecture and Urbanization
379-384
Mohammad Reza Maleki, Sepideh Parsa, Mohammad Shouhani and Ebrahim Moradi

Abstract:
Architecture as one of the construct components in environment has been always influenced of modern technologies over the time which unavoidable effects of concrete and steel in emergence of architecture approve this fact. Nevertheless, in light of emergence of great advancements in Construction Industries and construct materials, impact of technology in architecture can be seen. This paper is aimed at perusing role of technology and its outcomes in contemporary architecture and urbanization. The main Finding in this research is finding about impact of technology on physical form of cities which in case of humanistic attitude in using technology, positive effects of technology in architecture and urbanization can be seen, otherwise adverse expectations influencing immoral architecture or a city without identity would be realized.
Keywords: Advancement, architecture, urbanization, identity, performance, form, aesthetic


Place-Making for the Central Campus of Tehran University

385-396
Hanieh Shahmohammadian and Hossein Bahrainy

Abstract:
Campus of universities, in addition to increase the applicants of the higher education need to more attention with respect to their determining role in the national and international future of a city. The development should be consistence with the encompassing field to promote the life qualities of the city in addition to converging and developing the region. Campuses should be designed and developed in such a way that predicate new principles, functions and ideas and embed them. This phenomenon should take place with embedding the conventional and traditional activities deserving maintenance and support simultaneously. The purpose of this research is to localize an appropriate place for the central Campus of Tehran University which is a case study in Iran. This paper investigates the possibility of integrating Campus of Tehran University with the local surrounding community to create more energy in the area. Meanwhile, the feasibility of the environmental qualities is discussed to present the environmental qualities related to the place-making. These stages pave the way of presenting the criteria of place-making for Campus of Tehran University. The space of developing Campus of Tehran University was considered as a space and the criteria of place-making for Campus of Tehran University were presented.
Keyword: Place-making, development, campus of Tehran University

A Study on FRP-Reinforced Steel Shear Walls with Opening
397-421
Mohammadmehdi Chamanara and Ali Nikkho

Abstract:
Shear walls are resistant innovative systems against lateral seismic loads and wind and they show better performance in comparison with moment and wind portal frames. This system includes some separate panels which are connected to the beams at the top and bottom and to the columns at the sides. This form of connection is followed by all stories and it makes an integrated wall structure in total height. The main objective of the study is to analyze the FRP-reinforced steel shear walls with opening. The research uses the results of laboratorial tests done by Nateghi-Alavi regarding the reinforced steel shear walls. Also, the research uses the results of ABAQUS software regarding: the steel shear walls including opening, different arrangements of stiffeners, and different thicknesses (0.8, 1, 1.5, 3, and 5 mm); and the effects of different openings and stiffeners (such as stiffeners with vertical-horizontal arrangements, and diagonal and crossed arrangements on one side of the wall or on both sides) on different parameters such as shear capacity of system, stiffness of system, the approaching of boundary elements, distribution of stress in steel plate and out-of-plane buckling. In other words, the research assesses the behavior of FRP-reinforced steel shear wall with opening against the seismic loads. The results show that applying crossed stiffeners causes the bearing capacity and system stiffness to be increased. Also, applying the horizontal-vertical stiffeners causes the effects of out of plate buckling to be decreased and the stress to be distributed uniformly in the walls and boundary elements.
Keywords: Shear wall, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer), lateral loads of seism, resistant systems

Investigating the Relationship between Market Orientation, Innovative Orientation and Strategy Orientation with Specialized and Architectural Marketing Capabilities
422-432
Marjan Mohaimani, SeyedAlireza Seyedsalehi, Mozhgan Mohaimani and Parisa Yousefi

Abstract:
Nowadays in current studies related to marketing and its management in organizations, it is believed that identifying marketing resources and capabilities and assigning resources optimally in this part can be regarded as a solution to reduce marketing performance of organizations. Therefore, in this study researchers try to introduce a comprehensive model in order to explain effective factors which impact on with specialized and architectural capabilities of marketing. Thus the main problem of current study is how banking network in our country and financial institutions can use the new concept of specialized and architectural capabilities of marketing appropriately. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to identify effective factors which impact on specialized and architectural capabilities of marketing. By reviewing the background of previous studies researchers found a comprehensive conceptual model in order to explain effective factors which impact on specialized and architectural capabilities of marketing. They tested and evaluated this model in a private bank through a questionnaire. The data extracted from 430 questionnaires were the base of hypotheses testing and research conceptual model. This study provides an integrative model for developing specialized and architectural capabilities of marketing which can be an appropriate alternative for previous models.
Keywords: Specialized and architectural capabilities of marketing, competitive intensity, innovative orientation, strategy orientation, market orientation.

The Effects of Real Exchange Rate Misalignment on Inflation of Iran
433-446
Farzin Arbabi, Teymour Mohamadi and Amin Hatami

Abstract:
Real exchange rate is one of the factors as its deviation from the equilibrium values,affect the performance of macroeconomical variables especial inflation. In this article, the relationship between real exchange rate misalignment and inflation index in Iran is being studied. Based on the introduction of new literature toward exchange rate during the end of 80 decades and also the presented econometrics models in the recent decades, the model which was introduced in this article in order to estimate the misalignment of real exchange rate is the basic model of Edwards in which the appropriate changes in terms of the conditions and the properties of Iran were happened. The considered variables in this paper in order to determine the real exchange rate are; Oil incomes, government costs in the services department and buying the non-exchangeable goods, import tariffs, term of trade rate and index of depending on the degree of economic. The considered model in order to estimate the effects of real exchange rate misalignment on inflation is derived from the monetary value theory. The period in this study is from 1976 to 2010. The method of this study in order to estimate the patterns in this paper is Cointegrating regression (Dynamic Least Squares) and its advantage to the other methods is that it considers the Endogeniety of variables.the estimatation results of Iran’s inflation model by the index of real exchange rate deviation shows that during the recent years as the exchange rate in Iran was overvalued, or in other words, the misalignment was negative, this index had the positive effect on the inflation and increased the inflation in Iran
Keywords: Iran Economy, Inflation, Real Exchange Rate misalignment, Real Exchange Rate, Cointegrating regression
JEL Classification Codes: F31,E31,C5

The Influence Factors on Intention Regarding Green Products: An Empirical Study in Iran
447-465
Parisa Yousefi, Marjan Mohaimani and Mozhgan Mohaimani

Abstract:
The main purpose of this study is to identify the factors which influence on the purchase intention of green products by Iranian consumers. In this way it has been tried to determine the extent these factors influence on the purchase intention of green products. data analysis was started by selecting survey-descriptive based method and focusing on gathered data through questionnaire. The extracted questionnaires in this research are the result of investigating theoretical models and previous researches and also exploratory interviews with experts in line with research objectives. In confirmatory factor analysis done by AMOS software, research measurement model was extracted which indicates the effective factors which impact on green products purchase intention of Iranian consumers and based on regression analysis, T-test and influence coefficient, research hypotheses were evaluated. The findings conclude that environmental awareness, environmental attitudes, perceived seriousness of environmental, environmental concerns, perceived seriousness of environmental, perceived environmental responsibility, social influence, functional value, conditional value, epistemic value, social value and awareness of green products are influential on attitudes toward green purchase and green purchasing intention. This paper provides an applied guideline for green marketers who are trying to enter Asian countries especially Iran.
Keywords:Green product, Green purchasing, Green purchasing intention.

Current Situation of RSPO Standard to Smallholder Farmers in Thailand
466-479
Ubolrat Wangrakdiskul and Nantakrit Yodpijit

Abstract:
In the last decade, there has been a rapid expansion of oil palm plantations due to its high yield in producing biodiesel. This has resulted in deforestation and changes in biodiversity, all of which cause climate change. In order to address these environmental issues, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) standard has been established in 2004 for monitoring oil palm cultivation. In Thailand, a pilot project is implemented to comply with this standard. The impact of the RSPO program on smallholder farmers (less than 50 hectares each) has been analyzed. A cost-benefit analysis has also been used to determine financial feasibility. As a result, it is proposed that the certified premium price per ton should be $20 USD, an increase of 33.33%. Training and certification costs should be decreased by 30%. This would bring the Net Present Value (NPV) to $2,305.67 USD, Internal Rate of Return (IRR) to 10.09%, and Pay Back Period (PB) to 3.78 years. The RSPO program predicts a profit of $8.26 USD per ton, with an investment cost of $31.23 USD per ton, and the operating cost of $12.09 USD per ton, respectively. The strengths and weaknesses of the RSPO standard, as well as the limitations and opportunities for achieving RSPO certification are also discussed.
Keywords: Smallholder Farmers, Sustainable Development, Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)

A Firm Review of ‘The Porcupine’ by Julian Barnes from Historiographic Metafictional Theories by Linda Hutcheon
480-486
Shalizeh Hajian, Jalal Sokhanvar and Tina Takapouie

Abstract:
This study analyzes Julian Barnes’ ‘The Porcupine’ under the light of historiographic metafictional theories by Linda Hutcheon. The ambivalence and indeterminacy of history are to be investigated in this study since they are the most important parts of the historio-graphic meta-fictional process and also are apparent elements in Julian Barnes’ works. The concepts of real and unreal truth with their own historical contextualities and inter-contextualities in the literary mode are considered in parallel in order to analyze objective and subjective knowledge. Reality and imagery in the novel challenge and sometimes overlap each other in a way that their borders cannot be clearly discerned, so the researcher must try to manifest the accurate and proper boundary between them in their objective and subjective circumstances as clearly as possible. The researcher acknowledges that the two objective and subjective worlds should come together in a parallel mode and bring the real truth that has been discovered between the real and imaginary situations. This research paper seeks the formation of the reality and truth through the play of imagination, and it attempts to show the line between reality and imagination.
Keywords: Discourse, discursive formation, historiography, metafiction