European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 112 No 4
Oct, 2013

Data Hiding Method for English Scripts using Ligature Characters Unicode
452-459
Abdul Monem S. Rahma, Wesam S. Bhaya and Dhamyaa A. Alnasrawi

Abstract:
Data hiding has appeared as an important research field to resolve the problems in network security, and secure communications through public and private channels. Text steganography is most challenging because of the presence of very less redundant information in text documents as compared to the images and audio. In this paper a novel method is proposed for data hiding in English Scripts using ligature characters Unicode (where characters are generally joined together). In this method, replace two ASCII codes of ligature characters by one Unicode of same ligature characters based on data which is hiding. This method has a hiding capacity based on specific characters in each document. As well as have good perceptual transparency and no changes in original text.
Keywords: Text Hiding, Unicode Standard, Ligature Characters.

Measuring Service Quality in Holding Oil Equipment Industry
460-468
Faranak Tabrizi, Mohammad Taleghani and Narges Delafrooz

Abstract:
In recent year competition in the market at a national level and the international level, especially in the oil, gas and petrochemical industries have increased. Besides, improving service quality has become the main strategy of enterprises to increase their competitiveness. In fact, providing superior service quality by maintaining service quality is prerequisite of organizational success in oil, gas and petrochemicals industries. Since the timely answer in current market and compatible with contemporary features is essential optimal management of activities, services and processes, not just in the domain of an organization, but in all of holding organization. Thus this research identified this gap in holding oil equipment industry and its subsidiary companies (Vetko,Gostaresh Shirsazi,Tehran Sofa,Pars Pangan,Toos Payvand,Pich and Mohrehaye Sanati Iran) and has offered suggestions for solving them. The goal of research is measuring service quality in holding oil equipment industry. In this research is used SERVQUAL model that is provided by Parasuraman & et al. Statistical population in this research is all customers of holding oil equipment industry and its subsidiary companies (Vetko,Gostaresh Shirsazi,Tehran Sofa,Pars Pangan,Toos Payvand,Pich And Mohrehaye Sanati Iran) in Tehran and Ahwaz. Research methodology is descriptive survey and data collection is used by questionnaire. For data analysis is used mean comparison tests, Friedman and Pearson correlation. Result show that there is significant difference between expectation and performance in all of dimension and in all of dimensions, expectation level is higher than performance. Also correlation between satisfaction and customer perceptions of performance has been confirmed. Reliability is the most important in ranking.
Keywords: Services quality, SERVQUAL, Tangibility, Empathy, Responsiveness, Assurance, Reliability.

A Computationally Efficient Edge Preserving MRI-CT Image Fusion Technique using Complex Wavelet Transform and Phase Congruency Fusion Rule
469-483
Arathi T and Latha Parameswaran

Abstract:
Efficient fusion of multimodal medical images has been a constant topic of research. A variety of fusion rules have been proposed in the literature, which fuses the information in MRI and CT images of the organs of interest. The prime aim of all these fusion techniques has been to maximally make available the information from both the images in a single composite image. This aids the medical practitioners in their analysis. Most of these existing techniques give more importance to the quality of the fused image, than the computational complexity. Fusing the multimodal images in the transform domain usually involves fusion of all the transform domain coefficients, whose number increases with the increase in the number of multiresolution levels chosen. In this research, we have proposed a fusion technique based on Complex Wavelet Transform and Phase Congruency. This method is computationally efficient, in terms of the number of transform domain coefficients participating in the fusion process and visual quality. The concept of phase congruency makes sure that the edge information in the source images gets preserved in the fused image. It also reduces the number of transform domain coefficients taking part in the fusion process by a huge margin, when compared with the conventional transform domain fusion techniques. An edge preservation quality measure has been used to quantitatively analyze the edge preservation capacity of the proposed technique. The quality of the fused image is analyzed using some existing quality metrics. Experimental results exhibit the efficiency of this proposed technique, in producing a fused image with lesser number of coefficients without compromise on visual quality.
Keywords: Image Fusion, Complex Wavelet Transform, Phase Congruency, Fusion Factor, Fusion Symmetry


A Distributed Fairness Algorithm for Resilient Packet Ring

484-497
Masood Mehraaby and Maisam Mohaajer

Abstract:
Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) networks are based on ring topology and are used to optimize information transmission over fiber optics as standardized in IEEE 802.17. Fairness is one of the most important and challenging issues in these networks and if implemented appropriately, it is one of the advantages of this type of networks over similar MANs. In order to provide the fairness between stations, so-called fairness algorithms have been utilized that their main target is fair share of bandwidth between stations in congestion conditions. Fairness algorithms that have been presented in IEEE 802.17 standard are centralized algorithms that have some drawbacks and deficiencies in scenarios that are called parallel parking scenario. In this paper, our goal is presenting a distributed fairness algorithm in order to improve fairness in RPR networks. The proposed algorithm is based on distributed reinforcement learning and is called Participation-based Fairness Algorithm (PFA).The results of simulations show that this algorithm decreases the convergence time in comparison to standard fairness algorithms and faces sender stations with lower fluctuation whilst preserves the performance metrics in appropriate level.
Keywords: Resilient Packet Ring, Fairness Algorithm, Participate-based Fairness Algorithm

The Study of Ego Defense Styles in High-Creative Thinking Students
498-506
Tahere Orang, Parviz AzadFallah and Mohammad Khanahmadi

Abstract:
In order to gain a better understanding of the personality characteristics of creative thinkers, we have studied their defense mechanisms and their defensive styles both quantitatively and qualitatively. First, 258 female graduate students completed the Abedi Creative Thinking Questionnaire. The 30 highest and the 30 lowest scorers were selected as the study groups. The Defensive style Questionnaire 40 (DSQ-40) and three Thematic Apperception Test cards (TAT) were employed to assess the subjects’ defensive styles. The stories acquired through TAT were scored according to the Cramer’s Defense Mechanism Manual (DMM). The results showed that high- and low-creative thinkers were not different in terms of the overall number of defense mechanisms used. In comparison, high-creative thinkers used the “mature”defensive style, while low-creative thinkers employed the “immature”defensive style. Generally, high-creative thinkers are characterized by their frequent use of the mature defense mechanisms sublimation, humor and anticipation as well as the immature defenses rationalization, dissociation and denial, while low-creative thinkers are characterized by their frequent use of the immature defenses projection, acting out, splitting, passive aggressive behavior, fantasy, displacement and somatization. The two groups did not show any significant difference in terms of their use of the defense mechanism identification.
Keywords: Creative Thinking, Defense Mechanism, Defense styles, Mature and Immature Defenses.


Presentation of an Operational Model for Succession Planning and Human Capitals Empowerment

507-519
Iraj Soltani and Qader Vazifeh Damirchi

Abstract:
Nurturer human talents are a unique approach for sustainability and achieving competitive advantage in organizations. Nowadays organizations place in actual environments of transformation, and effect of change is daily and even hourly. Change management and using its positive outcomes is possible through human capitals empowerment. At present world has become flat due to different events and flat organizations can survive. Flat human is needed for creating organizations relevant to business conditions. Being flat in human manifests itself in mental change and enabling. Up to date skills, social skills, team working, cooperation instead of competition, liberalism, criticism, integrated behavior, and acceptance of change are among the capabilities of employees with flat mentality. There are different mechanisms including formal and informal training that can use for creating, reinforcing and deploying appropriate capabilities in business, one of which is designing and implementing talent-finding and succession planning system, through which it is possible to fill vacancies posts by appropriate capabilities and to follow human capitals empowerment constantly and with regard to future vision of organization. Hence in this paper concept of succession planning, its requirement, an operational model for its designing and implementation has been presented.
Keywords: Succession planning, development plan, empowerment, human capitals

Evaluating the Relative Importance of Organizational Culture Constructs in the Development of Organizational Justice and Organizational Trust
520-528
Payam Rezazadeh, Mohammad Feizi and Hossein Alipour

Abstract:
The main purpose of this study is evaluating the relative importance of organizational culture constructs in the development of organizational justice and organizational trust at southern oil regions Welfare Company. There were three components to our research design. First, we used specific dimensions of organizational culture (task-oriented culture, support-oriented culture, achievement-oriented culture, power-oriented culture). Second, based on these results we focused on organizational justice dimension and third, based on these results we focused on organizational trust dimension according to Colquitt et al (2009). We used informants from southern oil regions Welfare Company explore dimensions of organizational culture, organizational justice and organizational trust and test our hypothesis. The data has collected from 196 employees of southern oil regions Welfare Company by a questionnaire with 35 items by study of variables. All the reliability and validity of measures has examined. We used Relative Importance method and Spearman Correlation to analyze the research hypothesis. The findings of research show that there is a relationship between organizational culture dimensions and organizational justice and organizational trust. And, also these dimensions have the most relative weight influence on organizational justice and organizational trust in comparison other organizational culture dimensions.
Keywords: Organizational culture, Organizational Justice, organizational trust

Suivi de la Contamination Fécale des Eaux de Baignade du Golfe de Skikda (Nord-Est Algérien)
529-536
S. Bouhayene and A.B. Djebar

Abstract:
La qualité de l’eau de baignade présente un facteur de santé mais est devenue également un élément important de développement touristique. La finalité du contrôle est non seulement d’intervenir immédiatement en cours de saison pour interdire la baignade en cas de pollution mais d’en diagnostiquer les causes afin d’engager les actions d’assainissement ou de gestion municipale préventive. Les rejets sauvages solides et liquides ont un impact important sur le développement d’une contamination bactériologique tout au long du littoral de Skikda. Dans cette étude des paramètres physico-chimiques (Température, potentiel d’hydrogène, Salinité, conductivité électrique et taux de saturation en oxygène dissous) et bactériologiques (Coliformes totaux, coliformes fécaux et streptocoques fécaux) ont été suivi sur quatorze stations (Zone de baignade), qui couvrent trois communes (Skikda, Stora et Lari Ben M’hidi), sur une période annuelle qui s’étale de Juin 2008 à Juin 2009. Au terme de cette étude les paramètres physico-chimiques sont dans les normes. Toute fois on note l’existence d’une contamination bactérienne mais qui reste en accord avec les normes requises à la qualité des zones de baignade.
Motsclés: Pollution, Littoral, Physico-chimie, Bactériologie, Skikda.


New Approach in Cover Image Selection for Embedding the Secret Image

537-543
Mohammad Othman Nassar, Feras Fares Al Mashagba, Eman Fares Al Mashagba and Ghassan Kanaan

Abstract:
In steganography the freedom to choose a cover that result in the least detectable stego image is an advantage that can be maximized. In this paper we proposed a new cover selection dividing approach with four different versions; then we compared between them based on their ability to minimize the detectability of the resulting stego image while keeping the host image distortion as minimum as possible. our cover selection technique versions are created by dividing the cover images and the secret image into blocks of different sizes (1x4, 4x1, 2x4, and 4x2); for each block we calculated the block texture and neighborhood information to measure the similarity of secret image blocks with the blocks for each cover image. Finally; the best similar cover for each version in our approach is chosen to hide the secret image. Our proposed methods was examined with wavelet based domain (WBS) and Fisher Linear Discriminator (FLD) to prove their robustness against detectability of the resulting stego image, also we examined the Peak signal-to-noise ratio(PSNR) to prove the ability of the four versions in maintaining minimum distortion in the host image. The results shows that (1×4) blocking gives the best security and the best minimum distortion, and (2×4) was the fastest version.
Keywords: Steganography; cover selection techniques; blocking.

Different Genetic Algorithm Strategies to Optimize the user Query in the Fuzzy Model
544-550
Eman Fares Al Mashagba, Mohammad Othman Nassar, Feras Fares Al Mashagba and Mohammad Otair

Abstract:
Information retrieval (IR) is one of the most crucial components in search engines and their optimization would have a great effect on improving the searching efficiency. Genetic algorithms (GA) are robust and efficient search and optimization techniques. The Use of genetic algorithms to optimize the user query in the fuzzy model is presented in this paper. Arabic data collection is used as a test bed because most of the work in this area was carried out for English text. Very little research has been carried out on Arabic text. The nature of Arabic text is different than that of English text, and preprocessing of Arabic text is more challenging. GA are based on many steps that affect their ability to find the best solution, amongst them; fitness function, crossover and mutation strategies, in this research we used different fitness functions, different mutation strategies to find which is the best strategy and fitness function that can be used with the fuzzy model when the data collection is the Arabic language. Our results shows that the best GA strategy for the fuzzy model is the GA(M2,Precision) method.
Keywords: Information retrieval, fuzzy model, query optimization, genetic algorithms.


Contractive Mappings in 2-Metric Spaces
551-556
Faisal Al-Kasasbeh

Abstract:
The concepts of contraction mappings defined by integral forms in 2-metric spaces are discussed and obtained. Some results of fixed points for σ:- weak commuting mappings and σ:- weak** commuting mappings are introduced and explained.
Keywords: 2-weak commuting mappings, σ:-weak** commuting mappings,σ:- contraction mappings.
Mathematics Subject Classification Codes: 47H10, 54H25

Performance of Block Ciphers in Real-Time Multimedia Applications
557-563
N. Radha and M. Venkatesulu

Abstract:
The increased popularity of multimedia applications places a great demand on the security of multimedia content during transmission. Many digital applications such as Internet telephony, internet conferencing, internet security monitoring, video conferencing, pay-per-view, video-on-demand, medical image transmission, interactive video games require reliable security and confidentiality. As the full encryption conventional approaches provide very high security rather than partial/selective or transparent encryptions, the encryption of block ciphers in video streaming is analyzed. The sender encrypts the entire data stream and the immediate playback while decryption can be performed simultaneously at the receiver end is analyzed using AES, RC6 and IDEA. Thus a client player can begin playing the data in real time before the entire file has been decrypted. The performance of block ciphers AES, RC6 and IDEA are measured in terms of encryption time, speed and the startup latency. Experimental results showed the efficiency of block encryption in real-time and is able to manage the tradeoffs between the security and speed, and hence suitable for real-time secure video communication applications.
Keywords: Block cipher, conventional encryption, video, Real-time.

Partial Discharge (PD) Detection and Location in Power Transformers (Winding) through Methods Based on Pattern Recognition
564-573
S. M. Hassan Hosseini and Shahab Bashiri

Abstract:
Before reaching the monitoring system, a partial discharge (PD) signal in a transformer must propagate to its terminals through winding. Failure diagnosis is based on this signal which must undergo some distortions and some disturbances must be analyzed. In so doing, impulse response of winding element is obtained through identifying pulse signal propagation in the winding. To assess the accuracy in PD locating, PD pulses produced by a calibrator were exerted on different points of the winding in a research transformer 20kV/0.4kV and measured at two ends of winding. Transfer functions of winding were calculated. By comparing signals returned to the internal points of winding, PD location inside the winding was estimated. Then by measuring rapid changes of waveform discharge model at a microsecond scales, the rule of discharge pulse signal propagation in the winding was studied under different conditions including discharge types and locations, and measuring points. The coefficients effective on the recognition of discharge pattern are analyzed based on statistical comparison, and this improves the accuracy of the pattern recognition in practice.
Mots clés: Partial discharge, pattern recognition, power transformer, pulse propagation, winding, locating.


Method of Face Recognition without Impact of Viewing Angle Based on Combination of Classifiers

574-581
Payam Zarbakhsh, Mohammad Hossein Jafari Gholi Daragh and Hossein Balazadeh Bahar

Abstract:
Despite numerous methods introduced so far for the face recognition, no method has been reported to assert it is of a better function than the other methods. The reason is that the images, depending on the environmental conditions, such as different lighting and appearance conditions are different for the concerned person. One of the most important of such factors is the changes of head angle that has made serious problems for different methods. Taking the foregoing considerations into account, it seems that a combined method will be able to overcome such problems. In this research, a combined method is introduced for face recognition, independent of viewing angle, with a combination of classifiers, benefitting from the features exploited from the human viewing system. By combination of classifiers, a better solution can be obtained. Instead of finding the best classifiers, we will search for the best set and its manner of combination.
Keywords: Image Processing, Face Recognition, Viewing Angle, Classifiers Combination

Sheet Fracture Prediction in Multi-Point Deep Drawing Process using Ductile Fracture Criteria
582-590
Babak Beglarzadeh and Behnam Davoodi

Abstract:
Multi-point forming is a flexible manufacturing method for 3-D surfaces. It’s basic idea is to divide an entire die into many punches which can be arranged and adjusted precisely. These punches constitute a “configurable multi-point die”. due to the deep drawing process of sheet metal forming methods most used in various industries, In this paper the procedure of multi-point forming for deep drawing of sheet metal parts has been studied and the forming mechanism proposed in the experimental and finite element simulation has been reviewed. In view of the widespread use of aluminum alloy AA2024 in the Aerospace Industry, this alloy sheet material has been used for testing and forming parts in various conditions. Common flaws with the process suggested by conventional deep drawing process and those of this specific method potential has been identified and appropriate strategies to address these deficiencies has been provided. Ductile fracture criteria are used for predicting the tearing of sheet. In addition, the influence of forming parameters such as the material and the thickness of the elastic layer, Sheet material etc, on the process, defects and the final quality of the formed parts will be studied. The results show that deep drawing process with multi-point die is a flexible procedure compared with conventional deep drawing process. This method can be formed more complex profiles with multiple pins and elastic layer while it is not possible in conventional deep drawing. In this procedure, by increasing the stiffness of the polyurethane layer, blank-holder force increases and the amount of dimples reduced. In general, in this method, with increasing of polyurethane layer stiffness, drawing depth of the work piece increases. Based on the ductile fracture criteria such as Cockcroft - Latham and Clift, the elements that related to the Clift criteria, rupture earlier.
Keywords: Finite element simulation, deep drawing, sheet parts, multi point forming, ductile fracture criteria.