European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 112 No 3
Oct, 2013

Effect of Alstonia Boonei De Wild on High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Male Wistar Rats
Onyeneke, E. C and Anyanwu, G. O

The rapid development of the obesity epidemic over the last few decades reflects substantial changes in environmental factors such as diet. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Alstonia boonei De Wild stem bark on high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (10 rats per group). The first group was fed normal control diet, the second and third groups were fed HFD for 14 weeks to induce obesity. Thereafter, the first and second groups which served as the normal and HFD controls respectively received distilled water, and the third group received 500 mg/kg b.w of Alstonia boonei for 4 weeks. At the end of 18 weeks, the food intake, body weight, fat mass, adiposity index, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured. Alstonia boonei significantly decreased (p<0.05) food intake, body weight, fat mass, adiposity index, TG, TC, VLDL-C, LDL-C levels, but significantly increased (p<0.05) the HDL-C level as compared to the HFD group. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei possess anti-obesity potential.
Keywords: Alstonia boonei, Fat mass, Adiposity index and Diet.

Survey the Effect of Brand Personality on Relationship Quality (RQ) and Customer Life Cycle Value (CLV). (Case Study Tejarat Bank City of Khorramabad)
Mahmood Reza Esmaeili and Samad Alinia

A brand is a symbol for company's comprehensive and sustainable commitment and its descriptor to customers. The brand is applied as symbolic for companies' services and products. In other words, brand is such as companies' visiting card that in competitive environment, make distinguished a company from its competitors. Today, in competitive markets, brand's differentiation is as mechanism for competitive fighting in turbulent markets, which can be helpful for organizations in order to create more value for customers and also sustainable competitive advantages. Now, a stable solution is make distinction in a brand by its personality. This study has been performed with the aim of examining the impact of brand personality of Tejarat bank in relation quality and customer lifetime value by casual method. Thus, questionnaire using Jennifer Aaker Brand Personality Scale which is comprised of Likert's multiple questions and other articles has been applied to test the hypothesis. All experts confirmed questionnaire's justifiability and its stability approved by Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.962. The study's statistical universe included customers of Tejarat bank's branches of Khoramabad city and the sample size was 267 persons. Casual analysis and structural equation modeling has been used for data analysis. Research outcomes showed that brand personality of tejarat bank has meaningful impact on relation quality and Customer lifetime value. Generally, all research hypotheses have been confirmed. Then in dimensions of brand personality, according to calculated casual scale, Sincerity dimension allocated highest value. Also brand Personality has more impact in satisfaction from relation quality variables and loyalty form customer life cycle variables.
Keywords: Brand, Brand Personality, Relation quality, Customer lifetime value, Tejarat bank.

Quality of Life and Health Status Among Thai Elderly After Economic Crisis, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand
Ratana Somrongthong, Sunanta Wongchalee, Korrawan Yodmai, Piyathida Kuhirunyaratn, Siranee Sihapark and Sheh Mureed

Thailand currently is becoming an aging society. In last two decades Thailand faced with economic crisis. This crisis might effect to aging people. This cross sectional study aims to assess level of quality of life (QoL) and health status among the Thai elderly after the economic crisis and to determine factors associated to QoL of elderly. Khon Kaen province was purposively selected. Mixed method was employed in data collection. The WHO QoL-Old was used to assess the quality of life. Four hundred twenty eight elderly people, aged > 60 years from nine villages were randomly selected proportionate to size. In addition, 15 key informants were purposively selected for the in-depth interviews and informal interviews to gain more understanding on the perceptive of elderly related to QoL and their health status after economic crisis. The results revealed that more than half of the respondents were female (60.3%). The aged range was 60-93 years (mean = 70.1, SD= 7.46). In terms of quality of life, the majority of elderly participants (79.0%) were at the “fair level”. Activity of Daily Living measured by the Barthel ADL Index, the results revealed that almost all of them (98.6%) were in non-disability group. To identify factor related to the quality of life, eleven potential factors were analysed using bivariate analysis. It showed ADL is statistically significant with quality of life (p value <0.05). The findings from qualitative study, most of them (12/15) stated that the economic crisis did not affect their health expenditures and their quality of life due to the benefit from social welfare system and the support from their children. QoL was defined by having no stress, free from diseases, and the ability to travel, work and carry on their everyday life. Due to working condition and increasing age, they faced health problems with muscle and joint pain. Therefore, health promotion activities including appropriate physical activities need to be taken into account especially for elderly with chronic diseases in order to improve QoL of the elderly.
Keywords: Quality of Life, Health Status, Elderly, Economic Crisis, Activity of Daily living,

The Effects of Electronic Books Designed for Students in Education System

Adnan Eshrati, Hosseinihossein and Akou Delgosha

The present research has been accomplished through the aim of “observing the effect of electronic book on learning and attitude of students studying in Secondary Schools. The method of this research is a Quasi-experimental study including all the students studying in Secondary Schools, by which the students studying in three Secondary Schools were chosen in 2011-2012. The statistical society of this research was chosen among a class of secondary school‘s students within 36 students, in which only 32 students were attended in the statistical society and these students were randomly divided into two experimental and observe groups. Firstly from two groups, a pretest of learning and attitude accomplished, and then the experimental group was subjected to an independent variable, by which during three sessions the students were trained through electronic book software, and the control groups were trained with the print book. To observe the obtained changes, in the end of three sessions the post test was accomplished on two groups. The results were analyzed through the descriptive and inferential statistic, and the obtained results showed that learning and attitude of the experimental group of students rather than the control group has increased. Also, the obtained results of this research showed the effects of learning and attitude of students who trained through electronic book. Based on this, using the electronic book could be recommended.
Keywords: Electronic book, designing electronic book, learning, attitude

An Economic Study to Optimize Costs in a Company Distribution Network: A Case Study
Eduardo Gutiérrez-González, Olga V. Panteleeva and Jesús M. Reyes-García

This paper proposes a logistic model that determines the optimal company distribution network. The network must satisfy the demands of business orders at minimal cost. The model contemplates that the distribution network is formed by four sub networks, and in each the linear optimization model to determine the optimal number of transport units is proposed. In each unit the Travelling Salesman Problem is applied to optimize costs in the distribution network. In each sub network the logistic order model is weekly, and applying the proposed model for 5 weeks a saving of 49306.66 USD from the actual cost was obtained.
Keywords: Linear model, TSP, Minimal cost, Service Level.
Mathematics Subject Classification Codes (2010): 90B06, 90C10

The Role of Culture on Development of Iran International Relations from Viewpoint of ECO

Farhad Ghasemzadeh

Culture is the most important factor related to identity. Individuals and groups are identified through different cultural components. The reason is that these cultural components have the ability of providing human needs to be both together and distinguished from one another simultaneously. Determining the role and position of culture in theories of international relations is very important; moreover, with planning recent theories in international relations the role of culture as a basis to analyze international issues has been emphasized. Though some scientists and thinkers emphasize the role of international relations in clarifying international issues such as political, financial and security issues, another group of scientists and thinkers believe that international relations are more spread than including only the mentioned issues. The present paper is a descriptive- analytic study which studies the role of culture in developing international relations of Islamic republic of Iran, the most fundamental attitude in this paper is related to Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). The aim of this paper is introducing ECO, cultural identity of Iran; Turkey and Azirbaijan and finally analyzing international relations among them.
Keywords: Culture, international relations, isolationism

Measurements of Electromagnetic Field Radiation Levels Emitted from Electrical Equipments Inside Mechanical Educational Laboratory.
Sabah Sadeem Salih, Shakir Mahmood Faisal and Ghanim Thiab Hasan

Nowadays, people are highly concern about the effects of electromagnetic radiations exposure on their health. Probable risk for leukemia, neuropsychological disorders and reproductive outcomes has been reported due to this exposure. occupational exposure can pose a health risk to exposed workers if not properly controlled. The aim of research is to investigate and analyze the probability of health hazards of students and workers due to exposure to electromagnetic field radiations emitted from electrical industrial equipments inside the mechanical laboratory of engineering college laboratory. research had been conducted in two methods, mathematical calculation and practical measurements. comparison these measurements with the international standards reference values indicate that they fall within the safe limits recommended by the World Health Organization, and this means that there is no risk of exposure to these radiations if the exposure is for a short and discontinued periods.
Keywords: Electromagnetic fields, human exposure, workers.

Health Effect of Electromagnetic Field Radiation in the Computer Laboratories
Ali Hlal Mutlag

That scientific progress that the world has witnessed in recent years. The direct dependence on the devices that rely daily for these devices up 24 hours. Because of that, there are fears of the impact of electromagnetic radiation from computer hardware to the wide use in all areas of life. In this research was conducted measurements in the computer lab of the Department of Electronics and control the intensity of the magnetic field of the computer hardware because of the breadth of use in laboratories and offices, to see its impact health for humans and study effective ways of their negative effects on the health of workers in this for the field. Account was the way sports and practical way by measuring device type EMF-872, and the results were identical, and showed that the study results obtained with international standards and within the limits permitted by international World Health Organization and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.
Keywords: Computer laboratory, Electromagnetic field, Hazard radiation Biological effects.

The Quality Management in the Building Sanitation

Prayong Keeratiurai

Sanitation system problems occur frequently were pipe leaks or broken pipe at underground or under buildings or in the wall, transporting fluid from the source to different locations in the building for using, water closets could not flush toilet in downstairs bathroom, failure of a pump, water hammer and the wear of valves and sanitary ware. There was also the problem of sanitation system comprising stench in the bathroom. Solid waste management and wastewater that arising from people who used building was not yet as effective as it should. Management of sanitation and environmental aimed optimization of plumbing system, know the basic maintenance and reduced the impact of buildings on the environment. The models were developed to monitor and manage the sanitation and environment of building. These developing models were water supply systems, drainage systems as soil water, wastewater and storm water, ventilation systems, wastewater treatment systems, and solids waste disposal systems. Suggestions were the positions to install gates for maintenance system, avoid pipelines under the building and the casing pipes were used to bury pipelines underground through the road, all pipelines in shaft were taken periodically and no leakage, assess the adequacy and appropriateness of the volume of solid waste bins at each point and location and frequency of garbage collection, both from within and from outside.
Keywords: Building Sanitation, Quality Management, Building Inspection

Proposed Secured Remote E-Voting Model Based on Blind Signature
Reham Mohamed Kouta, Essam-Eldean F. Elfakharany and Wafaa Boghdady Mohamed

We proposed a secured e-voting system model by using blind signature. Our proposed model achieved all security requirements which are: (authentication, privacy, integrity, non repetition). Our proposed model depends on these main entities that are involved within the voting processes (voters registration, voting, counting, audit), these entities are: certificate authority, ministry of interior, voter, high committee of elections(investigator), counter) The voter can vote from any remote where with secured data transfer (ballot) by using the blind signature to blinded ballot and then sign it, when it sent to the high committee of elections (investigator) for checking the voter eligibility there is encrypting random value r that attached with the blind ballot, using for removing blind the ballot which is encrypted by counter’s public key. The high committee of elections checks the signature of voter and checks that if he eligible voter or not. Then remove the voter’s digital signature and put his digital signature and then sends to counter party. The counter party checks the signature of high committee of election and extracts the random value r by decrypting with his private key and removing blind the ballot and counts the vote.
Keywords: Secured e-voting system, blind ballot, certificate authority, ministry of interior.

Article de Synthèse La Paraoxonase 1, un Nouveau Facteur de Risque Cardiovasculaire Chez les Diabétiques et les Hémodialysés
Nagba Yendoubé Gbandjaba, Halima Lebrazi, Abdelouahed Khalil, Rachid Saïle and Noreddine Ghalim

La paraoxonase 1(PON1) est une estérase, elle est connue pour sa capacité à hydrolyser les composés organophosphorés. Plusieurs avancées importantes eu lieu récemment, notamment sa localisation à la surface des lipoprotéines de hautes densités pourrait être en faveur de son rôle protecteur vis-à-vis des maladies cardiovasculaires. Sa structure a suggéré un effet antioxydant sur les lipoprotéines de basses densités. La diminution de son activité au cours du vieillissement pourrait constituer un facteur contributif de la prévalence élevée des pathologies cardiovasculaires. Sur le plan biologique, l’activité PON1 sérique est abaissée dans des situations où le vieillissement vasculaire pathologique est précoce (infarctus du myocarde) et dans les situations à risque cardiovasculaire élevé (diabète, insuffisance rénale). Dans cette revue, nous rapportons des données publiées sur l'association entre l’activité PON1 et ses pathologies. Le polymorphisme de PON1 et les maladies cardiovasculaires. Il a été rapporté que le polymorphisme de PON1 affecte de manière significative la prévalence de ces maladies. Ce polymorphisme explique en partie les variations des activités PON1 sériques. Nous examinons également les données actuelles sur l'association entre le polymorphisme de PON1 et les marqueurs du stress oxydatif (malondialdéhyde et vitamine E/cholestérol) chez les patients diabétiques et hémodialysés ainsi que le risque de développement des maladies cardiovasculaires chez ces patients. Dans cette revue, nous résumons les développements dans le domaine de la recherche sur l’activité PON1 relatives à la santé cardio-vasculaire et nous mettrons en évidence celles qui justifient des recherches plus poussées.
Keywords: Paraoxonase1, Diabète, Insuffisance rénale, Stress oxydatif, Maladies cardiovasculaires.

The PTT Stock Price Identification using Adaptive Parameters Asset Pricing Model
Tidarut Areerak

The paper presents a new approach of asset pricing model called the adaptive parameters asset pricing model. This model is compared with the classical asset pricing model. The parameters in the adaptive parameters-APM are adapted at any calculated time, while the parameters in the classical-APM are constant. The Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) closed price is concerned in the paper. The classical asset pricing model (classical-APM) and adaptive parameters asset pricing model (adaptive parameters-APM) are applied to identify PTT closed prices. Every paths of simulated stock price from both models are compared with PTT empirical stock prices. For each model, the PTT stock prices are simulated for 10, 000 paths of Brownian motion process. The average relative percentage error (ARPE) is used as the accuracy index. A simulation results show that a significant reduction of error in the adaptive parameters-APM compared with the classical-APM is obtained.
Keywords: Classical Asset Pricing Model, Adaptive Parameters Asset Pricing Model, Drift Rate, Volatility, Simulated Stock Prices, PTT Closed Price

Caractérisation Pomologique de 22 Cultivars Locaux du Figuier (Ficus Carica L.) au Maroc
Ait Haddou L, Blenzar A., Messaoudi Z, Vandame P, Zinedine F and Sakhaoui M

La caractérisation pomologique de 22 cultivars locaux de figuier (Ficus carica L.), d’une collection expérimentale dans la région de Meknès au Maroc, a été déterminée sur les figues fleurs et les figues d’automne au cours des années 2010, 2011 et 2012. Les caractères les plus discriminants pour la première récolte (figues fleurs) étaient: la forme, la couleur, le diamètre de l’ostiole, la longueur du cou et le rendement. Tandis que pour la seconde récolte (figues d’automne), en plus du type de fructification, la période de maturité, la forme et la couleur c’est plutôt le calibre, la longueur du pédoncule et le diamètre du fruit qui ont permis la distinction entre les cultivars. Le cultivar «Ounq Hmam» se distingue des autres accessions par ses gros fruits à faible acidité. Tandis que «Chaari» et « El Fassi » se caractérisent par des fruits de petite ostiole et à dimensions plus faibles. Les cultivars «Ournaksi» et «Oulmesia Hamra» se caractérisent par une large ostiole et un pédoncule long et étroit. Les fruits de «Oulmessia Beida» et «El Beida» représentent un jus moins sucré. Il a été possible de classer «Lemtel1» avec «Lemtel2» et «Génotype19» avec «Genotype20» comme des cultivars multiclones, L’hypothèse d'homonymie a été proposée pour les cultivars «Ghoudane1», «Ghoudane2», «Ghoudane3» et «Ghoudane4». Tandis que le problème de synonymie a était détecté entre «Ghoudane3» et «Hzzat» et entre «Nabout2» et «Arguel».
Mots clés: Collection, figues fleurs, figues d’automne, multiclone, synonymie, homonymie.

Devising a Customers’ Satisfaction Model for Mashhad Etka Chain Stores

Hassan Nodehi, Fatemeh Motahari Nejad and Saeid Samadi

Customers’ perceived values is the result of selecting a successful marketing mix strategy which leads into satisfaction of consumers. The purpose of present paper is to provide a customers’ satisfaction model for Mashhad Etka Chain Stores concerning 7P marketing mix variables, and perceived value. By using a questionnaire, the data of 190 customers at Mashhad Etka Chain Stores were gathered and analyzed by SPSS and LISREL software. LISREL was used for confirmatory factor analysis and testing research model. To investigate the reliability and conducting an exploratory factor analysis, SPSS software is used. The results indicate that marketing mix factors including price, product and place have a positive and significant impact on perceived value while promotion has a reverse relationship to perceived value. Personnel, physical assets and process have no a significant impact on perceived value while perceived value impacts positively and significantly on customers’ satisfaction. Concerning the key role of marketing mix 7Ps, the managers of these centers are proposed to pave the ground for customers’ loyalty by selecting an ideal marketing mix strategy.
Keywords: Customers’ satisfaction, perceived value, marketing mix 7Ps

Nickel Sulfate-Induced Lipid Peroxidation and Changes in Antioxidant Defense System in the Rat Testes and Kidney: Protective Role of Vitamin E
Meriem Tebani and Noureddine Bouzerna

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin E (Vit E) against nickel (Ni) induced oxidative damage in experimental rats. In this investigation, adult male albino rats of Wistar were randomly divided into four groups of ten rats in each group. The first was served as a control. The second group was intraperitoneally injected with vitamin E at 15 mg vitamin E/day per 100 g body weight as a tocopherol for 21 days. The third group was intraperitoneally administered with nickel (20 mg/kg body weight) as nickel sulfate for 21 days. The last group was simultaneously administered vitamin E and nickel at the same doses and periods as the precedent groups. Exposure of rats to Ni induced tests and kidney damage was clearly shown by the increased elevation of lipid peroxidation indices (thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxides) and enzyme activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) compared to control, but the co-administration of vitamin E was effective in reducing its level. The toxic effect of Ni was also indicated by significantly decreased levels of enzymatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione (GSH)). The coadministration of vitamin E significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and restored the levels of antioxidant defense in the tissues. On the other hand, Ni induced a significant increase in plasmatic activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, urea and creatinine. The latter was also exhibited a decrease in body weight compared to the control. Simultaneous vitamin E administration to nickel treated rats tended to restore the altered levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, urea and creatinine and improved the antioxidant status as well. The results suggest that vitamin E had a protective effect in ameliorating the Ni induced oxidative damage in the tests and kidney of rats.
Keywords: Nickel, Antioxidant enzymes, Oxidative stress, Rat, Vitamin E
The JEL Classification Codes: I19