European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 112 No 1
Oct, 2013

Investigating Effect of Self-Image on Customer’s Attitude in Malaysian Restaurant Industry
7-18
Reza Saleki, Mohsen Saki and Hooman Nikkhah

Abstract:
One of the new issues that marketers are facing is the effect of self-image on customer’s attitude in collectivistic cultures. Self-image consists of two dimensions, self and functional congruity. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of self-congruity and functional-congruity on customer’s attitude in Malaysian restaurant industry. Data were collected by questionnaire from 6 high-class restaurants in the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Totally 150 questionnaire were distributed. Self-congruity was measured by using 5 items. Respondents answered questions with using 5-point scales (from strongly disagree to strongly agree). Functional congruity and customer’s attitude were measured by using 8 and 4 items respectively. SPSS 18 was used for testing the model. The results of study show that there is a significant positive effect of self-congruity and functional congruity on customer’s attitude in Malaysian restaurant industry. The results of this study may be useful for managers, to position their brands more appropriately as customer’s attitude are being affected by store image.
Keywords: Self-image, Self-congruity, Functional congruity, Customer’s attitude.


Investigating the Relationship between Humor and Job Satisfaction in Healthcare Setting
19-30
Mehdi Abzari, Mahsa Ghandehary, Reza Salehzadeh and Mohamad Sadegh Rezaee

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between humor and job satisfaction. The study took place at Isfahan’s hospitals in Iran. A random sample of 382 nurses were selected. This research was conducted using two separate Questionnaires. Humor was assessed using the Sense of Humor Questionnaire developed by Sadat Khoshouei et al.(2009). This Questionnaire uses 25 items to measure the five subscales. For job satisfaction based on Weiss et al. (1967) and Eskildsen et al. (2010) has been developed a questionnaire with three subscales. Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the hypotheses. The finding showed compensation, feeling about the job and organizational climate (with a signi?cant coef?cient at 0.43, 0.73 and 0.68) had significant effect on job satisfaction and humor in?uences on job satisfaction with a signi?cant path coef?cient at 0.71. The result of this study showed that humor could be considered as a predictor for job satisfaction.
Keywords: Humor, Job satisfaction, Nurses, Structural equation modeling


Surveying the Influence of Organizational Culture on Human Resource Productivity
31-38
Hassan Mehrmanesh, Hamid Ja’farieh and Masoumeh Babaei

Abstract:
In the current paper we tried to survey the influence of organizational culture on human resource productivity. For this mean, 2 questionnaires about organizational culture and human resource productivity were designed. For measuring organizational culture and human resource productivity 10 and 4 dimensions were utilized accordingly. The results of applying Spearman and Friedman tests show that organizational culture and its seven dimensions apart from organizational attachment, relational patterns and leadership have positive influence on human resource productivity. Meanwhile reward was the most important dimension. Also all dimensions except integration and organizational attachment were placed in high levels and no relationship was found between employees’ demographic characteristics and their productivity.
Keywords: Organizational culture, human resource productivity, work force.


A Study on War and Corruption on Earth Sentences in Juridical Law of Iran

39-44
Mohammad Sadegh Mohammadi, Zeinalabedin Ghorbani and Seyed Mohammad Asadinejad

Abstract:
Investigating death penalty from perspective of Ayat-al-Ahkam is one of the important issues related to criminal law; therefore, it has been selected to be studied in this paper. In fact, the present paper aims to study war and corruption on earth sentences in juridical law of Iran. War (Moharebeh) is one of the heavy crimes for which a heavy penalty has been determined. Investigating death penalty from perspective of Ayat-al-Ahkam based on the method mentioned in the research has been done for the first time. The present paper put the book and tradition (Sonat) together, determines all crimes resulting in death penalty based on religion, explains their penalties and sentences, and introduces a simple understanding of legislating crimes in Islam for people in order to respond to the presented questions and hypotheses formed by enemies of Islam.
Keywords: War (Moharebeh), Ayat-al-Ahkam, corruption on earth, juridical law


A Study on the Islamic Republic Revolters’ Punishment from Perspective of Islamic Jurisprudence
45-50
Mohammad Sadegh Mohammadi, Zeinalabedin Ghorbani and Seyed Mohammad Asadinejad

Abstract:
Revolt (Bagy) refers to demand along with cruelty and exceeding the legal limit. Revolters are those who revolt against public goodness of a country and Islamic government. According to the religious law, revolters are those who do not obey commands of a just imam (leader). The purpose of the present paper is to study the Islamic republic revolters’ punishment from perspective of Islamic jurisprudence. In order to study penalties and provisions based on Ayat-al-Ahkam (verses of sentences), an appropriate inferential method should be applied. Therefore, the present paper has taken advantage of scientific and library methods to study the available resources in this field.
Keywords: Revolt, punishment, jurisprudence, legal limit, penalties, provisions


Studying the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

51-58
Mohammad Reza Kabazanzad Ghadim, Milad Sajedianfar and Mozhgan Amidzadeh

Abstract:
The purpose of writing the current paper is to survey the relationship between managers’ emotional intelligence with their employees’ citizenship behavior in Saderat Bank in Alborz province. The research methodology was descriptive one in which 2 questionnaires for gathering data were applied. The first one was about emotional intelligence and the other one about organizational citizenship behavior which distributed among managers and employees accordingly after proving their validity and reliability. The results of Chi Square test show that there are positive and meaningful correlations between emotional intelligence and its dimensions with OCB. Also results of utilizing Friedman test illustrates that the impact of empathy, motivating oneself and social skills were more than other dimensions. After that the positive correlation between educational level and OCB in employees was proved. Finally applying Binomial test shows that all variables apart from social skills and OCB were placed in low levels.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence, emotions, organizational citizenship behavior.


Investigation of IPO Uderpricing Considering Probability of Offering Withdrawal: Empirical Analysis in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE)
59-70
Akbar Esfahanipour, Milad Goodarzi, Setareh Behzadi Pishkenari and Neda Soltani Gohari

Abstract:
Underpricing is an important issue in Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) which affects issuer’s decisions and needs to be investigated carefully, so studying underpricing involves a significant contribution of the researches. However, existence of option to IPO withdrawal by issuer is not adequately explored in the literature. In this study, the factors effective on probability of IPO withdrawal and underpricing have been characterized using regression. Then, the probability of IPO withdrawal, and the underpricing have been estimated using these effective variables. The proposed estimation model has been applied for listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) and parameters affecting of Probability of IPO withdrawal and underpricing are determined. Based on our numerical results, the probability of IPO withdrawal is known as an effective parameter on the underpricing with a negative relation between the probability of withdrawal and the underpricing. It can be argued that the underpricing is decreased by increasing the probability of withdrawal.
Keywords: IPO, Underpricing, Probability of withdraw, Regression.
JEL Classification Codes: G15, G17, G29, G32


Variations of the Critical Frequency of the F2 Layer, Fof2 in West Africa using Ionosonde Stations at Ouagadougou and Dakar
71-82
O.R. Kaka, E. F. Nymphas, S. B. Eniafe and O. Alabi

Abstract:
The critical frequency of the F2 layer of the ionosphere, foF2 is responsible for various effects on radio communication, such as, refraction, scintillation, absorption, error in Global Positioning System (GPS), jitter and phase delay. The variations of the critical frequency of the F2 layer at two different locations over West Africa were studied using ionosonde data for a solar cycle (1979-1989) at low, moderate and high solar activity, 1986, 1983 and 1989 respectively. The ionosonde stations are Dakar in Senegal (15oN,17oW) and Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso (12ON,1.8OW). The investigation of critical frequency of the F2 layer, foF2 using Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) revealed the spread and the occurrence of foF2. The results obtained in this study are proposed as equatorial input values for the development of a variability model for the International Reference Ionosphere.
Keywords: Ionosphere; variability of foF2


UWB Channel Modelling with an Autoregressive Model Based

83-93
S. EL Filali, R. Saadane, M. EL Aroussi and M. Wahbi

Abstract:
This paper aims to give some results about time and frequency behaviour of an UWB channel based on AR model that we have developed recently. In first time the paper introduces a derivation of Autoregressive Modelling of UWB-INDOOR Channels. In the paper gives an analysis of channel in the time and frequency domain base on the AR model. Based on state of the art and obtained results, we confirm that the proposed modelling is in agreement with measurements. Based on the frequency domain we have concluded that no correlation between the path loss and frequency, this result is found in the literature based on measurement for LOS and NLOS settings.
Keywords: UWB, channel measurements, characterization, modelling, AR Model


Effet De L’epandage Des Margines Sur Les Proprietes Chimiques Du Sol Et Sur Le Comportement Phenologique Et Le Rendement D’une Culture D’orge
94-109
Dakhli Raja and Lamouri Ridha

Abstract:
The extraction of the oil produces olive mill waste water “Margines”which has a very strong polluting power resulting in high levels of COD (chemical oxygen demand), high salinity and a strong phenolic compounds causing environmental pollution. The exploitation of this waste without preliminary treatment is very limited considering its toxicity for soils and plants. The search for new technologies or processes for recovery of the effluent is necessary. The spreading of Margines in the sandy soils in arid conditions of southern Tunisia is a potential alternative for this purpose. In this study, spreading of 50, 100 and 200 m³/ha was tested in the presence of one irrigated variety of barley in order to assess the impact of the incorporation of this effluent on soil Chemical properties. The results of the study showed that at rate of 50 m³/ha, Margines do not present risks regarding salinity, high concentrations of phenolic substances, high potassium content and pH. On the contrary, they induce an improvement of some chemical properties of the soil (organic matter content and potassium) without improving the productivity of Barley. Application doses of Margines greater than 50 m³/ha generates a very significant decrease of yield of barley with disruptions of phenological stages as a result of the accumulation of phenolic substances and the excessive increase of the levels of sodium, chlorides and sulphates and consequently higher levels of soil salinity in the short and long term.
Keywords: Olive mill wastewater, Soil, Barley, yield. plant Phenology.Abstract


Contribution à L’étude de L’effet des Margines sur le Comportement d’un Écotype de Mil (Pennisetum Glaucum(L) R.Br) Autochtone de sud Tunisien
110-119
Raja Dakhli, Ridha Lamouri, Elhem Mallek-Maalej and Houcine Taamallah

Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the behaviour of one autochthonous pear millet ecotype Pennisetum glaucum (L) R.Br) collected from southern Tunisia, under different levels of olive mill waste water (OMWW) from germination to the end of plant vegetative cycle. The results of a study carried out in laboratory conditions showed that olive mill waste water improved the germination rate of pearl millet. This increase was observed after an OMWW concentration of 70%. Beyond this concentration, a significant decrease in the rate of germination was recorded. This decrease is highly significant, particularly for the higher concentrations like 90% and 100%. In addition, another field experience was conducted in an experimental plot located in southern Tunisia in order to study the impact of different levels of Olive Mill Waste Water (OMWW) on yield components of millet cultivation like the number of candles/m², the straw yield (T/ha) and seed yield (T/ha). Indeed, a completely randomized experimental design was adopted with three doses of OMWW equivalent to T1 (20 m3/ha), T2 (40 m3/ha) and T3 (60 m3/ha), a control (without OMWW) and three replications. The results showed an improvement in all yields components for T1rate (20 m3/ha) application. However, this effect varies in intensity depending on the salt load provided by the effluent. Indeed, beyond this concentration, the number of candles / m² is reduced and yield components are penalized.
Keywords: Pear millet, olive mill waste water, germination, number of candles/m², yield components.


Modifications Morphologiques et Minérales Induites Par le Cadmium Chez Vicia Faba
120-128
Dalila Souguir, Mohamed Hachicha, Gérard Ledoigt and Ezzeddine El Ferjani

Abstract:
The present study evaluated the influence of Cd on the growth and nutrient distributions in the roots and leaves of the Cd-treated Vicia faba plants, which are highly consumed in Tunisia. Plants were cultivated in nutrients solutions containing increasing Cd concentrations during 12, 24 and 48 h. Cd effects on growth were higher in roots than in leaves. The distribution of some essential nutrients (Zn, Fe and Ca) was affected by the Cd concentrations and the prolonged period of the metallic treatments.
Keywords: Cadmium, Vicia faba, growth, nutrients.

The Comparison of the Performance Measurement of Mutual Funds on Tehran Stock Exchange
129-137
Ali Bakhshi, Mozhgan Moharrami, Mohsen Seighali and Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh Beheshti

Abstract:
Many performance measures, such as the classical Sharpe ratio have difficulty in evaluating the performance of mutual funds whose return distributions are skewed. In this article, we examine the ability of the downside risk and the upside potential ratio (UPR) in evaluating the skewed return distributions. We have used a sample of the active mutual funds in the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) for the period of 22- dec -2010 To 22- dec – 2011. In order to make a fair comparison between the Sharpe ratio and UPR, we assume that MAR in UPR plays the role of the risk-free rate in Sharpe ratio. We constructed a ranking based on both criteria, and we find a very high correlation between the Sharpe ratio and the UPR. This has seen to be the result of normal in the return distributions.. Therefore, we prefer to use the UPR as an alternative to the Sharpe ratio, as it gives a more adequate evaluation of the forecasting skills.
Keywords: Mutual Funds, Performance Measure, Sharpe Ratio, Upside Potential Ratio (UPR)


English for Specific Purposes: Its Definition, Characteristics, Scope and Purpose

138-151
Choudhary Zahid Javid

Abstract:
The present study is an attempt to understand English for Specific Purposes (ESP): an extremely significant branch of ELT by encompassing various linguists’ efforts to define it, tracing its historical growth, discussing its characteristics, and trying to find out its scope and purpose to address the specific needs of EFL/ESL learners. Though lots of contradicting views have been reported in defining ESP but there seems an agreement finally that it is confined to the teaching of English to the learners who have specific goals and purposes: these goals might be professional, academic or scientific. Thus it is not the specific discipline that is primary in ESP but the specific goal of specific learners. The same has been reinforced by the discussion related to its absolute and variable characteristics. Historical growth of ESP has also been traced and it has been reported that though it is considered a modern approach ESP textbooks existed even in the sixteenth century. It is found out that the purpose of an ESP course is to enable learners to function adequately in the target situation. Thus an ESP program should be aim-directed, learner-directed and situation-directed. An ESP course should have the following three features a) authentic material, b) purpose-related orientation and c) self-direction.
Keywords: English for specific purposes, characteristics, specific needs, authentic material


Comparing Efficacy of Diet Therapy, Diet Therapy Combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Exercise in Life Satisfaction and Weight Loss: A Randomized Clinical Trial
152-160
Ali Akbar Pondenejadan, Mahdi Zarebahramabadi, Durdana Husainc, Davood Taghvaied, Saeid Shakeriane and Reza Malihif

Abstract:
Aim: Obesity is a major public health challenge in most countries and an emerging epidemic, globally This open labeled randomized clinical trial was conducted among obese workers in National Iranian Drilling Company to compare the efficiency of diet therapy, diet therapy combined with exercise and diet therapy combined with cognitive behavioral therapy on weight reduction, weight maintenance and life satisfaction from April to August 2012. Methods and subjects: The study method was open labeled randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted from April to August year 2012 among obese workers in National Iranian Drilling Company. Participants were obese workers. Among 325 volunteers in the company, 165 individuals were obese out of it, 60 were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These 60 individuals were assigned to three weight loss programs of diet therapy (n=20), diet therapy combined with exercise (n=20), and diet therapy combined with CBT (n=20) by using balanced block randomization method. Results: The study results showed that diet therapy combined with cognitive behavioral therapy and diet therapy combined with exercises were significantly effective in weight reduction and weight maintenance during follow up period, but just diet therapy combined with cognitive behavioral therapy significantly improved life satisfaction and this improvement continued during follow up. Conclusion: This study showed that adding cognitive therapy components, which influence the individuals’ perception of their body image, purpose of maintaining fitness, self-confidence and skills for managing relapse prevention, to diet therapy has a positive effective in weight loss, weight maintenance and in improvement in life satisfaction.
Keywords: Obesity, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Clinical trial, Diet Therapy.