European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 111 No 4
Sep, 2013

Social Capital and Knowledge Management in High Schools for Boys in Rasht
460-467
Zahra Hosseini Zadeh, Ehsan Bokharaeian, Naser Safari Joybari and Shiva Setare Sob

Abstract:
The present study examined the relationship between social capital and knowledge management in high schools for boys in Rasht (a city in northern part of Iran). In this study, the five educational districts in Rasht were regarded as five clusters and each underwent the sampling process. Accordingly, among the teachers who were working in high schools for boys in Rasht 325 teachers were selected randomly as the sample under study. The instruments employed in the study were Organizational Knowledge Management Standard Questionnaire (Fliess et al., 2000) that included 22 items which measure the knowledge management process based on the five dimensions of knowledge acquisition, knowledge register, knowledge transfer, knowledge creation, and application of knowledge in the organization and the 22-item Social Capital Questionnaire (Napahit and Kushal, 1998).
Keywords: Social capital, knowledge management, knowledge acquisition, Knowledge creation, knowledge register


The Effects of Selected Physical Activities on Cognitive-Motor Skills for Hands and Feet Coordination in Elementary School Girls in Dehdasht
468-472
Artemis Ghobadi, Younes Mohammad Zadeh and Zhaleh Refahi

Abstract:
The present study tried to investigate the effects of selected physical activities on cognitive-motor skills for hands and feet coordination in elementary school girls in Dehdasht. A quasi-experimental research method was employed to evaluate the effects of selected physical activities on cognitive-motor skills (hands and feet coordination) in elementary school girls. The population under study included 320 school girls enrolled in the 2011-2012 academic year, of which a sample of 30 girls were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling procedure. The participants were pretested via Lincoln-OzertexiMotor Developmental Skills Test and then were assigned randomly into two experimental and control groups. The treatment was administered to the participants in the treatment group for eight weeks while the students in the control group participated in normal school and daily activities in the same period. After the treatment the participants in the both groups were post-tested and the data obtained were analyzed by independent t-test using SPSS. The results of the study indicated that the performance of selected physical activities can improve hands and feet coordination, performance of gross and fine motorskills, and school-age children’s physicalflexibility and balance. The research hypotheses were on the whole confirmed indicating that the performance of selected physical activities can positively affect cognitive-motor skills (hands and feet coordination) in elementary school girls in Dehdasht.
Keywords: Selected physical activities, hands and feet coordination, gross and fine motor skills, balance and flexibility


The Relationship between Organizational Justice and Organizational Commitment among the Staff of Iran Tobacco Research and Training Center (TIRTASH)
473-481
Ehsan Bokharaeian, Naser Safri Joybari, Shiva Setare Sob and Mohsen Rahimi

Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment among employees working the Iran Tobacco Research and Training Center (TIRTASH). The participants in this study included 130 employees working in this center and were selected through random sampling method. Organizational Justice Questionnaire (Niehoff and Moorman, 1993) and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (Meyer, Allen and Smith, 1993) were used to measure organizational justice and organizational commitment as variables manipulated in the study. Besides, simple and multivariate correlation coefficients (regression analysis) were used to analyze the data. The results of the study indicated that organizational justice along with its three components have a positive and significant correlation with all dimensions of organizational commitment including affective organizational commitment, normative organizational commitment, and continuance organizational commitment. Besides, the results of multivariate regression analysis suggested that three components of organizational justice (distributional justice, procedural justice, and interactive justice) were significantly correlated with organizational commitment.
Keywords: Organizational justice, distributional justice, procedural justice, interactive justice, organizational commitment, employees working in the Iranian Tobacco Research and Training Center (TIRTASH)


The Role of Income Insurance on Darab City Gardener’s Risk Management: Case Study Orange

482-490
Asiye Montazeri, Mohsen Shokatfadaei and Shahrokh Shajari

Abstract:
Agricultural activities have been always faced with production, price and income fluctuations. At the time, attention to management procedures can be very useful in order to reducing these fluctuations. Income insurance with covering risks due to fluctuations in prices and production, able to covered the fluctuations of crop income. The purpose of this study is to design income insurance in order to reducing the income fluctuations of Darab gardener,s. Required information were collected through questionnaire which was conducted in a sample 50 Darab gardener,s by a sampling random method. Furthermore, due to forecasting futures values, time series data that collected from various recourse of orange production cooperative union and agriculture organization was used. For computing the insurance premiums, it used a statistic simulation method called bootstrapping. The results relative to computed income insurance premiums, analyzed with two hypotheses such as direct and indirect relationships between yield and price. Ultimately, it became clear that applying direct relationship between yield and price due to negative correlations of these two variables can cause reduction of income insurance. Comparing the present value with computed income insurance premiums showed the superiority of income insurance scheme. The value of income insurance premiums for poor and rich farmers with assumptions "0.9 loading coefficient and 27% government subsides", computed 22459/69 and 642187/61 dollars respectively. At the end its presented suggestion to aim the appropriate risks management.
Keywords: Risk management, income insurance, orange, Darab.


Investigation Fractal and Thickness Effect on Oxidize Layer Behavior of Cu Thin Films by AFM
491-499
Eisa Karimzadeh, Ali Arman, Bandar Astinchap, Azin Ahmadpourian, Behroz Safibonab and Arash Boochani

Abstract:
Cu thin films with different layer thicknesses were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. The surface morphology, structure and oxidize layer of the sample was detected by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction. Roughness was obtained by root–mean–square (RMS) roughness measurement. The effect of film thickness on morphology and oxidize layer was investigated by AFM phase image as a new and easy method. The results show that the oxidize layers area decrease with increasing Cu film thickness and also oxidize layer thickness and RMS first increase then decrease with increasing Cu thickness which can be explain by surface roughness and fractal.
Keywords: Thin film, AFM, Fractal, DC magnetron sputtering, Oxidize layer.


The Impact of Spiritual Leadership on Employee Empowerment in Payame-Noor University

500-509
Amir Hossein Amir Khani and Hossein Sotudeh Arani

Abstract:
The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of spiritual leadership on empowerment. The population consisted of 650 employees working in centers subordinate in the Esfahanprovince through 1392 which were selected as a random sample of 246 individuals. A. The method of study - is a descriptive survey. Data collection consisted of two questionnaires, one questionnaire based empowerment theory, mishra (1992) and a questionnaire based on the theory of spiritual leadership fry (2003) Are the experts have confirmed the validity of the questionnaire and its reliability by Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.93 is estimated to empower .95 for spiritual leadership. Experience analyzing data using statistical software LISREL taken. Results showed that the spiritual leadership on empowerment of employees of centers in Isfahan has a positive influence in other words, all hypotheses were confirmed.
Keywords: Spiritual Leadership - Empowerment –payame-noor university


Design of Resistor Less 45nm Switched Inverter Scheme (SIS) ADC & Clocked SIS ADC for Low Noise and Improved Power Delay Product
510-523
Arun Kumar Sunaniya and Kavita Khare

Abstract:
This work presents two different approaches which eliminates the resistor ladder completely and hence reduces the power demand drastically of aAnalog to Digital Converter. The first approach is Switched Inverter Scheme (SIS) ADC; The test result obtained for it on 45nm technology indicates an offset error of 0.014 LSB. The full scale error is of -0.112LSB. The gain error is of 0.07 LSB, actual full scale range of 0.49V, worst case DNL & INL each of -0.3V and output noise of 21.9nV/vHz. The power dissipation for the SIS ADC is 207.987 µwatts; Power delay product (PDP) is 415.9 fWs. The second approach is clocked SIS ADC, it consumes 57.5% less power compared to the SIS ADC. Whereas PDP is 229.7 fWs for Clocked SIS ADC and output noise of 9.32nV/vHz.
Keywords: CMOS 45nm, flash analog to digital converter, low power, resistorless, switched inverter scheme (SIS), Clocked SIS.


Predicting Stock Price in the Stock Exchange of Tehran using Artificial Neural Network (ANN): A Case Study of Saipa Automotive Company
524-529
Seyed Ahmad Sheibat Alhamdy and Masoud Haghi

Abstract:
Considering the complicated relations in predicting the stock price area, linear methods have a less efficiency. Therefore, non linear methods such as artificial neural network (ANN) are recommended in this regard due to their high efficiency. There are some important factors in the prediction process of the neural networks. If all the aspects of the problem solving process using the neural networks are selected appropriately, the network will have the appropriate performance and it can effectively predict the stock price.The purpose of the present study is to predict the stock price in the stock exchange of Tehran using artificial neural network (ANN) conducted as a case study in Saipa automotive Company.In the present study, a model was presented using the multi layerperceptrones (MLP) presenting the stock price of Saipa Company by applying daily data during 2010 to 2012. Then, the price was predicted using the linear regression model and based on the performance evaluation, the findings indicated that the stock price prediction by the neural network model had a less error relative to the linear regression modelindicating the superiority of the neural network model and its capability to predict the stock price of Saipa Company.
Keywords: Predicting, artificial neural network, stock price, stock exchange of Tehran


Personalized Player Character in Real Time Strategy Games

530-551
Hendrik T. Macedo and Anderson S. Silva

Abstract:
Computer game quality measurement cannot any more be barely relegated to the assessment of its visual effects and good gameplay. Currently, the game industry has to deal with the increasing expertise of highly demanding users that seek improvement of game characters and compelling stories. Although some effort have recently been made in order to provide non-playable characters (NPC) with a less predictable behaviour, they are limited to customized code for tactical and/or strategical decisions, non-probabilistic finite state machines (FSM) for decision making, and A*-based path finding. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Personalized Playable Character (PPC) in real time strategy games and show how it could provide more challenging games, by imitating human player game style. The personalized aspect is achieved by supervised in a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP) implemented at the strategical decision level. We have simulated 2400 matches in the ORTS platform, an RTS open-source game engine. Game time curve in regards to stored resources and population size were similar for both human players and their correspondent PPCs. In addition, results have shown that human players and PPCs had similar percentual effectiveness in games, with a mean difference not higher than 6%.
Keywords: RTS games, personalization, imitation, ANN.


Designing and Compiling Evaluation Model of Performance of Employees of Bank Keshavarzi Counter and Presenting Appropriate Strategies for Improving their Performance
552-560
Yousef Zal

Abstract:
Every organization has a kind of performance management system which is expected to satisfy important goals in the field of management of human capital management. Among these objectives we can refer to cases such as motivating the individuals for better performance, helping the individuals to extend their skills, developing performance culture, determining who is rightful, making decision about the individuals who perform weakly, and helping implementation of business strategies. In this research we are trying to present a model in order to design and compile a model for evaluation of performance of employees of bank Keshavarzi counter and presenting strategies to improve their performance. For this purpose, bank Keshavarzi has 103 branches in Tehran, and 81 heads of branches were selected as population of research. In this research the main variable is the feedback of evaluation of performance of the counters’ employees, made from the heads of branches through questionnaire. It should be noted that in this research six main variables of learning, education, performance evaluation standards, and performance evaluation scales were studied. Therefore based on statistical tests gained through the research, Bank Keshavarzi has realized its objectives in evaluation of performance of counter employees, awareness of employees about the standards and methods of the current evaluation methods and the degree of feedback from performance evaluation to counter employees are appropriate. Finally performance evaluation causes better discharge of duties by the employees of counters.
Keywords: Performance evaluation, Learning, Teaching, education.


Context Detection and Description in Context-aware Adaptive E-Learning Environment
561-570
Kalla Madhu Sudhana, V. Cyril Raj and R.M. Suresh

Abstract:
The ubiquitous computing devices have influenced the traditional computer based e-learning, thus, in order to assimilate learning resources authored in various formats into heterogeneous learning devices and to achieve personalized and ubiquitous e-learning, the context-aware and adaptive delivery of learning resources is required. Huge amount of digital educational resources have been developed from the perspective of personal computers as the learning device. In mobile-learning environments, the content supporting limitations are (such as limited processing capability, screen size, network bandwidth and memory availability) encumbering the use of existing learning resources. Thus, the problem is twofold: how to detect the characteristics of learning device and how to make the educational resources adaptable for the concerned device. In this paper, in order to provide adaptive contents based on device capabilities and learner’s learning style, we target to address the issues such as device context and learner context detection approaches along with their description by using integrated learner context ontology based on three different dimensions, from which the semantic based adaptive rules can be invoked, so as to increase the learning efficiency and interest, in context aware adaptive e-learning environment. Finally, we proposed the design paradigm of context aware adaptive e-learning system.
Keywords: Elements of Context, Context-aware, Adaptive E-Learning, Ontology, Device Context, Learner Context.


Power Control Protocols in VANET
571-576
Ghassan Samara, Amer O Abu Salem and Tareq Alhmiedat

Abstract:
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is one of the most challenging research area in the field of the Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Power control is a critical issue in VANETwhere is should be managed carefully to help the channel to have high performance. In this paper a comparative study in the published protocols in the field of safety message dynamic power control will be presented and evaluated
Keywords: VANET, Power Control, Beacon, Channel Congestion.

Siesmic Behavior of Mid-Rise Semirigid Moment-Resisting Steel Frames
577-587
Fooad Karimi Ghaleh Jough and Serhan Sensoy

Abstract:
Moment-resisting steel framesare one of the most common structural types used frequently in low-rise and mid-rise buildings located in high seismic areas due to their high ductile behavior. This paper investigates seismic performance of twenty-six, low-rise and mid-rise frames (3 and 8 stories) consisting of connections with different moment capacities and stiffness subjected to four representative earthquakes. One hundred and fifty eight modeled frames with selected parameters were analyzed through nonlinear time history method underfour real strong ground motion records via the Drain-2DX program. Proposed moment-resisting steel frames with mixed rigid and semi-rigid connections can be used as an alternative to frames with fully rigid connections. It has been observed that frame with semi-rigid connections, experienced lower base shear forces and relative displacement. It is also found that moment-resisting steel frames with different semi-rigid connections have a longer period and decreased base shear forces compared with rigid connection frames. It is observed some frames having semi rigid connections at certain locations have better performance from the point of relative displacement and base shear compared with the rigid frame. Thus, in this study, optimum locations of the semi-rigid connections for the model frames have been also highlighted
Keywords: Semi-rigid connection, nonlinear time history, capacity of connection


Comparing Two Systems of Earned Value Management and Earned Schedule to Provide Backup System for Presenting Best Method of Cost and Time Prediction

588-600
MohammadReza Mohammadi and GholamReza Hashemzadeh

Abstract:
One of the main challenges of project managers is that they can complete the projects based on predicted schedule and cost, so that there would be a little difference between reality and predicted plan. Integrated and exact controlling of projects would be depended on time and appropriate access to project information. Earned value management is the most common method for evaluation of project performance; although, its application is not common in Iranian projects. The most important reason for inattention to earned value is that the method is mostly concentrated on financial evaluation of projects. The method would evaluate time value of projects based on costs, although, the time management is in limitation of its responsibilities. This would lead to define another concept including earned schedule, which would be applied for time evaluation of projects. The main objective of the present study is to determine and compare effects of two systems of earned value management and earned schedule method to provide supporting system for determining the best method of time and cost prediction for help project managers. The main result of the study is that, in whole life-cycle of the project Earned Value method is prior and has positive effects on creation of supporting management system; although, in adjusted projects with schedule, Earned Schedule method could have better effects than another method because of including better priorities.
Keywords: Management, financial evaluation, project Earned Value method, projects


Proposing a Model for Collective Stupidity: Identification and Assessment of the Effective Factors (Aviation Service Company)
601-612
Mahsa Doaee, Alireza Shirvani and Ali Safari

Abstract:
Purpose –The purpose of this study is to identify and assess the factors which decrease organizational intelligence leading the staff towards collective stupidity. Methodology -The research method is descriptive-correlative.The inspected statistical society consists of high ranking staff of an Aviation Service Company. A researcher customized questionnaire with (0.97) reliability is used in order to collect the related data. Hypotheses of this research are tested through Measurement Model. Findings – After analyzing the seven hypothetical components, two of them are omitted. There is a significant correlation between the five effective factors regarding collective stupidity. Practical implications – This article argues that, in today's competitive environment, organizations need to identify the factors which convert an intelligent organization into one with collective stupidity. Originality– The proposed model is the first in its kind with seven multi-indexed factors.
Keywords: Collective stupidity, Organizational Stupidity, Organizational intelligence, Strategic stupidity, Cultural stupidity