European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 111 No 3
Sep, 2013

Perceptions of Teaching Undergraduate Students among Registered Nurse Preceptors
289-299
Melba Sheila DíSouza, Jolly Jose RN, Sharifa Saif Al Jabri

Abstract:
Aim. This paper is a study regarding perceptions of teaching among Registered Nurse Preceptorsí (RNP) for baccalaureate (BSN) nursing students in a public hospital in Oman. Background.In the final year of the BSN program, students begin thetransition in roles from student to nurse professional using the preceptor model. Method.A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to collect data using a self-administered questionnaireamong RNPs (n = 30) for BSN students in 2009 in a public hospital. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Findings.RNPs perceived difficulty in monitoring professional and critical thinking behaviours, were unable to provide accurate clinical evaluations and lacked time to discuss and demonstrate nursing care. They had increased patient assignments, changes in their duty roster and were unable to provide feedback of the student learning objectives. RNPs who precepted unsafe students reported that students lacked responsibility and accountability, lacked adequate knowledge, competencies and safe practice and failed to abide to the standards of nursing care. Conclusion. There is a need to support the needs of the preceptor, facilitate teaching-learning process and effective strategies to precept unsafe students.Clinical support must be provided to plan nursesí clinical work so that allocatedtime for precepting can be facilitated. Relevance to clinical practice. Preceptors play an important role with final year student nurses prior to graduation. There is a need to ensurethat nurses are provided the necessary support, recognition and resources for effective preceptorship.
Keywords: Baccalaureate nursing, registered nurse preceptors, nurse educators, unsafe students, nursing education, teaching-learning.


A Review on Framework and Quality of Service Based Web Services Discovery
300-322
Mustafa Almahdi Algaet, Zul Azri Bin Muhamad Noh, Abdul Samad Shibghatullah and Ali Ahmad Milad

Abstract:
Selection of Web services (WSs) is one of the most important steps in the application of different types of WSs such as WS composition systems and the Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) registries. The more available these WSs on the Internet are, the wider the number of these services whose functions match the various service requests is. Selecting WSs with higher quality largely depends on the quality of service (QoS) since it plays a significant role in selecting such services. In achieving this selection of the best WSs, the potential WSs are ranked according to the userís necessities on service quality. In many cases, the value of QoS ontology is realized by its support for nonfunctional features of WSs. This ontology is also capable of providing solutions to the interoperability of QoS description. Moreover, based on the QoS ontology, it becomes more possible to develop a framework of semantic WS discovery. The framework enhances the automatic discovery of WSs and can improve the usersí efficiency in finding the best web services. Thus, Web Services are software functionalities publish and accessible through the Internet. Different protocols and web mechanism have been defined to access these Services.
Keywords: Quality of service (QoS), Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI), Web services (WSs)


The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction among the Staff of Imam Khomeini Relief Committee in Eastern Part of Golestan Province
323-328
Ehsan Bokharaeian, Naser Safari Joybari and Jaber Sadeghloo

Abstract:
The present study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction among the staff of the Imam Khomeini Relief Committee in Eastern part of Golestan Province. In this study, Eastern regions of Golestan Province were selected for the purpose of sampling. Accordingly, 140 employees were selected randomly as the sample under study. The instruments used to data collection were Golmanís Emotional Intelligence Questionnaires, Meyer and Allen's Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, and the Standard Questionnaire (JDI) developed by Smith et al. Besides, in order to examine the relationship between variables, the Spearman Test was used. The results of the study indicated that there is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment as the independent variables and job satisfaction as the dependent variable.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, Golestan Province, Imam Khomeini Relief Committee in Eastern part of Golestan Province.


Observing Factors Influencing Credit Risk and Banking Systemís Outstanding Receivables Reduction in Tehranís Keshavarzi Bank

329-340
Nimanohtani and Rezvannohtani

Abstract:
Today, Credit Card Industry plays very important role in countriesí economy. With Economic Globalization and emergence of new services like internet, customers could search for credit services regardless of time and place constraints. For this, institutes equipped with credit services have intended to expand their activities throughout the world resulting in risk by this expansion. Here, risk has different meanings and this term is used by different individuals like Professional traders, risk managers and all the people. The aim of this paper is to observe factors influencing Credit Risk and banking systemís outstanding receivables reduction in Tehranís Keshavarzi Bank in Iran Islamic republic. Along this, data associated to legal customer referring to Tehranís Keshavarzi Bank in 2006-2010 are used to assess this relation. To assess the extent of this relation, econometric technique using Logit model was used which coefficients were measured via Eviews software. According to the hypothesis of research, a model was designed by which credit risks of customers were measured. This model involves 16 variables associated to credit risk of customers. Finally, obtained results of this model show the reality that factors influencing Credit Risk with pertinent management could be useful for 81% banking systemís outstanding receivables reduction.
Keywords: Credit risk, receivables, Keshavarzi Bank.


Consumersí Response to Cause-Related Marketing: A Case Study of Iran
341-353
Hasan Golkar and Sina Zeynali

Abstract:
Over the last decade, cause-related marketing (CRM) has become a popular marketing strategy for companies. In todayís fiercely competitive world, cause related marketing plays an important role in business. It is seen as an effective way to build brands, create product awareness, revitalize corporate values and make corporate social responsibility and community involvement visible. Academic research suggests outcomes of CRM campaigns are generally positive for companies as well as for causes. For companies, CRM has been noted to increase sales and enhance companiesí image. As for causes, they received greater funding and publicity. Overall the impacts of cause-related marketing on consumersí response are significant. This paper investigates (1) the impact of cause-proximity on attitude toward CRM and consumersí response. (2) the effect of cause importance on consumersí response to CRM. Also, this Study determine the moderating role of gender on the relationship between cause-related marketing and consumersí response. The results indicate that cause-proximity and cause importance have a significant positive impact on consumersí response, also gender has an influence on the consumersí response in CRM and The Impact of cause-related marketing is not the same for male and female consumers in CRM.
Keywords: Cause-related Marketing, Cause-proximity, Cause Importance, Gender, Consumer Response, Iran.


A Multi-Objective Model for Time-Cost-Quality Trade-Off (TCQT) Considering the Effectof the Reverse Time

354-363
Farzad Movahedi-Sobhani, ShahabHassanpour and NedaAshour

Abstract:
Time, cost, and quality are crucial purposes in a project. They are independent and conflict together. Therefore shortening the project completion time by speeding up one or more of the project activities affects direct costs and the quality of the project. In real projects, time, cost, and quality are estimated by experts and a project manager, so they are imprecise. Therefore time, cost, and quality are expressed by fuzzy triangular numbers. In this paper we propose a multi-objective model for time-cost-quality tradeoff. We suggest some new activities, if they become necessary, to improve quality after crashing time. Some of these activities might be performed in normal time. In fact, the effect of reverse time is considered. We consider the Average High Ranking (AHR) method for use in defuzzifying triangular numbers. Also we apply LP-metric method to solve a multi-objective model. This model can be used by project managers for project scheduling.
Keywords: Time-cost-quality trade-off, multi-objective model, LP-metric, Fuzzy numbers, AHR method


AdaptiveNeural Network Controller for Drilling System
364-372
Sajjad Forghani, Bahram Karimi and Elahe Saeedi

Abstract:
In according to importance of pressure control in drilling systems, in this paper, an adaptive neural network controller is proposed for drilling system. This controller is designed to stabilize the choke pressure, pump pressure and volume flows through drilling bit. The stability of the closed loop system is guaranteed by introducing a robust adaptive bound based on Lyapunov stability analysis. A radial-basis function neural network and input-state linearization are used in the paper. Finally, we performed some simulation studies; the simulation results verify the merits of the proposed controller.
Keywords: Adaptive control, drilling system, input-state linearization, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN).


Adaptive Observer Design for Drilling System
373-379
Sajjad Forghani, Mohamad Sajadifar and Mahdi Pishghadam

Abstract:
In this paper, a nonlinear adaptive observer is proposed for drilling system. This observer is designed to estimates the bottom-hole pressure and volume flows through drilling bit in a well during drilling. The stability of the closed loop system is guaranteed by introducing a robust adaptive bound based on Lyapunov stability analysis. To this end, we performed some simulation studies.
Keywords: Adaptive observer, bottom-hole pressure, drilling.


Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Routing Issues

380-390
Razieh Hajihashemi, Mohammad Reza Soltanaghaei and Amirabbas Mahdavi Shahri

Abstract:
Ad hoc network is defined as an ďinfrastructure-lessĒ network. It means a network without the ordinary routing like fixed routers and access points. Regularly, the ad hoc nodes are not fixed and the communication medium is wireless. Each ad hoc node may be capable of acting as a router. Such ad hoc networks may be seen in personal area networking, meeting rooms and conferences, etc. Some aspects of ad hoc networks have interesting security problems. Routing is one such aspect. Several routing protocols for ad hoc networks have been developed specially in the MANET working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The existing ad hoc routing protocols do not accommodate any security and are highly vulnerable to attacks. We discuss threats and attacks against ad hoc routing under several areas of application. We also look at some suggested solutions that could be used when secure protocols are designed. The current protocols should not be used in hostile environments unless the applications are especially designed to operate under insecure routing or until protocols with enhanced security are introduced.
Keywords: Routing protocols, MANET, Reactive Protocols, Proactive Protocols, ICMP protocol, IPsec, DSDV, AODV, ZRP


Petrography, Geochemistry and Tectonic Setting - Magmatic of Kore Sefid Granitoidic Rocks in NE of Neyriz, Fars Province, SW Iran
391-406
M.H. Azadi, A. Khakzad, M. Karimi and M.R. Vaseghi

Abstract:
The study area as a part of Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ) is located in about 190 km NE of Neyriz, Fars province, SW Iran. Igneous activity resulted from subduction of Neo-Tethys beneath Iran microplate during Mesozoic and Cenozoic produced several intrusive and extrusive rocks throughout Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone that convoluted intrusive complex in NE of the study area is one of them. The Kore Sefid intrusive rocks with approximate age of 181 milion years emplaced into SSZ. In this study, we have focused on petrography, genetic aspect and tectonomagmatic problems of the Kore Sefid intrusion. First of all, field studies and sampling in the area was carried out for performance of this research. Major elements concentrations were analysed by X-Ray Fluorescence method (XRF). The chemical analysis of samples(for analysis of rare elements and REEs) were investigated through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) methods. The Kore Sefid intrusive rocks composed of granite, granodiorite, tonalite, aplite and low pegmatite. The magmatic positions of Kore Sefid rocks set in calc- alkaline site (medium K affinity), based on their chemical compositions. Kore Sefid granitoid due to A/CNK vs. A/NK (Alumin Saturation Index) characterized with peraliminous nature.These granitoids are compositionally similar to normal S-type granitoid rocks. The tectonomagmatic diagrams used by rare-elements characterized the Kore-- Sefid rocks in a continental arc-setting (CAG). Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams show the position of the volcanic arc granitoids (VAG) for them. The studied granitoidic rocks have high Light Rare Earth Elements (LREEs) (La, Ce and Nd) relative to Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREEs) and they indicate relatively enrichment to Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILEs) (Rb, Th) and depletion in Eu ?Sr, Ba and High Field Strength Elements (HFSEs) (Ti?-Y?Yb?Nb?Zr?Hf).The geochemical characters indicate that the sources of these granitoidic rocks would have continental crust affinity which sedimentary rocks in composition. The geochemical characteristics explained the arc related subduction environment.
Keywords: Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ), Iran, S-ĖType Granitoid, Neyriz Kore Sefid, Arc Related Subduction Environment.


The Effects of Planting Date and Row Spacing on Yield, Yield Components and Related Traits in Winter Safflower under Rain Fed Conditions
407-414
Masoume Mohamadzadeh, Seyed Ataollah Siadat and M.S. Norof

Abstract:
To investigate the effects of planting date and row spacing on yield, yield components and related traits, an experiment was conducted in the form of spilt plot using completel randomized block design with four replications in agriculture research center of changae sarab region in khorram abad, Iran, during 2009-2010. Four planting dates (22 November, 6 December, 21 December, 5 January) as main plot and four row spacing (15, 30, 45 and 60 cm) were selected as sub plot. The results showed that the different planting dates had significant effect on yield and yield components. The highest yield (1225 kg/ha), number of head per plant (12.7 head),number of grain per head (25.9 grain), 1000-grain weight (29.2 g) and biological yield (3585 kg/ha) were obtained at second planting date. Grain yield and its yield components influenced by row spacing were significant. Row spacing of 30 cm had the highest grain yield (1214 kg/ha), number of head per plant (12.18 head) number of grain per head (24.3grain) and biological yield (3562 kg/ha). The result of interaction between planting date and row spacing showed that the highest and the lowest grain yield were obtained in planting date of 22 November with row spacing of 30 cm (1414 kg/ha) and 5 January with row spacing of 60 cm (790 kg/ha), respectively. Therefore, planting date of 22 November with row spacing of 30 cm is recommended.
Keywords: Planting date. Rain fed condition. Grain yield and Row spacing


Some of Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Safflower under Different Planting Dates and Plant Spacing in Khorramabad City
415-422
Masoume Mohamadzadeh, Seyed ataollah Siadat and M.S. Norof

Abstract:
The growing population and the urgent need for plant yield to supply food and nutrients are the widespred plans that have required researchers follow new research issues. To this aim, an expriement was carried out in khorramabad Agriculture research station in the form of split plot and randomized block design in four replication in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. The expriment was carried out to investigate the effect of planting date and plant spacing on qualitative and quantitative traits of safflower, Sina cultivar under rain fed cultivation. Four planting dates(22 November , 6 December , 21 December, 5 January) and plant spacing, 15, 30, 45, 60 cm were selected as primary and secondary factors respectively. The results of expriment showed that the percent of oilseed, oil yield, protein yield, Linoeic acid and palmitic acid were significantly under the influence of planting date. The oil protein percentage and Linoeic acid were not influenced by planting date. Interaction of year x planting date significantly influenced all traits under study except Linoeic acid percentage and palmtic acid. 22 November planting date yielded the highest oil percentage, oil yield protein yield and palmitic acid percentage. Although plant spacing didnít significantly influence the above mentioned traits except seed protein and protein yield, the plant spacing 30cm had the highest and the most optinal results. There fore, given the results of experiments, it can be concluded that plant spacing 30cm and planting date of Azar 1st is recommended for this region.
Keywords: Qualitative, quantitative, planting date, plant spacing, safflower

The Effect of Late Planting Stress and Plant Spacing on Morphophysiologic Traids in Sina Cultivar under Rain- Fed Condition.
423-432
Masoume Mohamadzadeh, Seyed Ataollah Siadat and M.S. Norof

Abstract:
To investigate the effects of planting sate and row spacing on agronomic, qualitative and physiologic traits in safflower sina cultivar under rain fed condition, an experiment was conducted in the form of split plot using a compictely randomized block design with four replications in Agriculture research center of change sarab region in khorram abad, Iran in 2009-20100 Four planting dates (22 November, 6 December, 21 December, 5 January) as main plots and four plant spacings 15,30, 45,60 cm were selected as subplot. The results of experiment showed that phonologic and morphologic troots were Significantly influenced by planting date. Different plant spacing had significant influence on plant traits including plant height. Plant dry weight, leaf Surface area, stem diameter and pure photosgn thesis. Plant spacing 30 cm had the maximum leaf area Mdex and pure photosgn thesis. The interactive effect of year x planting date was significaut on all stem diameter. In a study on the interactive effect of year x plant spacing, it was clear that all traits except the number of day to bolling, flowering plant height and stem diameter were effected by year x planting date treatment significantly influence plant dry weight.
Keywords: Stress, late planting, plant spacing, Moophophysiologic safflower.


To Determine the Pest Planting Date and Row Spacing Ad Well its Relation to Safflower, Sina Cultivar Yield and Components.

433-444
Masoume Mohamadzadeh, Seyed ataollah Siadat and M.S. Norof

Abstract:
To investigate the effects of planting date and row spacing an agricultural, physiologic and qualitative traits in sina cultivar under rain Fed condition, a series of field experiment was conducted in the form of spiltplot using completed randomized biock design with four replications in agriculture research ceuter khorramabad , Iran, during2009- 2010, Four planting dates ((22 November, 6 December ,21December , 5th Januargy ,30,45 and 60 cm were sekected and sub plot. The result showed that grain yield was Significantly influenced by plangting date only Harvest index was not significantly influenced by planting date. November, 22nd had the highest grain yield (1293Kg/hec) Different plant spacing inFluenced the number of boll in plant. The number of grain in boll, one thousand grain weight and biologic yield. plant space 30 cm gad the highest yield component , biologic yield the number of bill in plant and the number of grain in boll. In prow spacing 60 cm the number or boll in plant, the number of grain in boll and grain yield reduced 30 , 29, 1% Yespectively. The highest grain yield (1423 kg/h ) at tained at second year and 22 November. The lowest grain in both years was reported for 5 January. For year x plant spacing effect, all traits except biologic yield were under the influence of year x planting. The highest grain yield (1271 kg/hec) was reported for second year , and plant spacing 60 cm had the lowest grain yield. Planting date x plant space significantly influence the number of boll in plant. The highest grain yield was reported for 22 November and plant spacing 30 cm (1398 kg/hec).
Keywords: Lanting date. Plant spacing yield. Safflower, yield componeats


The Degree of Commitment of Academic Department Heads at AL-Balqa Applied University to Profession Ethics through the Perspective of theTeaching Board Members
445-459
Mashhour Muhammad Abd-RabbuTweikat

Abstract:
The study aimed at recognizing the commitment degree of department heads at AL-Balqa Applied University to the profession's ethics by responding to the following two questions: 1- What is the degree of commitment of academic department heads at AL-Balqa Applied University through the perspective of the members of the teaching board? 2- Are there any statistically significant differences at (a =0.05)in the degree of commitment of academic departments' heads at Al-Balqa University to the profession's ethics through the perspective of the members of the teaching board due to the variables of specialty and academic rank? The study revealed the following results: The population of the study comprised the members of teaching board who hold the academic ranks ( professor, associate, assistant) at Al-Balqa Applied University counting (673( distributed on the faculties of the university for the year (2010-2011), while the sample of the study consisted of (208) members of the teaching board distributed over different academic ranks. In order to collect the required data for the study, a questionnaire of (27) items was developed including three domains: Namely, the personal domain, the administrative domain and the academic domain. Checking the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, the degree of commitment of academic departments' heads to the profession's ethics through the perspective of the members of the teaching board scored high levels as the arithmetic mean was (3034), and concerning the domains of the study, the personal domain occupied the first post with an arithmetic mean of (3047) after which came the administrative domain scoring an arithmetic mean of (3034) then the academic domain with the arithmetic mean of ( 30 19). The results also revealed significant individual differences due to the faculty and academic rank variables. In order to show the statistical differences among the arithmetic means, T-test was used for faculty variable while one-way ANOVA was used for the academic rank variable. In the light of the study's results, the researcher presented some recommendations from which: 1- The necessity of enhancing friendship relations through holding periodical meeting to d discuss the department's issues and place the required strategies and priorities to maintain a positive relationship among the teaching board members and with the head of the department. 2- Preparing a professional ethical code to be a key reference for departments' heads and teachers at Al-Balqa Applied University?