European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 111 No 1
Sep, 2013

In Silico Study of Salt Tolerance in Wheat and Related Species
Adenike Oluwatoyin Fujah

The in silico study of genes is an important step because it helps guide the interpretation of experimental results and suggest new experiments. Salinity tolerance comes from genes that limit the rate of salt uptake from the soil and the transport of salt throughout the plant, adjust the ionic and osmotic balance of cells in roots and shoots, and regulate leaf development and the onset of senescence. Salt-tolerant candidate genes in wheat and other cereals include HKT, NHX, SOS, and HAK genes. These genes were searched, identified and downloaded from the NCBI database. Comparative studies and analyses such as search for candidate genes’ functions, protein domains, multiple sequence alignments, and phylogenetic tree construction as well as primers design were carried out using bioinformatic tools. The RT-PCR primers associated with the candidate genes for the studied trait were designed as molecular markers for selection to assist the program for improvement in cereals.
Keywords: In silico study, Salt-tolerant Candidate Genes, Bioinformatic tools, Primers design, RT-PCR, Molecular Markers, Wheat, Cereals

Analyse Fréquentielle Des Maxima Annuels de Pluies Des Stations Synoptiques du Bénin et Élaboration des Courbes IDF à Cotonou
Ague I. Alain and Afouda Abel

In these recent years, many West African large cities have experienced unusual flooding. Appropriate rainfall information is one of the most important tools needed for hydraulic works necessary to mitigate or adapt to these climatic risks. The aim of this study is to analyze frequencies of extreme rainfall in Benin and build up the Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves for precipitation recorded at Cotonou station. The survey is performed for duration from 6 to 72 hours combining quantiles from daily rainfall data and data recorded from raingauges. Two statistical law (GEV and Gumbel) have been used. The choice of the best model has been made by numerical comparison. Five empirical models were used to build up the IDF curves of precipitations. These are Montana, Talbot, Keifer-Chu models and two new models introduced for this study and representing a general form of Talbot model and a generalized form of Keifer-Chu model respectively. Comparison between the first three well known models shows the predominance of Gumbel law on GEV law and inefficiencies of Montana model. For Cotonou station, the model of Keifer-Chu shows the best results especially when the combination of quantiles from daily rainfall data and data recorded from raingauge is made. This is confirmed and improved by the two newly introduced empirical models. Clearly Montana model usually adopted by civil engineer in Benin do not guarantee security of hydraulic works at Cotonou and should be changed for more suitable model leading to more sustainable management of flood risks in the present context of climate change.
Keywords: Frequency analysis, yearly Extremes, Intensity-Duration-Frequency.

Analysts’ Earnings Forecasts using of Multi-Layer Perception in Compare to Radial Basis Function
Yaghob Gholami, Zinat Ansari, Mahdi Kazemi and Saeid Fereidouni

This paper is done to suggest a much more reliable method to forecast earnings using of data mining. Most studies in this area of research are based on the statistical and econometric models, which might encounter difficulties when dealing with the nonlinearity of financial data. Although data mining has already proved to be successful in many business applications, little research has been done on integrating financial statements' analysis with its techniques. This study utilizes Multi-layer Perception (MLP) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) techniques. In this way, it examines eight features of income statement of companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2010. The results shows that MLP and RBF approaches respectively demonstrate about 80% and 82% efficiency of classification rate.
Keywords: Earnings forecasting, Multi-layer Perception, Radial Basis Function.

Surveying the Driving Affecting Factors on Customer Loyalty in E-Business

Ali Bazaee and Fatemeh Qorbani Nodeh

The purpose of writing the current paper is to survey the effect of e-business on customer loyalty in Iran Mercantile Exchange. To measure e-business, three main dimensions include “technology acceptance”, “service quality” and “hold up cost” were considered. Two separated questionnaires were designed and after proving their validities and reliabilities were distributed among participant. The results of utilizing factor analysis method show that e-business dimensions have positive and meaningful influence on customer satisfaction. But just technology acceptance was affecting factor on customer loyalty. Meanwhile customer satisfaction was affecting one on customer loyalty.
Keywords: e-business, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, technology acceptance, service quality, hold up cost.

Surveying and Analyzing Levels of Organizational and Individual Expectations (Case Study: Securities and Exchange Organization)
Mohammad Reza Pour Rezaei

The purpose of writing the current paper is to survey and analyze organizational and individual expectations in an Iranian organization. For data gathering 2 separated questionnaires were designed and after proving their validity and reliability distributed among statistical sample: 26 managers and 167 employees in Securities and Exchange Organization. The results of applying AHP technique show that from both organizational and individual views, human-oriented and structure-based paradigms are the most important ones and the overlap between organizational and individual expectation is as: Functional paradigm: 96%, Interpretive paradigm: 85%, Human-oriented paradigm: 96% and Structure-based paradigm: 96%.
Keywords: Motivation, expectations, sociological paradigms, value creation.

A Novel Approach for the Fuzzy Flow Shop Scheduling Problem with Setup Time to Minimize the Rental Cost

Shakeela Sathish and K. Ganesan

Production scheduling is an important task with the objective of minimizing the make span and the total cost in manufacturing systems. In this paper we discuss a fuzzy flow shop scheduling problem in which the concept of fuzzy setup time is introduced in addition to fuzzy processing time. By using a new type of fuzzy arithmetic and a fuzzy ranking method, we propose a new method to minimize the rental cost of machines under the specified rental policy; without converting the fuzzy processing times and fuzzy setup times to classical numbers. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed method.
Keywords: Triangular fuzzy number, fuzzy ranking, fuzzy arithmetic, rental policy, fuzzy setup time, fuzzy processing time, fuzzy flow shop scheduling

Assessment of Health System Performance: Time- Trend of Avoidable Deaths during 2004-2011. A Case in Iran
Habib Omranikho, Abolghasem Pourreza, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Hassan Eftekhar Ardebili and Feyzollah Akbari haghighi

Background: Developing a comprehensive indicator for measuring the status of population health has always been challenging. Avoidable mortality is a useful approach invented and evolved with the aim of mitigating the challenge. Objectives: we aimed to track the trend of avoidable and unavoidable mortality rates in order to measure the contribution of health system on population health in Bushehr province. Methods: A list of avoidable causes of death was mainly constructed with regard to Nolte and McKee’s work with some exceptions. All deaths happened during 2004-2011 were studied. Age-standardized rates by sex for both avoidable and unavoidable conditions were calculated by using direct standardization method. The total causes of deaths during 2004-2011 were divided into four categories: 1-Treatable causes 2- preventable causes 3- ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 4-unavoidable causes. Relative RISK for males and females was calculated using Poisson regression. STSTA (version 11) software was used for data analysis. Results: findings revealed that avoidable mortality rate unsteadily from 178.7 in 2004 to 147.3 in 2011 per 100000 population decreased. Annually decline in avoidable death rates was 3.2% [95% CL 5.7-0.7%] p<0.001. Avoidable deaths to total deaths ratio from 38.4% in 2004 to 32.75% in 2011 with some fluctuations fell. The rate of avoidable deaths for men declined as 4.4% per year p<0.001, from 230 in 2004 to 171.5 in 2011 per 100000 population. Conversely, reduction rate for women was not significant p<0.3. Calculation of relative risk using Poisson regression demonstrated that probability of exposure to avoidable deaths for males was 73% more than for their female counterparts [95% CL 1.68-1.82%] p<0.001.however, unavoidable mortality rate increased annually as 0.76% p<0.02. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that unlike unavoidable deaths, avoidable deaths rate over the time has decreased. Although this decline may be affected by various factors but dominant role of health system is not deniable especially with regard to unavoidable mortality rate has increased. However, the decline rates were different between males and females and that this decline was mostly affected by preventable deaths and ischemic heart disease (IHD) categories rather than treatable one.
Keywords: Avoidable death, avoidable mortality, premature death, preventable death, preventable mortality

Entrepreneurship Characteristics and Intentions in Iran’s Higher Education Students
Mohammad Azizi, Fatemeh Didehvar, Seyed Mojtaba Sajadi and Aasef Karimi

Currently, entrepreneurship is an important solution to economic and social problems in knowledge-based countries and educational system is a key factor in developing and fostering entrepreneurship. This research investigates entrepreneurial main characteristics and effects of educational plans over students' entrepreneurial intention. The population includes all senior undergraduate and master graduate students of Shahid Beheshti University. A total of 330 students were selected by multiple stage cluster-stratified random sampling method. The analysis were performed using Spearman Correlation Test for determining the relation among entrepreneurship variables, and ANOVA for comparing the entrepreneurship among students of various faculties. Research findings showed significant relation among the amount of ambiguity tolerance, the belief to internal locus of control, the need for achievement, risk taking, creativity and desire for independence with entrepreneurship. The relation between educational programs and curriculums offered by the university was not significant with the students’ entrepreneurship. In other word, current university educational programs were not effective to students’ entrepreneurship intention. There is a great need for new approaches to entrepreneurship. The business environment is different, more challenging, fast changing and competitive. Therefore, the entrepreneurship skills and characteristics should be developed from early stages of life, especially in school. Results indicate that schools and universities should aimed at developing and training entrepreneurship skills in students.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, student, entrepreneurial traits, entrepreneurial intention, university curriculum.

Recognition of the Concept of Social Sustainability in Traditional Bazaars of Iranian Cities (Case study: Kermanshah Bazaar)

Mahmood Arzhmand and Mohammad Moradi

Sustainability is an issue raised in all areas of social life of human being in the last decades of twentieth century and at the turn of twenty first century. Its primary goal is to maintain (human, natural, social and economic) capitals in order to establish inter-generational equality (justice). In recent years, social factors such as equal access to resources (social justice), ability to run a better life, social health and welfare, security, raising awareness and education level, cooperation, enhancing social relationships, etc. as prerequisites for Social sustainability, have been receiving too much attention. The present paper attempts to analyze the social aspects of sustainability in one Iranian traditional architectural complex–bazaar- and endeavors to find an answer to this question how architecture body can pave the way for accomplishment of one goals of sustainability theory, i.e. social sustainability? Research method in this paper is analytic-descriptive. Consequently, bazaar architecture is society-based and responsive and it is consistent with human basic and superior needs and its behavioral patterns. Meanwhile, support of social and cultural life by improving existing public and connected-to-bazaar spaces for making people and city involved, so on is among the practical solutions to achieve social sustainability.
Keywords: Bazaar, Iranian city, Architecture soul and Sustainability

The Effectiveness of Metacognitive Therapy in Reducing Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms
Sobhan Golmohammadzadeh, Asghar Arfaie and Majid MahmoodAlilo

Metacognitive therapy of generalized anxiety has focused on improving inefficient believes about apprehension.This approach leads patient toward conceptual processing stop and stopping focused contrast on aim and common procedure resulting in different kinds of apprehension abnormality.This study aims at investigating metacognitive therapy effectiveness in reducing generalized anxiety disorder symptoms.In this investigation we used single case experimental method of step multiple base lines kind for ten session to be carried out on four patients with three to six month follow up.Beck Depression Inventory-II(BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI),Penn State Worry Questioner (PSWQ) and Meta-Cognitive Questioner(MCQ-30) were used for patients.This investigation findings indicated that metacongnitive therapy effect on reducing depression,anxiety,worry,positive metacognitive believes and negative metacognitive beliefs related to uncontrollability and danger is significant.According to results of this study it can be concluded that therapy approach based on Wells metacognitive model is effective in reducing generalized anxiety disorder symptoms.
Keywords: Generalized anxiety disorder, depression, worry, metacognitive therapy, negative and positive metacognitive beliefs.

The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among the Zanjan Red Crescent Staff
Milad Mohammadi and Arazm Arahimi

The purpose of this study is, examine the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior of the Zanjan Red Crescent staff. The type of research is applied and materials and methods is descriptive-solidarity and try to examine the influence of job satisfaction on organizational citizenship behavior on the Zanjan Red Crescent staff. Research is a period of eight months (January 2012 to august 2012) and the time of questionnaire collected data are two months (May and June) and population are all employees of the Red Crescent of the Zanjan it the number is 84. In this research population and sample are equal. For collected data analysis is used from descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of results show that job satisfaction has relationship with employee’s organizational citizenship behavior and organizational citizenship behavior increases with increasing the job satisfaction.
Keywords: Job satisfaction – Organizational citizenship – Altruism - Conscientious – Sportsmanship – Red Crescent of Zanjan

Barriers in Adoption of RFID in Healthcare Sector Case Study of Iranian Hospitals
Ali Fakhr

This article explores the barriers of RFID adoption in Iranian healthcare industry context as one of the developing countries from the perspective of healthcare decision makers, managers and IT professionals. In these days hospitals need to enhance the safety and quality of healthcare if they want to remain in the competition with other hospitals. It has been proved that RFID system in healthcare has the potential to increase the patient safety, decrease the operational cost, and enhances the tracking of items and humans, and real time management of hospital equipments. Although such technology has been adopted and implemented in countries such as USA and European countries, the rate of adoption in developing countries is still very low as compared to developed countries, despite the great potential of system to solve current problems of healthcare. A Case study research with qualitative approach has been chosen for this study. The result of this study shows that the barriers which developing countries such as Iran are dealing with are mostly organizational and environmental barriers.
Keywords: RFID, Barrier, Benefit, Iran, Hospital, Healthcare, Adoption.

Alignment of Organizational Units using the Balanced Scorecard Approach (Case Study SAPCO)
Mehdi Izadyar

Today's turbulent business environment, success depends on the orientation of all parts of the organization,in line with its strategic direction.In such environments,that most organizations investments are done on information technology and information systems,Organizations to achieve their strategic goals have no choice but to use information technology as a strategic resource and hence the alignment information technology and business strategies (strategic alignment)makes sense.Strategic alignment refers to the proper way to use information technology in harmony with strategies,goals and needs of the business refers.In this paper in addition to introducing the concepts associated with strategic alignment and introduce one of the most popular models in the context of strategic alignment is intended to provide practical solutions for measurement of strategic alignment.In this paper using balanced scorecard, we make different organizational units organized and aligned parallel around company strategies. In this regard,the proposed model has been implemented in SAPCO Company,and the results of proposed model,shows power of the model.
Keywords: Strategy, strategic alignment, balanced scorecard, organizational units.

The Study of Rural Architecture in Desert Regions of Iran (Case Study: Sistan and Baluchestan)

Maziyar Khaki

Identification of rural architecture can affect the construction technology according to several aspects. The cases such as applying the local materials for sustainability, using the villagers' cooperation, and extracting the learned lessons from the oral culture are the parts of results by this identification. This paper is seeking to investigate the desert areas precisely and provide the architectural specifications of rural areas in Sistan and Balochistan province while investigating the climatic characteristics of Iran and created architecture in this context. Since this province is among the most underdeveloped regions of Iran, it is expected that this area is pristine and this is the innovative aspect of this study.
Keywords: Sistan and Baluchestan, architecture, village, desert

The Relationship between Social Capital and Organizational Readiness for the Implementation of Knowledge Management (Case Study: Payam-E-Noor Universities of West Azerbayjan)
Ali Rabiei, Hamed Abbaspour and Sara Touri

Initial efforts in most organizations in this field are facing this challenge that despite investing on knowledge management, the development of its applications is done slowly. One of the main reasons of this problemisorganizations’ low level of readiness for acceptance and use of knowledge management. Several and numerous factors are involved in successful knowledge management; one of them is social capital. So in this article we want to use the social capital that causes better sharing of knowledge, retention of corporate knowledge andetc, in order to increase organizational readiness for the implementation of knowledge management. The presentresearch method was descriptive and was a correlational - regression research. The population includes teachers, staff and officers ofPayam Noor University of West Azerbayjan (the city of Urmia and Khoy). The results of this study showed that there is a significant positive relationship between social capital and organizational readiness for the implementation of knowledge management. In other words, every fourth hypotheses of the study were confirmed, i.e. by the increased levels of social capital, all of the components of knowledge management have increased.
Keywords: Knowledge management, social capital, organizational readiness.