European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 110 No 4
Aug, 2013

Factors Associated with Infant Mortality in Iran
Zahra Ghodsi, Maryam Afshari, Salman Khazaei and Akram Karimi Shahanjazini

Objective: This study aims at determining factors associated with infant mortality throughout Toyserkan city. Design: In this case –control study all infant deaths occurred in Toyserkan city in 2011 were considered as study group for each case a control was selected. Data was extracted by family hygiene department of the city and was analyzed using statistical tests and logistic conditional regressing. Setting: family hygiene department, Toyserkan, Iran Findings: In this study 59.7% of infant mortality was related to male Gender, and 43.6%of death cases occurred during the first seven days of birth. 88.7% of infant death was happened in the hospital. Fifty eight percent of background cause of infant mortality was due to preterm Labor, and 77.4% due to respiratory problems. In the study of factors influencing infant mortality conducted using conditional logistic regression analysis; maternal education Labor factor, maternal age and infant crying were significantly related to infant mortality. Conclusion: special attention to infancy period and special care of infants born from mothers at the risk of labor and presenting special care and hygienic education to these mothers could play an important role in reducing infant mortality rate .Also appropriate treatment accommodation for protecting infants with problems in hospitals which have active delivery centers is very effective in reducing mortality rate.
Keywords: Infant mortality, fetal Abnormalities, Preterm labor, pregnancy deceases

The Comparison of Side Effects and Iron Excretion in Urine by Two Desfonak® and Desferal® Drugs in Thalassemia Patients
Z.Kourorian, P. Eshghi, A.R. Shamshiri, A. Amin Asnafi, S.Alavi, M. Molavi, A.Tamaddoni, B. Keikhaie, M. Naderi, H. Hoorfar, S. Ansari, A. Azarkeivan and M. Arasteh

Survival and quality of life in patients with major thalassemic patients dependent on regular blood transfusions and the main complication is Iron overload, because Humans have no intrinsic mechanism for excreting excess iron. Defroxamin mesylate (DFO) is one of the first iron chelating drugs and is still one of the most important ones. The first original brand of Defroxamin mesylate Desferal® has been known well since 40 years ago, and produced by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Company. Ronak pharmaceutical company (Iran) attempted to register and produce the DFO product by the name of Desfonak®.In this research we compare desferal and desfonak(two brands of DFO) with Randomized triple-blind controlled trial method. We used from urine iron concentration measurement with atomic absorption spectrophotometer deviceto compare the effectiveness of two drugs. According to the obtained results the similarity of effectiveness and side effects between original and generic brands of Deferoxamine were observed.
Keywords: Desfonak, Desferal, Thalassemia, urine Iron, Atomic absorption spectrophotometer device

Conservatism’s Effect on Cost of Equity Capital in Tehran Stock Exchange
Kazem Nahas, Azad Moltafet, Zinat Ansari and Mahdi Kazemi

Based on signaling theory in the finance literature, companies choose conservative accounting policies, which signal firm positive quality, to decrease their cost of equity capital. Therefore, this study is allocated to investigate conservatism’s effect on cost of equity capital of listed companies in Tehran stock exchange. To do this research, 173 companies across 28 different industries among those listed from 2006 to 2011 were studied. To estimate conservatism, Givoly & Hayn’s index is used and cost of equity capital is measure using E/P method also to confirm E/P method, capital assets pricing model is applied. Multiple regression is used to test hypothesis. Findings suggest that there is a significant reverse relation between conservatism and cost of equity capital.
Keywords: Conservatism, Cost of equity capital, Firm size, Financial leverage

ABC Algorithm Based Fuzzy Controller to Control the Velocity and Angle of an Inverted Pendulum

Anita Khosla, Leena G and M. K. Soni

Fuzzy logic is a practical, robust, economical and intelligent alternative for controller design of complex systems. Choosing appropriate fuzzy rules is essential for a fuzzy logic controller to perform at the desired level. Various evolutionary algorithms are used to find an optimal set of fuzzy rules in the literature. In this paper, an artificial bee’s colony (ABC) optimization algorithm is proposed to optimize the fuzzy membership functions to control the deviation in pendulum angle and velocity.ABC is one of the swarm intelligence based optimization algorithm that is used to optimize the membership function range of fuzzy rules. In this paper, change of angle and change of velocity of the inverted pendulum system is optimized using ABC algorithm. With the optimized value, the optimal membership functions and the inference system are developed. Using the ABC based fuzzy, the position of the inverted pendulum is maintained towards the reference position. The proposed control technique is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink working platform and the control performances are evaluated. The proposed ABC-fuzzy controller performance is compared with PI controller and fuzzy controller.
Keywords: Inverted pendulum, angle, velocity, integrated control, ABC algorithm, fuzzy controller.

Domestic Water Quality Assessment: Microalgal and Cyanobacterial Contamination of Stored Water in Plastic Tanks in Zaria, Nigeria
Mathias Ahii Chia, Sonnie Joshua Oniye and Aaron Atisan Swanta

Studies on water storage systems have often focused on the bacterial contaminations of stored water, while not much has been reported on microalgal and cyanobacterial contamination. This study investigated the microalgal and cyanobacterial contamination of storage water tanks as a means of assessing domestic water quality in Zaria, Nigeria. Most tanks were of small volumes and had been used for more than 2 years with a daily basis usage pattern. Less than 50% of the tanks were washed at least once on a yearly basis. Total dissolved solids (TDS) and phosphate phosphorus concentrations were higher in the borehole water than tap water, while nitrate nitrogen and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) had significantly higher values in tap water than borehole water. Thirteen (13) phytoplankton species spread across 3 divisions were recorded in this study. Among all microalgal species sampled in the tap water, the microalga Chlorocloster pyreniger had the highest density per litre, while Coelastrum microporum had the highest density in the borehole water. Microcystis aeruginosa was present in the borehole water at a density of 7108 cells L-1. A close relationship between handling and household practices and physicochemical characteristics of the water with cyanobacteria and microalgae was observed
Keywords: Portable drinking water, developing countries, pollution, phytoplankton

Software Quality Evaluation of ADempiere, iDempiere, Plazma

Saleh M. Al-Saleem

This research work is aimed for selection of best reusable and maintainable open source ERP system. We have selected three open source project those are ADempiere [1], iDempiere [2], Plazma [3]. We have chosen a software analysis framework which is VizzMaintenance [4]. Our main goal of this research is to find out the reusability and maintainability level of all selected ERP systems and it helps us to make a decision of our future research and development of oue selected ERP system. In this study, literature is reviewed and as per our finding not much research has been already conducted about comparison of open source software of ERP systems. We compared and analyzed different open source ERP systems and extract the conclusion.
Keywords: Net Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, ADempiere, iDempiere, Plazma

Determining Shear Wave Velocity Model in Tabriz Land Using Microtremor Arrays
Ahmad Zarean and Noorbakhsh Mirzaei

Accurate knowledge about geometry and shear wave velocities of deep soil structure is a key parameter for controlling amplification of seismic motion. Use of artificial sources in conventional seismic explorations and their measurements by large array size depending on desired penetration depth could be rarely maintained in densely populated areas. Array observation of microtremors is a useful method for determining S-wave velocity structures in deep sedimentary basin because of simple data acquisition, analysis and low cost. Spatial Autocorrelation Method (SPAC) might be used to constrain the velocity structure underlying the site with microtremor array measurements. The major objectives of the present study were to describe SPAC method and to apply it for deep soil characterization in Tabriz land,Iran. Microtremor measurements were recorded by 4 broad band seismographs in 13 circular arrays in radius of 10 to 100 m (due to geological setting) in one NE-SW profile (ESPAC). The obtained waveforms were band-pass filtered and corrected for baseline and instrumental response. In the next step which was the main part of analysis, the modified spatial autocorrelation coefficients (MSPAC) were calculated in frequency range based on array size. The best fit of the Bessel function or the mean phase velocity was obtained using mean of SPAC coefficients. Using the estimated dispersion curve, the 1D S-wave velocity structure was obtained by PSO algorithm inversion. To validate the result of SPAC method, they were calibrated by the existing geotechnical and geological data available at the site. Finally, estimating reliable 2D Vs sections was successfully done in the studied area, which was important information for engineering studies. In general, shear wave velocity increased rapidly with increasing depth in city of Tabriz and, in the surface layers except in the weathered layer, the values were average velocity.
Keywords: Shear Wave Velocity, Microtremor, ESPAC method, Tabriz

Investigation of Rubber-Modified Asphalt Properties Based on Pull-out Test
Amin Taerian, Sayyed MAHDI Abtahi, Behrooz koosha and Sayyed MAHDI Hejazi

This paper describes the properties of asphalt samples modified with ground scrap tire rubber and reclaim rubber. In this way, a pull-out test was designed to investigate the interfacial shear stress between asphalt (neat and/or modified) and aggregate. The pull-out test was carried out through modification of the tensile tester machine. According to the experimental design, the effects of rubber particle content, blending temperature, mixing time and types of aggregate (limestone and/or steel slag) were investigated on the pull-out force. Therefore, the optimized conditions of preparation of rubber-modified asphalt-concrete were obtained.
Keywords: Rubber asphalt, modified asphalt, crumb rubber, reclaimed rubber, Pull-out test.

Gender Reflection in the Works of Iranian Female Novelist

Seyed Ali Dasp

Female Novelists believe that the role of woman in male literature is a subordinate one and woman is always depicted as the “Other “of man in most literary works. Due to this, the issue of feminine experience suffers undue neglect in the male-dominated literature. This helps female novelists to argue that due to their specific biological potentials, they are capable to depict some kind of feminine experiences to the readers that male literature fails to express and describe. Female novelists manage to express their own person and conditions in their fictional works and draw the reader’s attention. The present paper utilizes a descriptive - analytic method to examine the formative process of feministic discourse in the Iranian fiction writing and then analyzes the two novels i.e. Simin Daneshvar’s sovashon, the first novel written by an Iranian woman, and Zoya Pirzad’s we will get used to, a monumental novel written by one of the third generation of Iranian female novelists. In the above mentioned novels, woman’s role as a house wife changes to an active force in the social, political, and cultural contexts.
Keywords: Novel, Gender, Feministic Narration, Sovashon, we will Get Used to

Efficiency of an Integrated Process in Reduction of the Organic Loads in Methanogenic Landfill Leachates
Nesrine Turki, Kais Elghniji, Dalel Belhaj and Jalel Bouzid

Because of their high refractory organic compounds and the presence of phytotoxic compounds, methanogenic landfill leachates are not easily biodegradable; therefore, direct biological treatment of these wastewaters in conventional treatment plants is not recommended. The aim of this work was to examine the application of an integrated technique consisted of Coagulation-Flocculation-Fenton-Adsorption method that is low in cost and easily manageable for the treatment of methanogenic landfill leachates. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used in Coagulation-Flocculation experiments. The optimum working pH for the tested coagulant was 5.5. The optimum dosage was 0.6 g L-1 of Fe3+ and showed removal efficiencies of 43% and 90% for COD and turbidity, respectively. The Fenton experiments suggested that the dosage of 1.2 g L-1 of Fe2+ and 2.4 g L-1 of H2O2 at pH 3 were the appropriate working conditions. Under these conditions, the treated leachates were not tolerated by Tunisian guidelines of rejection into the urbanized streams. To achieve a satisfactory removal of pollutants, adsorption experiments were also carried out using 20 g L-1 of powder activated carbon during 90 minutes. Under these conditions, the removal efficiencies of COD, Fe and phytotoxicity were up to 98 %, 98.6 % and 92.2 %, respectively.
Keywords: Adsorption; Coagulation-Flocculation; Fenton; Methanogenic Landfill leachates; Organic matter.

Modification of Asphalt Mixtures with Composition of Nanoclay-Polypropylene Fiber Based on Topeka Aggregation
Mohsen Zahedi and Ramin Bayat

Asphalt mixtures and their physical and mechanical specifications always are considered by highway engineers. Modification of the asphalt mixture is one approach used to achieve good mixtures. Fibers and Nanomaterials are generally two important modifiers in improving pavement performance. Nanoclay and Polypropylene Fiber, because of their unique features have had many applications at most of the sciences and have caused evolution in materials' features in recent years. In consider to aggregation type, in mixing asphalt design, nanoclay is replaced by filler, and must be added to bitumen and be mixed with it and then aggregates be added to them; After that, segregated fibers gradually should be added to the mixture. Stability and flow of Marshall are functions of modifier's type, quantity and characteristics. In this research, by adding composition of 1 to 5 of nanoclay contents and 0.1 to .05 of polypropylene fibers contents in asphalt mixture based on Topeka aggregation, observed that this composition has direct ratio to increasing of Marshall Stability, VTM and VMA and has reverse ratio to decreasing of Flow, VFA and Unit Weight. Results showed that nanoclay has high filling role, improves cohesion between aggregates and bitumen, increases bitumen volume and finally causes increasing bitumen membrane thickness around the aggregates. Also polypropylene reinforces the mixture, absorbs to bitumen and aggregates and it has chemical reactions in the mixture.
Keywords: Nanoclay, Polypropylene Fiber, Asphalt Mixture, Topeka, Marshall Test, Aggregation

A Method to Mine the Feelings and Gestures of the Object from the Video
M.Parveen, M.Mohamed Sathik and N.Ravia Shabnam Parveen

Multimedia becomes the most recent emerging trend in today’s computer world. Advances in multimedia acquisition and storage technology have led to tremendous growth in very large and detailed multimedia databases. If these multimedia files are analyzed, useful information to users can be revealed. Mining plays an important role in extracting the useful information from large volumes of data. Mining information from multimedia database is an extension of data mining process. Multimedia mining deals with the extraction of implicit knowledge, multimedia data relationships, or other patterns not explicitly stored in multimedia files. Multimedia mining, otherwise known as Video Mining is the process of extracting the essential information from the video which is either static or dynamic. In this paper, we have to propose an algorithm to mine the object and its feelings from the video and to display the result to the user. In such case, the object can be extracted based on the inputted feelings and expressions and the result has been displayed to the user.
Keywords: Acquisition, Computer, Feelings, Mining, Multimedia, Object, Tremendous, Video Mining.

Correlation between Gravity and Near Surface Geological Structures in Abeche-Chad Replublic Region
Diab Ahmad Diab, Philippe Njandjock Nouck, Robert Nouayou, Valentin Oyoa, Mahamat Ali Mustapha and Eliézer Manguelle-Dicoum

Combined gravimetrical and geostatistical methods are used to investigate the near surface geological structures in Abeche-Chad region. The results show that, the area consists of heavy structures correlated to granite massif of Ouddai materials, and to lightweight structures matched to Abeche and Oumhadjer sedimentary structures.
Keywords: Interpolation; Geostatistic; gravity data; variogram; Kriging; Abeche basin near surface structure.

Efficacy of Parents’ Perfectionism on Self-esteem among Iranian Female Students

Seyed Mohammad Kalantarkousheh, FatemehHajihashem, Mahboubeh Ojaqi, ZeinabRadkarim and Arefeh Ansari

The present research is a study of the relationship between parents' perfectionism with guidance and high school female students' self-esteem in Khoda Bandeh, Iran. There were 220 students and their parents who participated in this study. Parents were asked to complete the Ahvaz Perfectionism Scale; students were requested to complete the Eysenck Self-esteem Questionnaire in order to evaluate their level of self-esteem. We applied Spearman correlation, step by step multiple regression and the t-test for data analyses. The obtained results showed a meaningful difference in perfectionism between fathers and mothers. There was a meaningful relationship between parents' perfectionism and student’s self-esteem, however parents' perfectionism was not singly predictive of students' self-esteem. Parents' Perfectionism, together, can somewhat predicate self-esteem at students.
Keywords: Perfectionism, Self-esteem, Regression, Students, Parents

The Impact of Social Classes on the Iranian EFL Learners’ Beliefs
Neda Fatehi Rad and Mohammadmehdi Garrusi

The concept of beliefs in language learning was first introduced into humanities by Horwitz (1987). Language learning beliefs have been defined as general assumptions that students hold about themselves as learners, about factors influencing learning and about the nature of language learning (Victori and Lockhart, 1995). So far the most significant researches in this respect include the relationship between language learning beliefs and gender by Bacon and Finneman (1992), the relationship between language learners’ beliefs and their autonomy by Cotteral (1995), the relationship between language learners’ beliefs and their teachers’ beliefs by Kern (1995) and Peacock (1999), and the relationship between language learning beliefs and cultural groups by Horwitz (1999). Human beings’ understanding of their environment is largely influenced by their social conditions. However none of the studies mentioned above has dealt with the relationship between language learners’ beliefs and this crucial issue. This paper has attempted to illustrate this relationship by studying the role of social class as a major factor of social conditions on language learners’ beliefs. This research clarifies how enjoying a high social class has a positive impact on language learning beliefs. Besides, all the previous researches deal with learners of English as a second language and their beliefs, but the present essay is unique in dealing with the beliefs of the learners of English as a foreign language.
Keywords: Belief, Attitude, Social class, EFL learners, Economic status, Educational status