European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 110 No 3
Aug, 2013

Erosion Potential (EROSION) Bottom and Transport Load Bed River Estuary Ranoyapo Amurang Half Month in the Rainy Season (Half Moon)
336-343
Maxi Tendean

Abstract:
This research describes and analyzes the bed load transport and changes along the mouth of the river with a map showing the spread of bed load models along the estuary. Distribution pattern of the spread of bed load to the conclusion that the state of the rainy season in half estuaries Ranoyapo an area deposition of material brought on stream transport from upstream. At low tide the river estuary bed load transport Ranoyapo experienced bed load transport, physically increasing the flow volume followed with increasing flow rate, associated on bed load transport. Tidal conditions, the pattern of spread of bed load shows, the first position up to eight bed load transport occurs. In contrast to the position of nine to seventeen is an area where the bed material load can not be transported, meaning that the flow velocity at the position of not being able to transport the bed load sediment toward the beach. Material deposition process lasted quite high transport taken control of the flow of physical variables, seasons and tides. Results of Formation in the precipitation measurement site was never formed because of the intensive sand mining activities by the local community. Patterns of spread of bed load along the boundary of the model, the conclusion that the state of rainy season in half estuaries Ranoyapo an area deposition of material brought on stream transport from upstream. Transport of material deposited at the mouth of the river, on the model boundary is dominated by sand.
Keywords: Potential erosion, transport, Bed Load.


A Comparison of the Early Maladaptive Schemas in Adolescent Girls Involved in Early Sexual Relations with those Who did not have Sexual Relations
344-352
Leila Torabiya, Zohre Khosravi and Naghme Torabimazre Maleki

Abstract:
Background and Aim: Adolescence involves changes in body, excitations, and sexual growth and thoughts. Biological changes in body cause an increase in sexual drive and likely sexual intercourse, in some adolescents. Overthe last thirty years, the percent of those adolescents who involve in early sexual intercourses has been increased. The aim of this research is to compare the early maladaptive schemas (among three groups of adolescent girls) who had sexual relations, friendship relations, and who did not have relation with opposite sex. Materials and Methods: Research method in the present study is comparative reasoning, and in order to study the aim of research, 287 schoolgirls have been selected. Data has been collected through Young schema questionnaire (SQ-SF) and for the analysis, the analysis of variance and SPSS16 have been used. Findings: An adolescent who had sexual relation, in comparison to one who did not have, reportedly has more self-sacrifice, entitlement, and social isolation schemas and also less emotional inhabitation and unrelenting standards. Conclusion:In this research, the relation between early maladaptive schemas and sexual relations in adolescents has been demonstrated. The results of this research help us to better understand teen ages and prevent the outbreak of adolescents’ risky behaviors.
Keywords: Early Maladaptive schema, Sexual Relation, Relationship.

Comparison on GLMM Uniresponse, Biresponse, and Reduction with PCA on Longitudinal Data
353-362
Adji Achmad Rinaldo Fernandes, I Nyoman Budiantara, Bambang Widjanarko and Suhartono

Abstract:
In the quantitative research particularly in the field of health research, it often uses longitudinal data using repeated measurements on some individuals within some period of time. One method used for longitudinal data with quantitative response is the General Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Study using two response variables can be solved by using three methods: first by using both response variables at once with Bi-response GLMM, both by using both variables Unirespon GLMM partial response, and the third uses PCA-reduction GLMM (Jacqmin-Gadda , 2000, and Hermanussen, 2008). This research uses the primary data and the simulation data. Thus, in this study we will compare which of the three best methods for the analysis of longitudinal data with bi-response GLMM using uniresponse, biresponse GLMM, and PCA-GLMM. From the results of the research conducted, it can be concluded as follows: (a) In the low correlation condition (correlations between 0.00 to 0.30), uniresponse GLMM is more feasible to be used. (b) Under conditions moderate correlation (correlation between 0.31 to 0.60), and the GLMM Biresponse and GLMM PCA reduction are feasible to be used, and (c) Under conditions of high correlation (correlation between 0.61 to 0.90), GLMM Biresponse is the best choice in shaping the model GLMM on longitudinal data.
Keywords: GLMM, Uniresponse, Biresponse, and Reduction PCA


Association of C2488T and P2712L Apolipoprotein B Polymorphisms with Coronary Artery Disease Appearance and Plasma Apolipoprotein B Level in Iranian Coronary Patients

363-372
Koorosh Fouladsaz, Sina Kalantari, Ali Ahmadi Azad, Yousf Mortazavi and Saeedeh Mazloomzadeh

Abstract:
Objective: Relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) appearance and changes in lipid concentrations caused by some Apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) gene polymorphisms have been recently suggested. We examined role of the two Apo-B C2488T and P2712L polymorphisms in the increased risk of CAD. Methods: Three hundred and sixty patients with suspected CAD were consecutively evaluated. The two Apo-B gene polymorphisms (C2488T and P2712L) were determined and plasma levels of Apo-B and lipid profile were measured. Results: There were three genotypes of the two polymorphisms in CAD and non-CAD groups with no significant difference in the frequency of these genotypes across the two groups. The types of the genotypes of both C2488T and P2712L polymorphisms could not predict CAD in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Plasma Apo-B level was not associated with the type of the genotypes of both C2488T and P2712L polymorphisms in both CAD and non-CAD groups. Conclusion: In the Iranian population, the two Apo-B gene polymorphisms of C2488T and P2712L appear not to be involved in the appearance and extension of CAD. Serum Apo-B level was only related to the LL genotype of the P2712L polymorphism.
Keywords: Coronary artery disease, polymorphism, apolipoprotein, risk


Prioritizing the Client trust Factors in Electronic Banking with Analytic Hierarchy Process
373-380
HamidrezaSaeednia, Mehdi Bani Asadi and Masoud Mostafaie

Abstract:
This study is aimed to prioritize the trust factors among electronic banking clients of Bank.(parsian bank) Accordingly after analyzing and reviewing the literature and interviews with experts of electronic banking and academicians, the factors of client trust and each of the sub-parameters has being determined which includes; individual factors, banking factors and infrastructural factors. The sample populations consist of 25 experts (academicians, managers and bank officers, clients of electronic banking). The data was simultaneously collected through conducting interviews and questionnaire and the data was analyzed using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Expert Choice software and Microsoft excel. The research findings indicate that the attitudinal factors, telecommunication infrastructure and cultural factors were the most influential factors accordingly and the customer orientation and ease of access were the least influential factors in spite of their influence on client trust.
Keywords: Electronic Banking, Trust, Features of Trust, Analytic Hierarchy Process.


Introduction of Two Newfound KS1732-KS1735 Paleolithic Sites in East of Dez River, Dezful, Iran

381-385
Amir Yazdanfar, Yosouf Dinarvand and Farideh Sherany

Abstract:
Iran is among the countries which has a diverse climate. Khuzestan is one of Southern provinces of Iran chosen for accommodation throughout history for various reasons. Zagros Mountains in North, Karun Delta in South, Shoushan plain in West as well as having three river of Dez, Karkheh and Karunhave made this province unique. Our knowledge about Paleolithic period in this province is very limited. The studies conducted in the eastern coast of Dez river, reveals new areas of settlement of Paleolithic societies. Identifying and introducing this area has considered of great importance. There are plenty of food and stone sources near Dez River which have made it a suitable place for people of Paleolithic period.
Keywords: Paleolithic, identification and study, Khuzestan, Dez, Zagros and Dezful


Effects of Liquidity Risk, Market Risk, Size, Free Float and Effective Factors on Cross-Sectional Returns in Tehran Stock Exchange
386-393
Malihe Keshavarz, Mehrdad Salehi, Shahbaz Sedaghat and Rohollah Baharlo

Abstract:
In this investigation, accordance to importance of relation between risk and return, affection of liquidity risk and risk affective factors that involved market risk or systematic risk, size, and relation between book to equity and also free float on cross-sectional returns, have been considered due to FARM model (Float-Adjusted Return Model). To this direction, 108 companies among statistical society that necessary information for 4 years periods to research (2009-2012) about them were accessible, had chosen. By means of hypothesis test, simple and multiple regression (step by step) techniques were used. Exams of significance models has accomplished by use of T and F statistic. Results show that market risk, size and free float have meaningful relation by return, but relation between book-to-market equity with return doesn’t have any meaning. Liquidity risk, despite having correlation with return couldn’t accomplish with the model because of its low significance. Also, researches show that relation between systematic risk and liquidity risk is significant
Keywords: Float-Adjusted Return Model, Liquidity Risk, Size, Free Float, Systematic Risk.


Study the Effect of Cold Working on Thermal Properties and Solution Treatment on Wear Behavior of 355/Al Alloy
394-406
Ammar Jebur Khaleel

Abstract:
In this study an experimental work has been done to show the effect of cold working process on the thermal properties of Al-355 alloys, as the specific heat at constant volume (Cv), thermal conductivity (k), and thermal diffusivity , and cold working by reduction (5%,10%,15%,20%,30%). The results shows as the cold working percentage is increased cause, decreasing the alloy density and increasing of the specific heat, the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity by. Through this study it was found the wear rate was decreased with increasing of aging temperature and aging time.
Keywords: Mechanical properties, Aluminum, Al-355, cold working.


Strategic Management Approach in Marketing Decisions

407-415
Negin Pirahmadi and Mohammad HosseinOwji

Abstract:
To realize goals and marketing objectives, a corporation or organization needs marketing strategic management.Developing marketing strategies is one of the important roles of this process. Proper implementing strategic management methods in marketingis the final part and guaranties succession of corporation in marketing. Results of different studies in strategic management context show that corporations which use strategy approach to achieve a stable competitive benefit, often face problems in strategy implementing stage in different organizational levels. First goal of this paper is to provide a classification and rating about barrierof effective implementing strategic management methods in marketing. First, a classification of obstacles from international literatures for this corporation is naturalized based on experts opinions and then classified and rated using Fridman and one sample T statistical tests. Results show that among octet classification, management barriers level has the most importance. Then, structural barriers level in second level and cultural, conceptual, strategic, operational, human force and resource obstacles class are in next levels respectively. Second goal of this paper is to study strategic management methods and making proper decisions in different levels. In this paper, strategic and management and marketing are determined based on different levels and then relation between different types of mentioned strategies studied. Paper hypothesis is evaluated in a statistical society to verify. Results show that there is coordination between strategy of market entering level with prospector strategy, growing market strategy with analyzer strategy, mature market strategy with differentiatedefender strategy and declining market strategy with low cost defender strategy based on strategic reference points and better function than other states are shown.
Keywords: Marketing strategy, strategic management, strategic coordination, strategic reference points, product life cycle, obstacles.


Strategic Planning of Universities Based on Harvard Model
416-421
Mansour Jangizehi and Ramin Faghani

Abstract:
Today, management based on strategic planning is the key to organizations success. In fact, developing and implementing a strategic planning is a necessity in dynamic environment of universities. In order to achieve an organization’s targets determined by its vision, it is needed to make a strategic planning. The present paper represents a step by step model for developing a strategic planning by which all universities can implement their planning strategies. Harvard model is the model presented in the research. According to Harvard model, mission of organization is determined based on its vision, then four main factors including internal strengths and weaknesses of universities as well as external opportunities and threats of them will be scrutinized. The main strategy is made up of the four mentioned factors. It is possible to reach targets and missions of universities via the introduced strategy. Providing training services and educating human resources are the main missions of universities. Therefore, according to Iran 20 year vision and mission of its universities, strategic planning is defined based on pattern of Harvard model (SWOT) to improve qualitative services of universities.
Keywords: Strategy, management, university, Harvard model, mission, opportunity, threat.


The Impact of Patterns of Criminal Behavior on Simple Robbery Among Adolescents
422-429
Saeed Tayebi and Shahla Moazami

Abstract:
Among offenses committed by adolescents, robbery has a noticeable importance. Robbery is not a new phenomenon associated with the new period, it has been one of the oldest committed crimes among adolescents, and however, what matters is the prevalence of this crime among adolescents at the present time. Some of the criminologists believe that prevalence of robbery among adolescents is more that other common crimes. To their belief, it is also possible to relate the issue of children and adolescents’ crimes to their committing robberies. The main purpose of the present paper is to study impact of patterns of criminal behavior on simple robbery among adolescents. In order to achieve this purpose,70 adolescents at the age range of 15-19 at correction and rehabilitation center located in Alborz province have been studied based on the researcher’s questionnaire, previously done researches and experts’ opinions in 2012. The researcher’s questionnaire includes demographic factors that affect prevalence of robbery among the adolescents. Results of the present paper show impact of each of the variables on prevalence of robbery among adolescents. In fact, beta weight of parental crime background equals 0.336, beta weight of adolescent’s friends’ crime background equals 0/139, beta weight of having a tendency toward modeling friends’ criminal behaviors equal -0/508, beta weight of offense commitment at adolescents’ educational environment equals 0/150, beta weight of watching movies in which robbery is committed equals -0/190, and beta weight of living in areas where lots of crimes occur equals 0/137. Generally, with regard to the corrected coefficient of coordination determination, beta weight equals 0/62.
Keywords: Behavioral patterns, robbery, adolescents, criminal


Application of Microstrainer in Recycle of Spent Filter Backwash Water of Conventional Water Treatment Plants
430-435
Mohammad Abdollahzadeh, Noushin Osouleddini, Maryam Safaei and Raheleh Sajadipoor

Abstract:
Conventional treatment plants, by definition (40 CFR 141.2), employ the following four unit processes: coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration. In this study, microstrainer application in recycle of Spent Filter Backwash Water (SFBW) has been investigated. The results show that physicochemical and biological quality of SFBW can be added to the inlet water but it must be treated with microstrainer filter. The SFBW was passed through standard membrane with 5,18,40,70 µm size and filtered SFBW was analyzed. 5, 18 and 40 µm membrane showed respectively the best results. Applying 5 µm membrane that the best results found removing amount of biological factors include: diatom 85.77 to 90 percent, Cyanophyceae 100%, Crustacean 100%, Rotifer 100%, and removing percent of physicochemical parameters include: Turbidity 44.78%, Iron 51.24% and Manganese 35.35%. In present study 18 µm membrane is economical membranes because after filtering the SFBW with 18 µm membrane can be added to the inlet water.
Keywords: Water reuse, Water Treatment Plant, Spent Filter Backwash Recycling, Microstrainer.

Development and Verification of an Entrepreneurial Model for Increasing the Customers' Loyalty in Volleyball Spectators in Iran
436-446
Farzin Ghasemzadeh Kakroudy, Adele Sadeghi Moghaddam, Reza Mohammad Kazemi, Saeed Zare and Farshad Tojjari

Abstract:
Without the presence of spectators in sports, there wouldn't be any modern competition. If spectator be removed from professional sports, no one would compete and consequently all its marginal issues will be disappeared. The aim of the present study is to identify the attraction factors and to propose strategies for increasing the customers' loyalty of the spectators in the 2012 Asian volleyball Games. Therefore, 206 randomly chosen spectators completed the revised questionnaire of Corea, Steve and Trail. The findings of statistical model of SEM showed that motivational, social and place-time factors as well as financial and physical facilities in indoor sports (volleyball), have significant relationships with the tendency to participate in stadiums (p<0.01). This study is consistent with the findings of previous researches in this area. It should be noted that the entrepreneurial model mentioned in this study could be used in other fields of sports management.
Keywords: Attendance, spectator, volleyball, Structural equations model



Assessing Extraction of Rice Bran Protein and Its Effect on Physicochemical Properties of Sausage

447-463
Soudabeh Ghalamara and Seyed Mahdi seyedain Ardebili

Abstract:
Today, consumption pattern is going to change increasingly and tendency to consume fast foods is going to be considered so important. Due to some properties like being nutritious of sausage and frankfurter, being healthy, being available and fast preparation of them, importance of using these foods would be cleared especially in industrial countries. The main objective in this study is replacing a rice bran protein instead of meat in sausage formulations. Obtained results indicate that adding 2% of rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) would improve the texture of sausage and decrease its hardness. Adding 4% of this protein concentrate would make the texture smooth, which was not accepted by panelists. Results of cooking loss test indicated that adding rice bran protein concentrate to formulation of batches, led to decrease in cooking loss for applied sample. Respecting to results of sensory evaluation, the study found also that adding 2% of this protein concentrate would have no effect on color, smell and taste of the sausage; although, it would improve the texture. It would be considered also as the best batch for sensory evaluation comparing to other tests on this batch.
Keywords: Rice bran, rice bran protein concentrate, Physico-Chemical, Characteristics of Sausage


Odd and Even Gracefulness of Some Classes of Graphs
464-474
M.Sudha and A.Chandra Babu

Abstract:
In this paper, we prove that the caterpillar graphs, Bn,m ,C4 (k1, n) and the Dutch windmill graph Dn (m) for some specific values of n are all odd graceful and the caterpillar graphs, D2 (Pn), D2 (k1, n), Bn,m and C4 (k1, n) graphs are all even graceful. A function f is called an odd graceful labeling of a graph G with q edges if f is an injection from the vertices of G to the set {0, 1, 2, ..., 2q-1} such that when each edge xy is assigned the label | f(x) – f(y) |, the resulting edge labels are distinct odd numbers. A graph, which admits an odd graceful labeling, is said to be an odd graceful graph. A function f is called an even graceful labeling of a graph G with q edges if f is an injection from the vertices of G to the set {0, 1, 2, ..., 2q} such that when each edge xy is assigned the label | f(x) – f(y) |, the resulting edge labels are distinct even numbers. A graph, which admits an even graceful labeling, is said to be an even graceful graph.
Keywords: Odd graceful labeling, Even graceful labeling, Caterpillar graphs, Dutch Windmill graph and Shadow graph.