European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 110 No 2
Aug, 2013

Impact of Glycemic Control on Advanced Glycation, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzymes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
171-190
Erika äŠndorovŠ, VladimŪr Jakuö, Miroslava GlejtkovŠ and Boris Krahulec

Abstract:
Increased glycation and oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications. In this study, the effect of glycemic control on parameters of glycation and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was investigated. Markers of glycation (HbA1c, AGEs), oxidative stress markers (AOPP, LP), antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, CAT) and TEAC were assessed in 81 patients with DM2 (47 patients with good glycemic control (GC group), 34 patients with poor glycemic control (PC group)) and 20 healthy blood volunteers. Established fluorimetric/spectro-photometric methods were used to quantify glycative and oxidative stress markers in plasma/erythrocytes. Our results showed that levels of AOPP and AGEs were significantly increased and SOD activity was significantly decreased in PC group compared to control and GC group. The GPx activity was lower in PC group compared to control and GC group, but differences did not reach a significant statistical power. We found negative correlation between HbA1c and SOD activity in PC group. The obtained results showed that monitoring of parameters of advanced glycation, oxidative stress and antioxidant systems especially in patients with poor glycemic control may be useful to recognize the risk of diabetic complications.
Keywords: HbA1c, advanced glycation, AOPP, lipoperoxides, SOD, GPx, CAT, TEAC, oxidative stress, type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Evaluation of Waltheria Indica Aerial Parts Extract for Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities
191-198
L.J. Hamidu, J.O. Ayo, A.B. Adelaiye and M.S. Abubakar

Abstract:
In Nigeria, various parts of waltheria indica are traditionally used to treat some disease conditions. Roots extract of the plant are used to treat diarrhea and infertility, while hot water extract of the aerial parts are used to treat inflammatory conditions and to relief aches and pains by the fulanis of Nigeria during Ď Sharoí festivals. This study was carried out to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aerial parts extract of the plant to confirm folkloric claims. Fresh aerial parts of waltheria indica was collected, air-dried, powdered,sieved and extracted with aqueous ethanol by soxhlet apparants. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity study were carried out on the extract.The extract and its fractions were assessed for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Students t-test was used to test for statistical significance. Phytochemistry revealed reducing sugars, cardenolides and flavonoids.The oral LD50 of the extract was found to the 875 mg kg-1 body weight. The result also showed that the extract and the fractions possess significant (P< 0.05) analgesic activity, with ethyl acetate fraction showing highest activity against acetic acid induced writhes.The measure of anti-inflammatory activity expressed as percentage reduction of oedema size showed that the extract induced anti-inflammatory activity in dose-dependent manner, with ethyl acetate fraction producing 71% and 75% inhibition of oedema at doses 100 mg kg-1 and 200 mg kg-1 respectively. These values were comparable to the standard drug, aspirin (82%) inhibition.
Keywords: Waltheria idica aerial parts extract, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, acute toxicity.

Modeling the Radiation Characteristics of a Circular Patch Antenna by using Cavity Model for RFID Applications
199-207
Ali El Alami, Saad Dosse Bennani, Moulhime El Bekkali and Ali Benbassou

Abstract:
The main objective of this paper is applying the cavity model to simulate the radiation characteristics of a circular patch antenna excited by the dominant mode TM11 and higher order modes (TM21, TM31, TM41, TM51 and TM61) for RFID applications. The study showed that the substrates having the high dielectric constants presents the better results in terms of directivity, input impedance and total input conductance for higher order modes that the dominant mode. The simulation was made by MATLAB program.
Keywords: Cavity model, circular patch antenna, RFID applications, dominant mode TM11, higher order modes TM21(,,, TM51 and TM61).


Effect of different Concentrations of Peganum Harmala Alcoholic Extract on the Liver and Kidney in Albino Mice. Histo-Pathological Study

208-222
Abdul Hadi Sallal Mohamed, Sahar Mahmood Jawad AL- Jammali and Zainb Jwad Naki AL- Hasini

Abstract:
Twenty four of males albino mice (Mus musculus) were used in this present study. The animal divided randomly in to four groups: control group was injected with normal saline (0.9 % NaCl2), while the three treated groups was injected subcutaneous different doses of peganum harmala alcoholic extract (75, 100, 150) milligram/ kg B.W at respectively, twice/ weekly for complete month period. The histological changes was severe at high doses (150) milligram/ kg B.W, severe changes were represented hemorrhage in interstitial connective tissue and blood vessels of medulla and cortex, necrosis and degeneration in the epithelial lining of kidney tubules, and show clear damage in the cortex of kidney mice at concentration (150) milligram/ kg B.W and shrinkage in the glomeruli with widening in Bowmanís space, while the doses (100, 75) milligram/ kg B.W have moderate and mild effects on the cortex and medulla of kidney mice, were represented by moderate and mild degeneration and hypertrophy of epithelial lining with widening of Henle's loops, and glomerulonephritis was occurred. while the effects of different doses of peganum harmala seeds alcoholic extract on the liver structures, have been showed severe toxic effect at concentration (150) milligram/ kg B.W led to severs destruction of hepatic cells, pyknotic of hepatic cell nuclei and vesiculation in their cytoplasm due to fatty degeneration. From other hand, widening in hepatic sinusoids and destruction in the walls of central veins were occurred. Nuclear polymorph cellular infiltration and cirrhosis as well as widening in hepatic sinusoids and pyknotic in hepatic cell nuclei were noticed at concentration (100) milligram / kg B.W
Keywords: peganum harmala, Histo- Pathological changes, liver, kidney, mice.+


Special Correlation Function Estimation for Diffusion Equation for Spreading in Porous Media
223-225
Kira Logvinova

Abstract:
In this study we investigate the properties of correlation function of the special type. Function is used in deriving basic integro - differential equation for the evolution of the averaged concentration of particles in the presence of the random force. Our result confirms the previously used proposition, which is the core for basic equation deriving.
Keyword: Diffusion Equations, Correlation Function, Estimation.


A Survey of Relationship between the Systematic Risk with Leverages in Accepted Industries of Tehran Exchange Securities

226-236
Saeed Arabi

Abstract:
Due to the fact that exchange is on of the parameters of economic development of the countries and many people invest in this market and in this process confront different question, this study aims at answering one of the above question which is there any significant relationship between non diversifiable risk, yield portfolio and financial leverage? To answer this important question the following hypotheses were examined. 1. There is a significant relationship between yield portfolio and non diversifiable risk. 2. There is a significant relationship between yield portfolio and non diversifiable risk and financial leverage. 3. There is a significant relationship between financial leverage and non diversifiable risk of stock. In this study, we will have a review of the present views regarding the structure of capital and the relationship between the ratio of liability and the rate of return on net worth and then the research tested the industries relating to hypothesis by collecting financial information of 70 common stock componies. In testing the hypothesis, the liner regression was used which showed a significant relationship between yield portfolio and non diversifiable risk in testing the second hypothesis for which the liner regression was also used, the results indicated that financial leverage alone does not have any effect on yield portfolio but the reciprocal and simultaneous effect of financial leverage and non diversifiable risk on yield portfolio relationship between financial leverage and non diversifiable risk.+
Keywords: Financial Leverage, Operating Leverage, yield portfolio systematic risk (Beta), capital structure.


The Identification of Factors Influencing Place of Customers to using Internet Bank Across Banks of Kerman Province
237-251
Parisa Bahmani

Abstract:
The Main Aim of Present Research Is To Identify Factors Influencing Loyalty Of Customers To Making Use of Internet Bank Across The Banks Of Kermanshah Province. This Research Is Descriptive_Analaytical and of Survey (Ground .Finding) Type. Statistical Population Of The Research Includes 289 Persons Specialized In The Field Of Internet Banking In Kermanshah Province, Who Were Selected By Class Random Sampling Method. This Research Studied Relationship Between Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty With Loyalty Of Customers To Using Internet Bank .To Collect Information ,A Questionnaire Was Used ,Reliability Of Which Was Confirmed By Using Cronbachs Alpha Coefficient Being 845 For Said Questionnaire .Data Was Analyzed Statistically With Spss Software ,For Which Person Correlation Test An Multiple Regression Analysis Were Employed In Order To Test Hypotheses .On The Basis Of Statistical Analysis Performed ,It Was Found That Aspects Of Using Internet Bank Are Correlated To Customer Loyalty Significantly .For The Rate Of Using Internet Bank ,Factor Of " reputation " Had The Highest Share Followed By Factors Of "Trust ", "Habit ","Usefulness ","Easy Use ",Service Quality "And "Perceived Value" In Order.
Keywords: Service Quality ,Internet Bank, Customer Space, reputation, Perceived Value.


Psychological and Social Pathology of Imprisonment Penalty Based on the Statistics Provided by the State Prisons Organization during 1979-2001
252-262
Shirzad Amiri

Abstract:
Nowadays, sociologists consider delinquencies such as committing a crime as a conflict between the individual and society. Committing crime as a social problem imposes unfavourable effects on the society (Nouraee, 2010). Taking the official statistics of criminal penalties into account, especially imprisonment presented by state prisons organization, we come to this point that that imprisonment as a symbolic penalty causes the rush of offenders in prisons hoping to reform and socialize them. Not only committing crime has not decreased over time but also has encountered a rising trend, the fact that has been disregarded by social pathology theorists and authorities over time. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of symbolic penalty (imprisonment) on the prevention of crime using longitudinal descriptive survey method. The sample included all prisoners in a 23-year period from 1979 to 2001 according to age, sex, and proportion of the prisoners based on their existing statistics recorded as complete census in state prisons organization.As the number of prisoners, psychological disorders, and social traumas among prisoners and their families are increasing, it is necessary to apply the principles of psychology and sociology to influence symbolic penalties and prevent crime. This is indicative of the insufficiency of symbolic penalties alone in the prevention of crime
Keywords: Social pathology, psychological pathology, imprisonment penalty, crime


Investigation of Relationship between Financial Ratios Changes and Stock Returns Change in Accepted Companies in Stock Security Exchange of Tehran

263-274
Sajad Gholami and Ayat Tamri Nejad

Abstract:
Where as, annual financial statements and ratios of company is information resource for many persons that thy want to assess and decide in every reason. The aim of this investigation is examination relationship between financial ratios changes and stock returns changes in accepted companies in stock security exchange of Tehran. The statistical community of this investigation are accepted company in stock security exchange of Tehran and the statistical sample is consist of 53 active company of different industries during 2007 until 2011. Hypothesis/ theories are experimented by smironof Ė calmogorof tests, independent and persons cohesiveness. The findings indicate that there is significant and weak cohesiveness between cash ratios changes (current and quick ratios) and profitability ratios changes ( grass profit/sail and profit/sail) with stock output in stock exchange. Finally, with attention to variable, the regression model is effective.
Keywords: Common stock returns changes, cash ability, market, profitability ratios.


Design and Explain the Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction to Brand
275-284
Mehrdad Ghanbari, Narges Parvizy, Bahareh Moradi Aliabadi, Mahsa Moradi and Seyed Reza Hassani

Abstract:
Customer Satisfaction is rating of perceived differences between previous expectations and the actual performance of the product. In fact, satisfaction leads to customer loyalty and reduces switching. The purpose of this study is to provide a model that can create customer satisfaction. This model pays to check variables, Trust worthiness, Perceived value, category involvement, brand identification, Relational order fulfilment service, service quality. To test the hypotheses, a questionnaire of 32 questions designed that is valued 0 to 100 and distributed among the population noodle customer (elit brand), the total 384 patients of the main branches of clients who have had experience using the online system. The method used in this research is descriptive survey. The path analysis method was used to test the hypotheses, and the AMOS software is used for statistical analysis of data. The results of the study show the significant impact of variables on Customer Satisfaction, however, the Perceived value and brand identification has had the greatest impact on Satisfaction among them.
Keywords: Satisfaction, proposed model, noodle customer( elit brand).


Investigating the Refusal Factors Pertaining to Companies Accepted in Tehran Negotiable Paper Exchange to Apply the Language of Financial Reporting ďXBRLĒ
285-294
Azam Salimi Kharat and Somayeh Sarouei

Abstract:
The arrangement and unification of data and the acquisition of quantitative ratios related to the organizationís internal performance and external communications are the most important functions of a financial system. Collection, classification and arrangement of financial data due to all organization parts can be carried out by applying capabilities of an efficient accounting system. Applying Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL), the companyís financial system can be directly connected to Internet and the users of accounting data, in all parts of the world and at all times, can refer to the companyís website to see and analyze the financial statements with all recent changes and details. By applying XBRL, the company can save in expenditures and carry out data collection and reporting more efficiently. In addition to recognition of theoretical aspects of the subject, this research has tried to investigate the refusal reasons pertaining to the companies accepted in Tehran negotiable paper exchange to use XBRL, based on opinions of experts of accounting profession. Firstly and based on related literature, variables as lack of awareness about the existence of this language, un-preparedness to apply this language in Iran( regarding technological basis), lack of economic efficiency and finally lack of any necessities to have any revolutions in available reporting methods were identified as effective variables in refusing to apply XBRL by companies. Then, questionnaires have been used to elicit comments of university researchers, tutors and also employed auditors in accounting profession. Student T-Test and SPSS software version 16 have been used to analyze collected data. The result was that lack of awareness about the existence of XBRL, un-preparedness to accept XBRL in Iran and lack of necessities to have such developable reporting language were recognized as the main preventive burdens in applying XBRL while lack of economic efficiency in applying XBRL wasnít identified as a burden in making use of XBRL.
Keywords: Financial reporting, XBRL, economic efficiency, XML


Investigating the Efficiency of Springate Zmijeskiís Models in Predicting Bankruptcy of Accepted Companies of Tehran Negotiable Paper Exchange
295-304
Omid Jalilian, Somayeh Sarouei, Seyed Reza Hassaniand Mehrdad Ghanbari

Abstract:
Regarding the recent bankruptcies of international big companies and inconsistencies related to the exchange of Iranís negotiable paper, the need for the existence of some tools to evaluate companiesí financial capabilities is felt. One of such tools is the use of patterns of bankruptcy prediction. Taking such necessity into account, the main goal of this study is to determine the degree of efficiency related to Springate and Zmijeskiís patterns to predict bankruptcy status of accepted companies of Tehran negotiable paper exchange and compare the related results. Accordingly, two main hypotheses and three subsidiary hypotheses have been planned to realize this goal. Population sample and statistical sample of this study include 13 bankrupted companies and 28 non-bankrupted companies of textile and medicinal companies accepted in Tehran negotiable paper exchange during the years 2000 to 2007. Companiesí classification into bankrupted and non-bankrupted was based on article presupposition number 141 of commerce law. In this study, statistical method of Logistic Regression has been used to examine the first main hypothesis and the group of subsidiary hypotheses. The effective coefficients have been derived with regard to economic and financial status in Iran and by making use of statistic of Wald Method (ENTER). And also the comparison method of non-parametric average named CroscallValis has been used to examine the second main hypothesis. At the end of the examination, all research hypotheses were verified at the significance level of 0/95 and the results showed that , in the three studied years, the Springateís model leads to better results than Zmijeskiís model to predict companiesí bankruptcy.
Keywords: Bankruptcy, Springate, Zmijeskiís, economic, predicting, model.

Investigating the Efficiency of Ohlsonzmijeskiís Models in Predicting Bankruptcy of Accepted Companies of Tehran Negotiable Paper Exchange
305-314
Somayeh Sarouei and Azam Salimi Kharat

Abstract:
Regarding the recent bankruptcies of international big companies and inconsistencies related to the exchange of Iranís negotiable paper, the need for the existence of some tools to evaluate companiesí financial capabilities is felt. One of such tools is the use of patterns of bankruptcy prediction. Taking such necessity into account, the main goal of this study is to determine the degree of efficiency related to ohlson and Zmijeskiís patterns to predict bankruptcy status of accepted companies of Tehran negotiable paper exchange and compare the related results. Accordingly, two main hypotheses and three subsidiary hypotheses have been planned to realize this goal. Population sample and statistical sample of this study include 13 bankrupted companies and 28 non-bankrupted companies of textile and medicinal companies accepted in Tehran negotiable paper exchange during the years 2000 to 2007. Companiesí classification into bankrupted and non-bankrupted was based on article presupposition number 141 of commerce law. In this study, statistical method of Logistic Regression has been used to examine the first main hypothesis and the group of subsidiary hypotheses. The effective coefficients have been derived with regard to economic and financial status in Iran and by making use of statistic of Wald Method (ENTER). And also the comparison method of non-parametric average named CroscallValis has been used to examine the second main hypothesis. At the end of the examination, all research hypotheses were verified at the significance level of 0/95 and the results showed that , in the three studied years, the ohlson model leads to better results than Zmijeskiís model to predict companiesí bankruptcy.
Keywords: Bankruptcy, Zmijeskiís,ohlson , economic , predicting , model.



Developing of Expectation Maximization (Em) Algorithm on Estimating Method of Random and Fixed Effect on Model GLMMs

315-324
Adji Achmad Rinaldo Fernandes, I Nyoman Budiantara, Bambang Widjanarko and Suhartono

Abstract:
Several response variables were categorized only two groups or classes in every subject classified observations on being successful or unsuccessful. Such conditions tend to the binomial distribution. Genesis binomial distribution is often found in the response variables are correlated to longitudinal data. Longitudinal data with binomial distributed response variables can be modelled in Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs). GLMMs used to model the longitudinal data on clinical research and epidemiological studies such as cancer and other diseases. The purpose of this study was to test whether the algorithm expectation Maximization (EM) to estimate model parameters GLMMs better than commonly used algorithms that Rhapson Newton algorithm (NR). This study uses four simulation of data in health research. Based on the research data, it can be concluded that the EM algorithm to estimate the parameters better than the models GLMMs NR algorithm.
Keywords: GLMMs, EM algorithm, and the algorithm NR


Modeling of Physical Properties at Various Levels of Flooding in the City of Manado Tondano ESTUARY
325-335
Marthen Kumajas

Abstract:
The river is a multi-resource functions that are vital to human life. The main functions of the river is a source of drinking water, power generation, irrigation fields / farms and aquaculture, transport, supply of building materials, tourism and so forth. In fact the condition of the river, discharge and water quality is even more alarming, as these resources are non-renewable. This research will be discussed further on physical variables such as changes in speed, density, momentum and drag force, the social impact, attitudes and behaviour are good in order to flood hazard mitigation and control, and the relationship between attitudes and behaviour in order to mitigate hazard and flood control. Physical variable modelling analysis results showed that the increasing flood flooding the maximum speed of the river flow will be shifted toward the surface, so with the momentum, but the density of the river water is almost evenly on all levels of the river water, but the drag force will be larger, because the drag force depends on the speed of the river flow.
Keywords: Modelling the physical properties, Spearman correlation, the social impacts of flooding