European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 109 No 3
Aug, 2013

The Correlation between Psychological Empowerment and Organizational Entrepreneurship
Mohammad Malekmohammadi Faradonbeh, Abdulvahab Malekzadeh, Yousof Hormoziyan and Sajad Tavakolikermani

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correlation between psychological empowerment factors and organizational empowerment among staff of Bank Saderat Iran, Kohgilouye and Bouyer Ahmad Branch. 259 staff was selected using Morgan’s table and the stratified-random method. Questionnaires were used to collect data and a number of descriptive statistics methods including mean, SD, percentage, and inferential statistics including Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Friedman’s ranking test were used to analyze data. The findings indicated that the psychological empowerment factors and organizational entrepreneurship are correlated (p<0.05). Moreover, the psychological empowerment factors were ranked using the Friedman’s ranking test. They were ranked in order of importance as: 1- Competency, 2- Self-determining, 3- Trust, 4- Meaning, and 5- Impact.
Keywords: Psychological Empowerment, Entrepreneurship

News Discourse Analysis of the Iran Presidential Election in “BBC Persian” and “Radio Farda” Websites
Saeed Faramarziani, Shirzad Bakhshi Teliabi, Jahangir Bakhshi Teliabi and Tayebeh Jahanbazi

This essay is about the 10th Iran presidential election on 12 June 2009 on the basis of wide spread media coverage over it and its secret layers analyzing from western media news. This essay will answer the questions which two media sites of BBC Persiani and Radio Fardaii in their news coverage had and their imagination and discourse about Iran election. The method for this research is discourse analysis the samples contains 12 news texts from BBC Persian 6 ones, and Radio Farda, 6 ones too. Both of them were very similar in making psychological and propaganda discourse with the aim of causing disunion among political groups and making crisis in the country on June 2009.
Keywords: Discourse, news, imagines, Iran presidential election, BBC Persian website, Radio Farda website.

The Investigate Effect Operating Cash Flows, Tobin’s Q on Sensitivity of Capital Investments to Earnings Quality
Fatemeh Ahmadi

This study investigates sensitivity of current Capital investments to operating last year cash flows and last year Tobin’s Q and then investigates the impact of earnings quality on this sensitivity. In this regard, once independent variable operating cash flows and control variable Tobin’s Q were investigated and then independent variable Tobin’s Q and control variable operating cash flows were evaluated. The considered criterion for earnings quality is the ratio of operating cash flows to the operating earning The results of hypothesis test showed that the current capital investments is sensitive to operating cash flows and Tobin’s Q of last year and with increasing of earnings quality, the sensitivity will increase. Also, the increase in sensitivity of current capital investment to operating cash flows of last year is more than of Tobin’s Q in last year.
Keywords: Quality of earnings, operating cash flows, Tobin’s Q, Capital investments

Folding of Fuzzy Submanifolds

A. E. El-Ahmady and E. R. Lashin

In this paper the concept of folding of manifolds has been generalized for fuzzy submanifolds. A new condition for folding have been derived. Fundamental theorems relating folding of manifolds to folding of fuzzy submanifolds have been established. Some applications in physics will be discussed.
Keywords: Fuzzy folding, Fuzzy submanifold, Fuzzy geodesic.
Mathematics Subject Classification Codes: 51H10, 57N10.

Deformation Retract of Fuzzy Hyperbolic Lobachevsky Space
A. E. El-Ahmady and K. Al-Onemi

Our aim in the present paper is to introduce and study new types of fuzzy retractions of fuzzy hyperbolic model in fuzzy Lobachevsky space. Types of fuzzy foldings and fuzzy deformation retracts of fuzzy hyperbolic E3 model are presented. Types of fuzzy retractions, fuzzy foldings and fuzzy deformation retract of fuzzy hyperbolic E3 model and fuzzy open ball in fuzzy Euclidean space are obtained. The relation between the fuzzy folding and the fuzzy deformation retracts of fuzzy hyperbolic E3 model are deduced. Types of minimal fuzzy retractions of fuzzy hyperbolic E3 model are presented. Some applications are presented.
Keywords: retailing, food industry, sale potential.

Evaluation of the Urban Environmental Quality in Golbahar New Town

Mohammad Ajza Shokouhi, Alireza Bidkhori and Omidali Kharazmi

The present paper has been designed with the goal of quality evaluation of the city environment and with the motive of providing one model in order to evaluate the urban environment quality in the new towns. The criterion for evaluating the urban environment of Golbahar new town is satisfaction attribute of the quality indicators of urban environment from inhabitants’ viewpoints. The methodology of the environment quality evaluation has been set on the basis of the multi-attribute decision making and formed on the basis of the existing experiments and the case study regarding Golbahar new town. Based on the resulted outcomes from the present research, the urban environment quality of Golbahar new town is on low level according to the inhabitants’ point of views. Studying the different indicators of the model also shows that there is only satisfaction regarding the quality of the access and the roads organization indicators, the aspects and facilities of residential unit, outdoor facilities, and current costs of the residential unit.
Keywords: The quality of environment, urban environment quality, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis Method, new towns, Golbahar new town.

Inequality of Region in Eastern Iran (A Review on Khorasan Razavi Province)
Mohammad Ajza Shokouhi, Omid Ali Kharazmi and Amirali Kharazmi

This paper is trying to collect indicators of economic, cultural, social, and physical facilities to rates the facilities and public services in the cities of Khorasan Razavi province in Iran and so, rank them. The paper can helps to decisions of the officials and urban planners involved in economic, social and cultural rights in general. The research methods based on Inductive and descriptive, and concluded that spatial inequality in khorasan Razavi is mainly applied to wrong policies of the government about zoning and facilities and also between different parts of inappropriate segmentation, concentration of population in some areas and lack of resource allocation.
Keywords: Inequality, policies of government, population, governmental plan.

Screening Phytochimique et Activité Antibactérienne de l’Extrait éthanolique de la Bourre de Cocos Nucifera (Arecaceae), Utilisé dans le Traitement de la Carie Dentaire
Guessennd-Kouadio Nathalie, Boua Boua Benson, Dally Ismaël Laba, Atsain Marie Rosine, Coulibaly Kiyinlma, Oussou Kouamé Raphaël, Kouamé Bosson, Antoine, Kablan Brou Jérôme and Békro Yves-Alain

Cette étude a été réalisée pour contribuer à la recherche d’un remède adéquat dans le traitement de la carie dentaire par la valorisation de Cocos nucifera, une plante dont la bourre est utilisée en médecine traditionnelle en Côte d’Ivoire. L’étude a porté sur le criblage phytochimique et la recherche de l’activité antibactérienne de l’extrait de la bourre de Cocos nucifera (Béth), obtenu avec l’éthanol (70%, v/v), sur trois souches bactériennes de Streptococcus mutans, responsables de la carie dentaire ; et résistantes à la pénicilline G. Les études phytochimiques ont permis d’identifier des stérols et polyterpènes, des polyphénols, des composés réducteurs, des alcaloïdes selon Dragendorff , des tannins catéchiques et des flavonoïdes. Les tests biologiques ont montré une activité bactéricide pour toutes les souches bactériennes testées avec une Concentration Minimale Inhibitrice (CMI) comprise entre 6,25 mg/ml et 12,5 mg/ml.
Motsclés: Cocos nucifera, décoction, screening phytochimique, activité antibactérienne.

Gender Specific Language: A Myth or a Reality in Evolution?

Hajar Ghafarpour and Shakiba Rostami

Language has been deemed to differ in use by each gender. Most of the research in this area focuses on the spoken language. The purpose of the present study is to probe the notion of genderlect in short stories by British or American male and female authors of 20 and 21 centuries. Hence a sample of 32 English short stories is selected 16 of which have female authors and 16 male authors, making four major categories of 19 century male and female and 20 century male and female. The investigated features include empty adjectives, boosters and intensifiers that were probed using the Word Smith Tools. To find out whether the difference is significant MANOVA is applied. The result shows no significant differences between male and female language in each century and a significant decrease in intensifier application in by the female group. Some probable reasons are discussed in the article.
Keywords: Genderlect, booster, intensifier, empty adjective

The Relationship between Corporate Governance and Corporate Transparency: Evidence from Cement Industry and Basic Metals Companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange
Mohammad Javad Sheikh, Abdolazim Gorgin Moorjani and Mohammad Ebrahim Raei Ezabadi

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between corporate governance and corporate transparency in the cement industry and basic metals companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. Hence, from the various criteria applied in several studies for assessing corporate governance, we select these criteria: board independence, ownership of institutional shareholders, ownership concentration and CEO duality tasks. For measuring the quality of corporate transparency, disclosure quality criteria published by the stock exchange has been used for all companies. We first sorting the collecting data by EXCEL and then by correlation test and simple and multiple regression in SPSS software we analyzes the data. Results indicate a direct significant relationship between the ownership of institutional shareholders and ownership concentration and corporate transparency, and an inverse significant relationship between board independence and CEO duality duties and corporate transparency in these industries.
Keywords: Corporate governance, corporate transparency, board independence, CEO Tasks Duality, ownership concentration, ownership of institutional shareholders.
JEL Classification Codes: G14, G34

Urban Seismic Vulnerability Assessment using Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision-Mak¬ing and Geographic Informa¬tion Systems: A Case Study Tehran Center Core Region 12
Mohsen Soltanabadi and Amir Razmi

Cities as human gathering places are subjected to natural disasters and in order to diminish the effects of these catastrophes should be made a decision. Urbanity accelerated growth along with vulnerability ecological region structure provokes environmental crisis and insecurity of sensitive and main areas in the city. The most manifest sample for this sort of urbanity is Tehran. This city due to its geographical location, surrounded by Alborz hillsides and river and flood basins, from one hand, and located on the abundant fault from other hand, is susceptible to vulnerability in front of natural disasters like earthquake. Vulnerability is being intensified by another factor; old urban texture that 12th region of Tehran is a manifest example here. In this study, we practice investigation and seismic vulnerability of 12 region of Tehran as the city core. The utilized method is a combination of new Delphi technique to characterize criteria and indices of vulnerability, multi-criterion decision-making regime including Fuzzy-AHP within GIS area to rank blocks subjected to danger. All blocks on 12th region are our items. In fact, in order to assess vulnerability, mere application of structural indices isn't enough and to obtain an accurate analysis utilizing demographic indices, spatial- skeletal structure and functional, environment and communication network is required. Results obtained from vulnerability plots by the means of abovementioned techniques allow managers and city planners to have realistic plan of the city. It also helps them to distinguish which field is much more important, how to perform different steps of earthquake risk management and prioritize facilities and resources allocation.
Keywords: Urban seismic vulnerability, risk management, Fuzzy multi-criterion decision making, geographical information systems, 12th region, Tehran.

Optimization of using Wire Antenna in Mobile Communication Systems in Fourth Generation
Mehdi Khoshabi, Hossein Emami, Mahmoud Pirhadi and Mehdi Hosseinpour

Development of technology using software and hardware techniques, has designed some antennas with better performance than before. Today, cell phone is an unavoidable issue for developed or developing societies. Mobile systems have developed so much and many people would not be able to do their daily activities without them. This issue was a pertinent reason for optimizing these antennas in 4th generation communication systems. This study, considers increase in capacity through reuse of frequency. The aim of this study is to combine several antennas, so that they can optimize desirable power for desirable surface. Finally, regarding simulated results by software, it would be suggested that new construction improves width of impedance band and decreases back lobe of micro-strip antenna. Antenna has been always an important component of wireless communication system. In fact, antenna is a hatch, which sends electromagnetic energy to channel and then to receiver through radio waves. During this process electromagnetic energy would be distributed to the surrounding area and would be received again. During the process there are also some effective factors, which would affect frequency, new networks and service quality significantly. There are antennas with different features and kinds, which would be classified considering their design and radiation pattern. These features would optimize antenna for a certain application. Therefore, antennas would be dividend into two groups generally including multi-dimensional and limited-angle radiation antennas.

Impact of Radio on Audience: The Content of FM Broadcasting Affected the Audience of Malakand Region, Pakistan during Militancy
Musa Khan and Musab Yousufi

Radio is an effective tool of Media that has a strong effect on the behavior of people and plays an important role in the process of setting minds of people towards an issue in positive or in negative way. Through this research it has been investigated that, In Malakand division, area of Pakistan where the literacy is low, areas are vast and means of communication insufficient, FM broadcasting is very effective, advance and important instrument because of its locality, closeness, quickness, easy access, easy operating, cheap, and infinite reach, which has many effects on the behavior of people of this area. It has been also investigated and discussed through quantitative research that since last two years during militancy FM radio played a negative role and misguided the innocent people of the area towards extremism with the misinterpretation of religion. The FM broadcasting used to change the mind and attitude of people towards social instability, extremism and against state. In this paper the researcher tried to find two important things that, what were the content of these FM stations and what are the impacts on audience of these radios in the area. Purposive sampling technique was used for data collection and survey conducted from two hundred sample of the total population. And it is examined that the content of these radios were totally biased and Taliban (militants) used the Fm radios as a war tool and strongly affected the mind of innocent people of the area.
Keywords: Militancy, Terrorists, misinterpretation of religion, Taliban, Militants, Contents, Impact, Jihad (to struggle in the way of Allah), Molvees (Religious Scholars).

Biomechanical Analysis of Blast Induced Traumatic (Brain Injury by MRI-based Finite Element Modeling)

Mh. Lashkari, F. Frahmand and K. Kangarlou

The purpose of this effort is to conduct a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian non-linear dynamics computational analysis of the interaction between a single planar blast wave and a human head in order to assess the extent of intra-cranial shock wave generation and its potential for causing traumatic brain injury. The finite element (FE) modeling is a powerful tool for investigating the physical process producing head trauma, and a well validated model would, thus, be a valuable tool to aid in injury diagnosis and design of protective devices. In this paper, an Ansys three dimensional transient modal dynamic finite element analysis was performed of a simplified brain model surrounded by cerebral spinal fluid and skull. Viscoelastic material parameters of the brain tissue were obtained from open literature. The localized response parameters predicted by the head model will be analyzed and compared between various loading conditions.
Keywords: Blast wave, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Finite element Analysis, Von Mises stress, Viscoelastic material, Ansys.

Identifying the Educational – Extension Channels in the Field of Drought Crisis Management (A Case Study, Ilam, Iran)
Bagher Arayesh

The main objective of this study was to Identifying the Educational- Extension Channels in the field of drought crisis Management from the viewpoint of the Managers of Greenhouse in Ilam Province.The research was of an applied study type and due to the lack of control variables, it was considered as a semi-empirical and a Descriptive kind of research.The research population was consisted of all managers of greenhouse active cooperatives in Ilam province between the years 2011-2012. (N= 108). A census sampling method was applied for study. The main tool of the research was a questionnaire developed in three main sections. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by a group of university professors and Cooperatives Experts. Also the Reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed through calculating the choronbach alfa coefficient (a=. /73). Data processing was performed using SPSS statistical software, as well as descriptive statistics (central and inferential indexes). The results of this study showed that the most important sources of information have been included Extension Workers, Agricultural services Company, Progressive Greenhouse holders and Local greenhouse owners and neighbors.
Keywords: Drought Management, Greenhouse Cooperatives, Educational – Extension Channels