European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 109 No 2
Aug, 2013

A New Class of Optimal Fourth-Order Iterative Methods for Solving Nonlinear Equations
224-231
Hani I. Siyyam and I.A. Al-Subaihi

Abstract:
In this paper, a new class optimal fourth-order iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations is presented. This class of methods is developed by approximating f'(yn) in the second step of the third-order iteration scheme of Soleymani and Sharifi [13] by its approximation f'(xn) / G(un), where un=f(yn) / f(xn) and G(t) is a real valued function. Per one cycle, each member of the proposed class requires two evaluations of the function and one evaluation of its first derivative and therefore has the efficiency 41/3~1.5874, which agrees with the conjecture of Kung-Traub that a multipoint iteration without memory based on evaluations could achieve optimal convergence order 2n-1. Numerical comparisons are made with several other existing methods to illustrate the performance and the efficiency of the proposed class of iterative methods.
Keywords: Newton's method, Iterative methods, Optimal class of iterative methods, Order of convergence, Efficiency index.


Challenges with Indigenization of Psychology in Nigeria
232-240
Abiodun .M. Gesinde and Oluwafunto .J. Sanu

Abstract:
Psychology as a field of study practically came into existence when Wilhem Wundt declared himself a psychologist and established the first psychology laboratory ever in 1879. There and then psychology concepts, goals, epistemologies, theories, and treatment strategies were clearly identified and defined from Euro-American perspectives. This western concept of psychology was transplanted to non-western countries because it was assumed to be universally relevant. As time went on, it was discovered by westerners and non-westerners that it has limited cross-cultural validity, value-laden and therefore cannot be generalized to all cultures. In a bid to make western psychology relevant and compatible to all cultures there is the need for indigenization programmes or processes. Quite a number of countries such as Philippine, Taiwan, China, Japan and so on are in the forefront of indigenization of psychology agenda. Despite the fact that most psychologists in Nigeria are favourably disposed to this indigenization agenda there are unresolved challenges. Consequently, this paper traces the origin of indigenization of psychology from the standpoint of western psychology. It identifies and discuses the concept, goals, and features of indigenized psychology as well as challenges arising from socio-cultural status of the country, attitude towards psychology as a discipline, conduct of research, and psychology professional body inapt synchronization. The paper concludes with recommendations that would make indigenization of psychology in Nigeria an attainable project.


Numerical and Experimental Study of the Behavior of Elements LPG Pressure Vessels
241-250
Mojtaba Naderi and Yones Bakhshan

Abstract:
Composite tanks of liquid gas pressure used to store liquid gas pressure, decreases applied loads to container. Resistance to impact and preventing from explosion are one of the important parameters in designing these tanks. In this paper, first we consider designing and strengthening and then effect of impact on compressed natural gas pressure composite tanks is studied using finite elements method. Behavior of tank under impact with various velocity and angles is provided based on failure scale and finally, effect of natural gas pressure existence inside the tank before and after impact in tank failure is analyzed. In this paper, a liquid gas pressure composite tank with metal liner, designing, is built and it`s behavior analyzed under internal pressure. Tank liner is made of aluminum on which main part of tank is filament winding with two environmental and polar curvature methods. To measure Strain, electrical strain gauge used and inductive tensions are calculated using Hook law for composite materials. In addition to empirical method, desired tank also analyzed numerically. Location of strain gauges installation determined using results of numerical section to save number of used Strain gauges. Results of two methods are compared and discussed.
Keywords: Composite tank, impact, Chung-Chung failure scale, natural gas pressure composite tank, empirical analyze

Estimation of Knowledge Production Function in Selected “Developed Countries & Developing Countries”

251-257
Narciss Aminrashti and Zahra Aghighi

Abstract:
With the advent of the knowledge-based economy in recent years, production and dissemination of knowledge has become one of the most important goals of the world. This global goal through reduction of knowledge gap provides appropriate context for economic growth and development and promotion of innovation among nations. As Today, most countries are trying to spread the knowledge production process to ensure their economic development Thus in this study we estimate the Knowledge production function of the ten selected countries including Iran, Turkey, South Korea, Brazil, Egypt, Malaysia, Britain, Canada, Germany and Australia based on Panel Data Method over the period 2000-2009. The effects of variables in number of ISI papers and registered patents, as indicators of knowledge production, will also be investigated by knowledge production function. The results indicate that the variables have significant and positive effects in production and promotion of knowledge in selected countries.
Keywords: Knowledge gap, Knowledge production function, Knowledge-based economy
JEL Classification Codes: D80; C23; O31


Determination of Influential Factors on the Rate of Sale in Retailing Units (Food Industry)
258-268
Hossein Igder, Hadi Shabanpour and Hadi Jasour

Abstract:
Identification of influential factors on sale in retailing units is very important in different dimensions especially for sale and distribution organizations that their main customers are retailers. These organizations classify retailors based on sale potential and to offer services prioritize them. Therefore, sale organizations intended to introduce their customers especially with respect to de facto and potential ability in order to be able to allocate a considerable section of resources to the costumers with higher sale potential and have a greater return by allocating their resources. What we are looking forward into is introducing and analyzing influential factors on sale in the stores and sale stations (retailers) of foods in order to have a more precise understanding of sale potential of food retailing units. Population of this study consist the entire sale stations of foods in Karaj city that based on the last census in 2012 by market acknowledging network is 4235 cases. Using clustering method for data collection we selected 410 samples. This study was applied using descriptive survey and correlative method and data collection tools consists questionnaire and direct observation. Result of data analysis shows that influential factors on sale in sale stations of foods in a priority and degree of importance are as follow: grocery activity, temporal situation, owner ship situation, sale persons, area of store, level of store, refrigerator number, local situation, side shape, and freezer number.
Keywords: retailing, food industry, sale potential.


Modeling and Simulation of Fuzzy Based Power Converter Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Wind Turbines

269-274
C. Ebbie Selva Kumar, V. Jegathesan, R. Eveline Pregitha and C. Kezi Selva Vijila

Abstract:
This paper is based on PI and Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) of permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine in a power system for three phase nonlinear network. Fuzzy controller helps the nonlinear system to work as a linear system to bring out better performance. Fuzzy logic is a logical system which provides definite solution to solve problems. It process with fuzzy variables which are defined by membership functions. The combined action of PI and FLC controls the switching actions, distortion in harmonics and provide compensation for unbalanced load. The proposed system consists of back to back connected converters, one is connected to the generator side and the other is connected to the grid side. The grid side connected converter is used for compensation ie, it acts as an Active Power Filter (APF) and compensator hence the cost of using APF is reduced. Reduced Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is obtained by simulating the proposed system using MATLAB and its performance was found to be quite satisfactory.
Keywords: PI controller, Fuzzy Logic Controller, APF, nonlinear network.


A Novel Method for Speckle Noise Reducton to AID Clinical Diagnosis of Ultrasound Fetal Images
275-285
R. Eveline Pregitha, V. Jegathesan and C. Ebbie Selvakumar

Abstract:
Ultrasound Scanning is a low cost, non-invasive imaging modality which is very popular for many medical applications. The coherent nature of ultrasound results in images that are corrupted by speckle noise which reduces the utility of ultrasound and also complicates image processing tasks. So image de-noising has become a very essential exercise for the diagnosis. The traditional techniques are not very good for especially speckle noise reduction. In this paper, we present a novel speckle removal algorithm for the automated abnormality diagnosis of ultrasound fetal images. A new class of Combinational Adaptive Bilateral and Morphological (CABM) Filter has been proposed in this paper. Analysis has been made with database of 250 fetal images obtained from various resolution scanners & various make. An attempt has been made to have a detailed comparison and evaluation of the performance with famous traditional filters for speckle noise removal. It has been inferred from the results that out of traditional filters, CABM filter gives desirable results in terms of Mean Square Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio.
Indexterms: Ultrasound images, speckle, biomedical imaging, filters, MSE.


Organic Properties in Vernacular Architecture: Case Study of the Village of “Karmi” in North Cyprus
286-298
GhazalehMokhaberi

Abstract:
Fragmentation of human life from natural environment is one of the problems of contemporary architecture, which has been brought to the built environment by rapid developments of science and technology. Exploration of principles of integration of human life and natural surrounding environment can be done through historical and vernacular environments, where organic principles and contextual design are highly respected in creation of the built environment. In this research an organic vernacular village: “Karmi” in north Cyprus has been considered as a case study. Exploration and study of the organic principles used in this village is aimed to provide a reference for contemporary building designers and introduce them some possible organic approaches. Consideration of organic concepts in architectural design and compare them with information gathered from the village (through personal observations of the author and interviews done with occupants of the village) highlights some practical approaches for applying organic principles in various scales of design, such as urban scale, scale of individual buildings and interior scale. Although, the village is a perfect example to be used as a learning source for designers, still there are some disadvantages which can be taken into considerations in detail in future studies and researches.
Keywords: Vernacular architecture, organic, contemporary design.


On-Chip Binary Truncated CDMA-Based Network on Non Volatile Memory

299-318
Dhanabal R, Bharathi V, Anish Ramasekar and Rithvik Sunkara

Abstract:
The network concentrates on small size communication link, non blocking effect, scalability. The network is based on Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) using an binary-truncated channel. The network drastically reduces the data transfer lines by using the binary truncation. Our Network architecture is mainly concentrated on four modules: a CDMA-based on Network interface, an interconnection module, Synchronizer, and a Magnetic Ram. In the design of CDMA-based on-chip network, the most important problems are latency loss and channel line increase. The primary factor of the latency loss is from the modulation of packet by PN-sequence. The increase of resources cause physical increase in which results in the increase of the chip area, because in the communication model the transmissions of the added multi-level values are required. This problem can be solved by using the PN sequences set having not only a large number of resources of chip but also having the error-free communication channel, that is nothing but the Bit Error Rate (BER) = 0.in the proposed communication channel, in spite of the Binary Truncation. At the receiver side, the PN code which was used for the modulation is XORed with the received data bits. The original transmitted bit is reconstructed from the accumulated value with a threshold level which is (N+1)/2. Here we are using two values for communication without parallel-to-serial conversion. Therefore this network has no complex quantization. In this proposed model, the degradation is by spreading and summation. Here we use an Magnetic RAM to store the data. Magnetic RAM is a non volatile memory if the power is OFF also the data will be stored in the memory. The delay of the adder is very small. The network architecture is analyzed in terms of performance, area and physical architecture. Our network is done using fully synthesizable verilog HDL.
Keywords: Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA), Magnetic Ram, CDMA-based on-chip network.


The Rights of Credit Opening Bank in Supposing of Beneficiary’s Fraud
319-328
Homayoun Mafi and Razieh Abdolssamadi

Abstract:
One of the most widespread tools of payment in international contract is to pay by documentary credits. Because, it provides for the parties to the transaction the greatest guarantee and the numerous risk of international transaction will be decreased due to the existence of independent character of documentary credits in this kind of payment. According to this feature openers of credit have to perform their obligation to the payment of documentary credit money and the objections relating to the basic legal contract cannot be invoked against the beneficiary of this document. In this article we intend to review the rights of opener’s credit in case that the beneficiary defrauded and the opener due to hidden fraud has paid its money or where the holder of documentary credit is a bona fide person and the opener is bound versus him to pay money. The analysis of parties’ contract of documentary credits and suggestions to protect the rights of credit opener is the subject of present research.
Keywords: Documentary credits, Issuing bank, Fraud of documentary credit holder, Applicant insolvency of credit, Non-possibility of recourse to holder of credit, The rights of credit opener.


Presentation of a Management Practice with Public-Private Cooperation in TB-DOTS in Tabriz, Iran
329-341
Saeid Pour Doulati, Ahmad Kousha, Simin Khayatzadeh, Mostafa Farahbakhsh and Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi

Abstract:
In viewpoint of world health organization, tuberculosis disease has to be noticed by individuals because tuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious bacterial disease and there would be symptoms of TB disease. These symptoms may last for several weeks. Without treatment, they usually get worse. It could be said that tuberculosis is one of the world's most lethal diseases. Moreover the public sector, the private sector is also the most important sector which presents the health services for TB patients, however presentation of the services in this centers are not favorable and this is due to some factors such as delay in diagnosis, incorrect use of anti-TB drugs, no follow up of defaulters and lack of maintaining records.[] A worldwide standard of TB care is required to be promoted among all health care providers, by which DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short course) is a strategy for the short-term treatment under direct supervision of tuberculosis disease. Through both quantitative and qualitative methods, this study was accomplished in five stages. The first stage was a Cross-sectional study of current TB situation in Tabriz, Iran in 2005, and also a comparative study of various PPM TB DOTS programs was accomplished in this stage in the worldwide. Stakeholder analysis and the analysis of “Strengths”, “Weaknesses”, “Opportunities” and “Threats” using qualitative directed content analysis method was accomplished in second and third stages. Recommended tools for PPM TB DOTS to local situation were provided in fourth stage, finally a method “eight steps in leading change” was provided for the fifth stage. Purposive sampling was provided for qualitative studies, by which through the Semi-structured interviews the data collection was provided, and finally the data were analyzed through the directed content analysis method. This paper is aimed to provide a comprehensive management program for public-private mix (PPM) in TB DOTS for effective case management of TB patients and reporting through a proper referral and information system in Tabriz, Iran. The observation about the Tuberculosis characteristics in Tabriz, Iran in 2005 showed that new smear positive case finding in Tabriz and East Azerbaijan province, Iran was 25% and 28.5%, respectively. Treatment success rate in Tabriz and East Azerbaijan province was 94.8% and 87%, respectively. 3.4% of new TB cases have been detected by public health network system and 96.6% by other health care providers. All PPM DOTS findings show that this program was lead to success in this disease treatment, by which the increase of case finding was observed as well.
Keywords: Cooperation, public center, private center, Tuberculosis.


Validation of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Model of Land Suitability Analysis for Sustainable Hillside Development
342-349
Imtiaz Ahmed Chandio, Abd Nasir B Matori, Khamaruzaman B WanYusof and Mir Aftab Hussain Talpur

Abstract:
This paper has described the statistical modeling approach that effectively test the validation of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) models such as Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method for decision-making. A pairwise comparison questionnaire was designed to get experts opinion related with land suitability analysis of hillside development. The collected weights of suitability criteria and sub-criteria using questionnaire were analyzed into an Expert Choice decision support software. To validate MCDA methods, statistical methods were used to enhance reliability of decision-making process. This approach can be guidance to the researchers who are involved in hillside land suitability analysis modelling.
Keywords: Validation, Analytic Hierarchy Process, Pairwise Questionnaire, Decision-making


Coping Strategies with Stress and Social Self-Efficacy with Quality of Life
350-358
Amineh Ahmadi, Ghodsy Ahghar and Zahra Bayat

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the strategies of confronting stress and social self-efficacy with quality of life of girl students of governmental guidance schools of Tehran city. By multistage selection 300 individuals were selected. The method of this research is correlative. The tools of measuring inventory were the strategic inventory of confrontation, social self efficacy inventory, and inventory of quality of life. To analyze data the indexes of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics with multivariable regression method was used. The result of this study showed that there is a direct relationship at level of 0.001 between variables of problem based strategic with quality of life and there is a negative and significant relationship at level of 0.001. Accordingly variable of anxiety based confronting strategies with 30% and variable of problem based confronting strategies with 5% specifies variance of the quality of life. Other that theses cases there is a significant and direct relationship at level of 0.001bwtween all of the variables of social self-efficacy of social determination, functioning in social situations, cooperation in social groups, friendship and intimacy and helping with quality of life. Using the scores of social self-efficacy dimensions we can predict the quality of life, in which the ability of predicting is more than application in social situations, cooperation in social groups, friendship and intimacy and helping.
Keywords: Strategies of confronting stress, social self-efficacy, quality of life, students.



The Role and Stance of the West against the Political Relations between Iran and Russia

359-372
Abdolnaser Faiiazi

Abstract:
Iran and Russia are countries which currently hold a peculiar position in the international system, particularly when Tehran and Moscow claim hegemony over their outskirts. Therefore, diplomatic relations of Iran and Russia are very important for the West, so that the latter behold with a feeling of uncertainty over these relations and seek to relax them. In this regard, the present article, while explaining the position of Iran and Russia in the international system, discusses the role and stance of the West about the diplomatic relations between Iran and Russia.
Keywords: The West, NATO, European Union, International System.


Study of Effective Social and Managerial Factors on Developing Industrial Production in Shahrekord (Case Study of Cement Factory)
373-381
Mina Shirvani, Asghar Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza Iravani, Saeed Yousef Pour and Hasan Alipour

Abstract:
The aim of study is to investigate effective social and managerial factors on developing industrial production in Shahrekord. True planning, update and modern equipment and high technology, training human forces, specialty of human forces and using local expert forces, locating cement factory and its appearance, level of efficiency, packing the goods, efficient management, goods’ quality and distance of raw materials to cement factory and finally good relations and converging cement factory ‘s employees and managers from Shahrekord result in growing and developing production in this factory. Statistical society is 800 persons who are directly employed from cement factory and the number of 200 those have been selected for sampling. Used tests in this study are including single-group t-test, independent groups and one-way variance analysis. Obtained results of this study show that at first, quality of producing cement and appearance marketing are effective on progressing and developing production in cement factory of Shahrekord. Therefore , it can be concluded that from studied seven elements in this study, namely correct planning, update and modern equipment and high technology , training human forces , specialty of human forces and using local expert forces, locating cement factory and its appearance, level of efficiency, packing the goods, efficient management, the goods’ quality and distance of raw materials to cement factory and finally good relations and converging cement factory’s employees and managers of Shahrekord , the element of management is strongest than others. Totally, study’s results show that all independence variables in this study are effective on developing industrial production in Shahrekord and it means that cultural factors, management are influential as well. But from these three factors, the managerial one is very important.