European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 109 No 1
Aug, 2013

Regional Planning of Salvage and Fire Fighting Care Facilities Delivery System in Rural Areas
Sedki A. Momani

This research presents a quantitative planning model to determine the optimal characteristics (number and locations) of a regional public safety facility system. The optimal pattern of the salvage and fire fighting facilities delivery system has been accomplished using linear binary integer programming technique. The results reveal that the most remote areas, gain the most benefit in terms of coverage. The analysis indicates that the goals of this research are fulfilled. That is, the proposed allocation improved the equity and the efficiency of the salvage and fire fighting care delivery system in the study area at minimum cost.
Keywords: Public Share Facilities Planning; Location-Allocation modeling; Maximal covering location Problem; Spatial Planning; Regional Planning.

Combinatory Studies on Object Oriented Code Reusability Programming Effectiveness by Existing and New Pair Programmers
A.N. Swamynathan and K. Nirmala

Among many, the success rate akin to efficiency of software reusability depends on two important factors namely experience of developers, and familiarity and similarity of components between the existing and reusable software application products. Documented literature on models for reusing of coding and the advantages of component based approaches in software reusability are many, but documented works on pair programmers for component based software reusable developments are rarely seen. Literature points out to the fact that experience and familiarity of software developers in reusability for new application areas could influence the efficiency of reusing some of the existing components of software. It is important to note that efficiency in software developments includes error detections also, while reusing existing components for new projects. Experience in developments and familiarity of software components might depend on the nature of software developers. In view of the above two issues, an experimental study and documentation of the analyzed results obtained through the experiments, is proposed in this paper. Parametric studies on two types of component based application areas with the combinations of existing and new programmers that formed pairs on a set of certain chosen parameters have been attempted and reported in this paper. The category of applications for reusing some of the code components are reported with samples. The set of pair programmers formed into pairs are: existing experienced programmers that wrote first set of application components and the new programmers who contributed in developing/modifying reusable components for the new applications. The parametric studies with these variables have been tried out through the experiments and the results are reported. Concluding remarks have been drawn out of these experiments. The documented results will be of immense use to software reusable coding developers as well as researchers of pair and component programming.
Keywords: Software Engineering, Component-Based S/w reusability, Pair Programmers, Object Oriented Programming, Error detections, Coding Efficiency.

Mécanismes de Réactions d’Oxydation en Synthèse Organique: Mechanisms of Oxidation Reactions in Organic Synthesis
Topwe Milongwe Mwene-Mbeja

La matière qui constitue cet article porte sur les mécanismes de réactions d’oxydation en synthèse organique. En effet, les mécanismes réactionnels font référence à l’usage des flèches qui indiquent le déplacement des électrons et la formation des nouvelles liaisons au sein d’un même composé pour une réaction intramoléculaire ou au sein de deux composés dans le cas d’une réaction intermoléculaire. Les mécanismes réactionnels permettent, donc, d’expliquer la formation des produits. En d’autres termes, le mécanisme d’une réaction montre les différentes étapes dans une réaction organique, c’est-à-dire l’ordre dans lequel les liaisons entre les atomes sont formées et clivées.
Motsclés: Mécanismes, Réactions d’Oxydation, Synthèse Organique.

Analysis of the Structure and Operation of the Main Agricultural Commodities Markets as Derivatives Commodities Market

Jorge Víctor Alcaraz Vera and América I. Zamora-Torres

This paper provides a broad view of the main markets of agricultural commodities derivatives existing in the global economy today, through the study and description of its origins, structure, operating mechanisms, main underlying assets and economic functions carried out by them, so that interested users and researchers can obtain data and information useful for a more efficient management of their assets.
Keywords: Derivatives, agricultural commodities, futures, options, swaps.
JEL Classification Codes: F13, G15, G18.

On the Conservation of Mass in Pair Production and Annihilation Process and Energy of Annihilated Photon in Annihilation Process
Amol S Jagtap

In the present work, I have prove that along with energy, the mass is also conserved in pair production and annihilation processes. The application of mass-energy relation E=mc2 in pair production and annihilation process is to conserve mass and energy of particles involved in these interactions but not the conservation of mass into energy or vice-versa. Therefore there is no process of conversion of mass into energy or energy into mass involved into these processes. I also have shows that the emission of two 0.51099 MeV photons is the special case of annihilation process in which positron interacts with free electron. Interaction of positron with bound electron could emit photons with minimum energy equal to the sum of rest mass energies of electron and positron and binding energy of inner shell electron. It has been shown that the mass energy equation E=mbc given by Bahjat R. J. Muhyedeen is not valid in the pair production and annihilation process.
Keywords: Pair production, Positron annihilation, mass-energy conservation, Mass-energy relation.

Hepatoprotective Effect of Brassica Oleracea in Nevirapine - Induced Hepatic Injury

Maigari Maryam Umar; Wudil Alhassan Muhammad and Bello Balaraba

The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Brassica oleracea on nevirapine (NVP; an anti-retroviral drug) induced liver damage was studied. Twenty four rats were randomly distributed into 8 groups of 3 rats each. Group 1 served as the normal control, while group 2 served as test control. Groups 2 to 4 were administered with nevirapine 6mg/kg/bw for six weeks to induce liver damage after which they were administered with 100 and 200mg/kg/bw the aqueous vegetable extract for seven days. In another phase, Groups 5 and 6 served as normal and test control respectively, while groups 7 and 8 were co-administered with nevirapine and the same doses of Brassica oleracea extract (BOE) for six weeks. At the end of the treatments, serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, and malondialdehyde and bilirubin concentrations were determined. The result showed that the group administered with nevirapine alone had significant increase (P ? 0.05) in the above biochemical parameters compared with normal control. Administration of aqueous BOE to groups 3 to 8 resulted in significant decreases in the liver enzyme activities, and bilirubin and malondialdehyde concentrations compared to the test control group. Results of this study suggest that Brassica oleracea aqueous extract can provide both antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects against nevirapine- induced hepatotoxicity.
Keywords: Nevirapine, Brassica oleracea, hepatotoxicity, malondialdehyde, liver enzymes.

Errors Made by Iraqi EFL Learners in using English Prepositions of Place Relation
Sabeeha Hamza Dehham and Assal Hani Hamza

The present study aims at: 1. Presenting a theoretical background concerning preposition of place relation. 2. Investigating the difficulties faced by Iraqi EFL university learners in prepositions of place relation. 3. Identifying, classifying and analyzing the students' errors according to the results obtained from the test and coming up with recommendations.

Modélisation Pluie-Débit à L’aide des Réseaux de Neurones Artificiels sur le Bassin Versant Transfrontalier de la Bia (Côte D’ivoire - Ghana)
Kouassi Kouakou Lazare, Kouassi Kan Martin, Konan Kouakou Séraphin, Meledje N'diaye Hermann, Koffi Yao Blaise and Biemi Jean

This study aims at establishing a rainfall-runoff model through artificial neural networks for filling the gaps into the flow data series of the hydrometric station of Bianouan which is the only hydrometric station on the Bia River. For this, a Multilayer Perceptron type feddforwards with two (2) layers (one hidden node and one output node), an architecture ranging from one (1) to five (5) hidden neurons, driven with a second order algorithm (Levenberg Marquarlt) under the backpropagation rule was established. A database consisting of rain data from four (4) rain stations (Enchi, Buakuc'STN, Agnibilekro and Bianouan), potential evapotranspiration calculated through Turk method, sunstroke, relative humidity, temperature and monthly flow from January 1973 to December 1998 was used. The comparison of the performance criteria of the different architectures of the neural network model showed that the 2-4-1 architecture gives the best results. With the 2-4-1 architecture, the model simulates well the runoff. This architecture provides Nash coefficients of 69.46% and 68.37% respectively for the calibration and validation. The correlations between simulated flows and observed flows are strong. The correlation coefficients are 83.89% and 83.08% respectively for the calibration and validation.
Keywords: Rain, Flow, Rainfall-runoff model, Artificial Neural Networks, Bia River.

Non- Newtonian Fluid Flow Through a Sudden Expansion Channel with Varied Step Inclination Angles

Khudheyer S. Mushatet, Qais A. Rishak and Sarah E. Hamdi

A numerical simulation of laminar non-Newtonian fluid flow through a three-dimensional sudden expansion channel with varied step inclination angle has been performed. The channel has an expansion ratio ER=2 and an aspect ratio AR=4 while the step inclination angle (a) is varied from 30o to 90o. The power law model is considered to describe the viscosity. The flow field and thermal characteristics were investigated under different parameters such power law index, step angle of inclination, expansion ratio and Reynolds number. The governing equations of continuity, Naveir- Stokes and energy were discretised on the computational domain by using the finite volume method and the Gambit 2.3 was adopted for drawing and meshing the considered domain. The software Fluent 6.3 and a constructed computers programs based on SIMPLE algorithm was used to get the desired results. The obtained results show that the value of step inclination angles represent a significant parameters for controlling the flow and thermal fields characteristic. It was found that the average rate of heat transfer is decreased as step inclination increases while it increases with the increase of power law index and Reynolds number. It was found that the critical value of Reynolds number is increased with decreasing the step inclination angle.
Keywords: non-Newtonian fluids, sudden expansion, power law model, laminar flow.

The Effects of Armor Plate Thickness Subjected to Various Amounts of Blast Loadings: Correlation Formula Based on Numerical Simulation
Md Fuad Shah Koslan, Mohd Zaid Othman, Suresh Thanakodi and Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi

The effect of the plate thickness and charge mass in response to the fully clamped rectangular Rolled Homogeneous Armored (RHA) plate with dimension of 1000 mm x 1000 mm, subjected to air blast studied based on numerical simulation. The experimental data performed by other researchers then were also validated by using the simulation model. The numerical simulations later were used to predict the effect of RHA plate with selected thickness subjected to various amounts of blast loading. The simulation model consists of RHA plate created at various thicknesses of 15 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm and 30 mm and subjected to different amounts of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) of 10 kg, 8.75 kg, 6.13 kg, 5 kg, 3.75 kg and 1 kg and standoff distance (SoD) fixed at 200 mm. The simulation results of RHA plate for maximum and mid-point deflection under blast loading were lead to the development of new non-dimensional correlation formula that can be utilized for preliminary prediction deflection.
Keywords: Solver coupling, Computational simulation, AUTODYN 3D, Correlation Formula, RHA plate.

Effect of Tool Diameter in EDM of EN19 using OVAT Approach
Rumdeo Rathod, Vijay Kumar S. Jatti, Ravi Sekhar and T.P. Singh

Electrical discharge machining has emerged as one of the most preferred options for high precision machining of very hard materials. Considerable research has been dedicated to examine the significance of electrical parameters in EDM. This paper presents a study of significant non electrical parameters in addition to the usual electrical features. In particular, the effects of changes in tool diameters on end results such as material removal rate and surface roughness have been investigated. This study involved ‘one variable at a time (OVAT)’ technique of experimentation. The average industrial EDM operator does not always require specific optimized values of electrical parameters. This is because many a times it is not necessary to maximize MRR and/or minimize surface roughness. It is more important to have a handy idea of the nature and degree of parametric influences on primary results. Such a close familiarity with the process performance translates directly into higher productivity and machine utilization. OVAT method also furnished useful insights into factors that were not directly studied, such as the contribution of dielectric discharge pressure to tool wear rate. Valuable observations and findings are reported to enable the EDM operator attain required responses by adjusting at the most two parameters.
Keywords: One variable at a time approach, En 19 alloy, Die-sink EDM.

The Impact of Culture on Entrepreneurial Proactiveness in Small Business Enterprise in Nigeria
Ibrahim Shaibu and Tafamel Andrew Ehiabhi

This study utilized data from 50 firms in six sectors (education, transportation, printing, block moulding, electronics, and furniture making) firms to access the impact of culture on a key dimension of entrepreneurial orientation- proactiveness. Four hypotheses were developed specifying the expected relationships between Hofstede’s (1980) four cultural dimensions and level of proactiveness among SMEs. The results of this study show that culture has an important impact on the willingness of SMEs to engage in proactive firm behaviours. The implications of these results for researchers and practice are discussed and future research directions are suggested.

Architectural Review of IIIB Hasanloo Term- Orartu Castle with Several Areas in the Same Time in West Azerbaijan
Feridoun Nahidiazar, Robab Kazemi, Nadereh Nourghassmi and Bahram Karami

The Hasanloo hill is a place of historical importance and it is the most important archaeological sites in Iran. Archaeologists during their researches introduced ten terms to that was started from Neolitic time to Islam. Around the years 800 to 810 B.C. the Orartou division passes from Soldouz valley, and the Orartu's kings left behind some inscriptions that expression of political incorporation is into the kingdom of Orartu. Traditionally it is believed in 8th to 7th centuries B.C. establishment of Hasanlou IIIB term was establishment of Orartu. Hence, some suggestions are about factors damaging IVB Hasanloo that is related to invasion of Orartou in the late ninth century B.C. The IIIB Hasanloo with a huge fence around it is an Orartou establishment with defense procurement. During this study examined there is other area in West Azerbaijan that is simultaneously with IIIB Hasanloo term that is occupied by Orartu. In this study, the explanatory and analytical methods used, the result are discussed according to the data available literature and translation issues, and also some other methods has been used that contained field methods, library methods, the survey, review the documentation museum archives and also an interview methods.
Keywords: Hasanloo, Hasanloo IIIB term, Orartu castle, Other documentary buildings in IIIB term in West Azerbaijan.

Contribution on Maintenance Optimization using Grey Systems Theory

Samir Bounneche, Rachid Chaïb and Lakhdar Khochemane

The concept of an equipment maintenance dates from the appearance of the first tools and the first machines. The development of industrialization obliges the structuring of the intervention methods. However, new needs arise, reflecting the need for an economic approach, not just technical, of the machines maintenance. New concepts are then implemented to be used as effective tools allowing a total management of the machines operation, particularly when these last are gathered in complex chains and sets interacting with each other. The industrial maintenance which aims to ensure the proper operation of the production tools is a strategic function in the companies. It no longer has the sole objective for repairing work tools but also to predict, anticipate and prevent dysfunctions. With the economic austerity that requires optimization of exploitation and product quality, the maintainers are confronted with the increasing complexity of industrial structure on the one hand and the weight of technical and economic related to this function on the other hand. Moreover, with the very fast evolution of methods and tools related to maintenance, manufacturers engage in the race towards the zero breakdowns, going in the direction of a better control of operating parameters (reliability, maintainability and availability) of equipment with a maximum overall efficiency and reducing maintenance costs. This is why the objective of this work allows, by using the grey system theory and the history file of the equipment, to know the health of the equipment and the components most critical, to determine the priority of maintenance actions to lead and direct operating procedure towards sets the most penalizing in the company, to even solve the current problems of maintenance and thus to define the appropriate recommendations for the maintenance service.
Keywords: Maintenance; Optimization; Management; Reliability; Maintainability; Availability; Grey systems theory.

A Study of the Effects of JIT System on Agile Production and Firm Performance in Khuzestan Province Manufacturing Firms
Belghis Bavarsad and Yasin Gorjizadeh

This study was conducted in manufacturing firms of Khuzestan Province (Iran) to explore the effects of Just In Time (JIT) system on Agile Production and Financial Performance. The research model includes the primary elements of JIT system, JIT purchase and JIT production) as a precursor to agile production and financial performance as the result or outcome of agile production. This model uses the data collected from financial and production mangers and related experts of manufacturing plants of Khuzestan province. This model was evaluated through a structural equations modeling method. SPSS and LISREL software programs were used to analyze the data. Analysis results indicate that application of JIT system elements affect the financial performance positively and significantly. Also, application of JIT purchase and agile production affects the financial performance positively and significantly. But application of JIT production does not have a positive and significant effect on financial performance.
Keywords: JIT Production, Agile Production, Financial Performance, Structural Equations Model, Khuzestan Province.