European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 108 No 2
Aug, 2013

Unsupervised Abnormality Detection using a Distributed Video Surveillance System in an Intersection
159-170
Peyman Babaei, Mahmood Fathy and Reza Berangi

Abstract:
This paper proposes an unsupervised abnormality detection method using a distributed video surveillance system with clustering the trajectories in an intersection in real time. Among the most important research in intelligent transportation systems (ITS), especially in field of urban traffic management, automatically intersection flow monitoring is one of the critical and challenging tasks. The proposed work addresses abnormality detection by means of vehicles trajectory analysis based on support vector machine (SVM) clustering. A major problem associated with vehicles tracking is occlusion effect. In multi-view systems, trajectories extraction helps to detect abnormal behavior which may be occluded in a single-camera surveillance system. In this manner, the surveillance area is wider and using multiple views of cameras for producing uniform tracking configuration is suited approach to remove occlusion and extract vehicles behavior more accurately. We use a hybrid scheme of scale invariant feature transform to detect and recognize vehicles in multi-view surveillance. The proposed distributed video surveillance system efficiently analyze activities in an intersection to extracts the abnormal behaviors which can be used in regulating traffic lights and to report statistics and information of interest.
Keywords: Distributed video surveillance system, Multi-camera Intersection monitoring, Trajectory clustering, Unsupervised abnormality detection.

The Effect of using Distributed Multi-Camera System with Overlapping Field of Views on Vehicles Tracking
171-178
Peyman Babaei, Mahmood Fathy and Reza Berangi

Abstract:
This paper proposes a method of vehicles tracking using a distributed multi-camera system with partially overlapping field of views with consistent labelling in an intersection. Among the most important research in intelligent transportation systems, automatically intersections surveillance is one of the critical and challenging tasks. As the major problem associated with vehicle tracking is occlusion effect, the proposed work addresses synchronizing the cameras for tracking vehicles simultaneously with the same label in overlapping field of views. Vehicles in the overlapping field of views of cameras should be tracked simultaneously in order to provide fault tolerance and multiple views of the tracked vehicles. In multi-view surveillance systems, trajectories extraction helps to analysis vehicles behaviours which may be omitted in a single-camera surveillance system. In this manner, the surveillance area is wider and using multiple views of cameras with overlapping field of views for producing uniform tracking can enhance the capability and performance of tracking. We propose a novel transmission protocol between cameras for transmitting needed data with using field of view lines to detect and track vehicles in a robust manner. By this way, a longer history of vehicles behaviour can be obtained more accurately.
Keywords: Distributed Multi-camera Systems, Overlapping Field of Views, Vehicles Tracking.

Governance and Performance in the Family Firm: An Empirical Analysis on Italian Listed Companies
179-211
Franco Rubino, Graziella Sicoli, Maurizio Rija and Paolo Tenuta

Abstract:
Problems of governance, associated with the Public Company, have also emerged in other types of businesses, for example in family firms. What takes place in family firms, albeit with different degrees of intensity, is an overlap, rather than the separation, of ownership and governance. In the start-up phase all the distinctive traits of entrepreneurship converge in the figure of the businessman; depending on certain affective, psychological, financial and/or professional factors, this can lead to a blurring of the distinction between the rules and needs of the family on the one hand, and those of the business on the other. In small scale family firms, the system of governance is not a significant issue because, besides not being formalized explicitly, it often represents a synthesis or in some cases a compromise between the family and business values. As the business grows, however, a process of delegation away from the family may occur, which causes a gradual erosion of the centrality of the entrepreneur, as well as of his ability to deal with internal conflicts. In the absence of an absolute leader, the relationship between corporate and family governance may degenerate into inter-familial conflicts, with knock-on implications for the management of the business. In this case the Board, its composition and its characteristics are the crucial issue for corporate governance and the foundation of business success. This paper, after a brief discussion on corporate governance in its internal dimension (the Board) and framework (hard and soft law), focuses on the existing literature on the subject. It will emerge that business success is conditioned by a set of variables of the external (economic situation, market inputs, etc ...) and internal environments, that is, business management choices or what is known as 'corporate governance'. Aim of the paper: After an initial theoretical analysis on the topic of corporate governance, the present paper has the aim of evaluating the causal effects of governance structures on business financial performance in terms of ROI and ROE for the family firms listed in the FTSE/MIB of the Milan Stock Exchange. Special attention is given to the impact of family ownership and management on business results. Methodology: The hypotheses of the study are tested on family firms listed in the FTSE/MIB. We analyzed the correlation existing between ROI and ROE and the following variables: the presence of a family member as CEO, the family relation existing between the CEO and the President of the company, and the age of the CEO. Results: As well as contributing concretely to the debate on the relation between family business and performance, the present study tests the theory through empirical analysis. Limits of the research: Although the work leads to concrete results, the limited amount of family firms responding to the criteria of analysis necessarily limits the significance of the results.
Keywords: Family business, Corporate Governance

Design and Performance of Auto Tuneable Dynamic Vibration Absorber (ATDVA) in Order to Control Self-Excited Vibrations in a Cutting Tool System
212-220
Behzad Peykari, Shahab Mohammadi Saham, Navid Koucheri and Mohammad Ali Jamzad

Abstract:
In this study a dynamic vibration absorber is installed on a cutting tool system in order to control undesirable vibration. It is known that a vibration absorber is able to reduce the frequency response function. Therefore, in a cutting process, vibration can be reduced markedly, applying dynamic vibration absorber on the cutting tool. In this paper it is tried to damp self-excited vibration, which has been resulted by dynamic unbalancing. This type of vibration and its control method is closely related to the width of chip and contact surface of work-piece with the cutting tool. Also, offering a suitable method to achieve optimum parameters in order to create ideal conditions and lowest frequency response is one of the main goals in this paper. In this method a smart auto-tuneable vibration absorber is applied to the main system. Purpose of smart DVA is to create a system which can be adopted with the probable conditions, besides reducing the frequency response. These conditions are like change of natural frequency, mass ratio and the frequency ratio which are results of different parameters such as absorber mass, contact surface, rotational velocity and....
Keywords: Vibration control, dynamic vibration absorber, undesirable vibration, vibration in a cutting tool.

Factors Analysis of Sustainable ICT Barriers in Higher Education (Case Study of Agricultural Faculty Members)
221-226
Batoul Faghiharam and Mohsen Zargham

Abstract:
The integration of ICT in higher education is 'inevitable'. In this situation, sustainable ICT is at the intersection of two trends that are having a profound effect on higher education. The growing pressures of ICT on higher education is good to mitigate the environmental and social impacts of its activities Universities and colleges routinely use ICT for many administrative and support tasks, and specialist activities. Until recently, this growing was faced on many problems and barriers that it’s cause less efficiency of ICT usage in education. The purpose of this study was to categorize sustainable ICT barriers among agricultural faculty members. The design for this study was a factor analysis with data collected using questionnaire. The statistical population of this study consists of faculty members of agricultural colleges in private universities in the year 2012 that a sample of 190 members was selected by using stratified random sampling method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. As findings, based on the perception of the respondents and ordinal factor analysis, the barriers of sustainable ICT were categorized into six groups, namely economical, educational, individual, attitudinal, technical and environmental barriers. These factors explain totally 71.41 percent of trained life skills in rural service centers variance.
Keywords: Sustainable ICT, faculty members, barriers, factor analysis.

Optimization of Xylanase Production by a Newly Thermophilic Actinomycete Strain Cpt29 Isolated from Poultry Compost
227-239
Soumaya Haberra, Amina Habbeche, Boudjemaa Saoudi, Bilal Kerouaz, Soraya Slimani, Mokhtar Boudelaa and Ali Ladjama

Abstract:
From 3 strains isolated from poultry compost (East of Algeria), one strain of thermophilic Actinomycete was screened and studied for their ability to producing thermostable xylanase based on the diameter of the clear zone formation in birchwood xylan agar plates. This strain was identified as an Actinomadura sp Cpt29, than optimized for xylanase enzyme production in liquid state fermentation. Consequently, for commercial applications, it is advisable to develop processes starting from inexpensive substrates. The presence of wheat bran as a carbon source in the medium induced the highest production of xylanase (30.31IU/ml). This result is particulary valuable because the other substrates are more expensive. Among all the organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen tested in the study, peptone was found to be the best in stimulating xylanase production by this strain. Optimum pH and temperature for xylanase production were found to be 8.5 and 45°C respectively after 24H of incubation. After optimization of various production parameters, an increase of nearly 2-fold in xylanase production was achieved. Thus the present study proved that the thermophilic Actinomycete strain Actinomadura sp CPt29 used is highly potential and useful for industrial production.
Keywords: Xylanases; Thermostable; Thermophilic Actinomycetes; Optimization; Compost.

Effet du NaCl sur Les Paramètres Physiologiques et Les Enzymes Antioxydantes de blé Dur Triticum Durum. Desf Durant la Croissance
240-252
Mounia Benkaddour, Soraya Slimani, Imene Nedjeh, Mourad Bourouhou, Ali Boutlelis Djahra, Ali Ladjama and Mokhtar Boudelaa

Abstract:
Afin de déterminer l’effet de la salinité sur les paramètres physiologiques, et les enzymes antioxydants de blé dur. Trois variétés ont été soumises à des concentrations croissantes en NaCl (0, 1,5, 3, 6 g/l) soit (0, 25, 51, 102mM) durant la croissance. Les résultats obtenus montrent que le sel affecte la physiologie de ces variétés, il a réduit le contenu en chlorophylles (a), (b), et caroténoïdes chez toutes les variétés. Il a induit une augmentation de la proline, et une diminution excessive du contenu en sucres solubles. Concernant les enzymes antioxydantes, l’activité de la catalase (CAT) et l’ascorbate peroxydase (APX) ont été limité d’une façon notable. Celle de la peroxydase (POD) a été augmentée chez la variété Vitron selon le degré de stress. Par contre, le glutathion S-transférase (GST) a été élevé chez les trois variétés. D’une façon globale le système de défense antioxydant a été modifié chez les trois variétés étudiées. Il apparait que suivant la réaction des plantes à la contrainte, la variété Vitron est la plus tolérante a la salinité, la variété Waha est la plus sensible alors que la troisième variété Gta occupe une position intermédiaire.
Motsclés: Salinité; Triticum durum; Enzymes antioxydantes; Activité; Croissance.

Effect of Selected Exercise on Fine Motor of 3 to 6 Years in Shiraz, Iran
253-258
Leila Feili, Shahin Jalali, Mehdi Namazizadeh and Fatemeh Pasand

Abstract:
The study of human motor development had been concerned from past years. The purpose of present study is the effect of one period of selected practice on fine movements of 3-6 year-old children in Shiraz who were completely in good health. Statistical society is included 128 children aged 3-6 years in Shiraz (67 person in experiment group and 61 person in control group), who they were selected randomly and their evaluation was performed by Denver Developmental screening Test II (DDST-II) which its validity and reliability is confirmed. The analysis of data was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics such as covariance, T-test, Man Vittni and Krusscal Wallis Test. Results indicate that there is no significant difference between various age groups of girls. This difference was significant in post- test and also, this result was true about boys aged 3-4 years p=0/013<0/05. In comparison of girl and boy groups, inspire of significant difference in pre-test, no significant difference was observed in post-test. The result of present research shows the effect of selected practice on all boys and boys aged 3-4 years. Use of instructional guidelines for reinforcing of fine movement is suggested.
Keywords: Fine Movements, Children Aged 3-6 Years, Selected Practice, Denver Test II.

Studying Different Nitrogen Levels and Cultivation Bed on Some Morphological Characteristics of Aloe Vera L
259-263
Mina Alizadeh, Yusef Mojtahedi, Hassan Nurafkan and Mehri Zargani

Abstract:
In order to study the effect of the four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 500, 1000, and 1500mg of pure nitrogen on the flower vase volume) and soil, peat, cocopeat, and a combination of peat and cocopeat cultivation beds on leaf chlorophyll content index, the wet weight of the whole plant, and the gel function of Aloe vera L., a test was performed in a factorial and completely random design form with three repetitions in the year ending on March 21, 2013. The nitrogen effect on all characteristics was statistically significant. Because of having 75 mineral substances in nutrition respect, 200 active combinations, 20 mineral substances and 12 types of vitamins, the Aloe vera L. plant is important. The results of this test Suggests the use of 1000 mg of nitrogen fertilizer in a combination of peat and cocopeat bed in order to enhance gel production.
Keywords: Aloe vera L., cultivation bed, gel production, function, nitrogen.

Surveying the Influence of Knowledge Management on Organizational Excellence
264-271
Mina Jamshidi Avanaki, Kaveh Teymour Nejad and Taghi Mahallati

Abstract:
The purpose of writing current paper is to survey the impact of knowledge management on organizational excellence. In the research which is descriptive survey from data collection view and applied one from purpose, to measure knowledge management, “knowledge creation”, “knowledge acquisition” and “knowledge storage” dimensions were utilized. The results of applying factor analysis method show that all three dimensions of knowledge management and organizational excellence have appropriate fitness. Also the influence of knowledge management and its criteria on organizational excellence were proved in which knowledge storage had the most important influence.
Keywords: Knowledge management, knowledge creation, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, organizational excellence.

Empirical Analysis of Entrepreneurial Intentions- A Case of Kabul Based Business Students, Afghanistan
272-278
Syed Umar Farooq and Kaleem Ullah Khan

Abstract:
Present study is designed to explore the Kabul based business students’ views of entrepreneurial intentions. Quantitative research methodology was applied and close ended questionnaire method was used as an instrument. Subject selected for this study was 264 students of final semester of Business administration, computer science and economics at Kardan Institute of Higher Education, Kabul Afghanistan.. Present research study found that predicted variables, (professional attraction, entrepreneurial capabilities, self reliance, self independence & network support) shows the significant and influencing role in entrepreneurial intention of business students of Kabul Afghanistan and concludes that predicted variables explain 57% variance significantly in criterion variable. Findings of the study cannot be generalized, and should be related to business students’ views of entrepreneurship; the large sample size will help more to draw the real picture of phenomena in Afghanistan.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intentions, Students’ views, Afghanistan.

Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of New Thiadiazoles, Thiazolidines, and Spiro (Indole-Azoles) Linked to 2-Pyrazolin-5-One
279-294
Ahmed Abdou O. Abeed and Shawkat A. Abdel-Mohsen

Abstract:
In the present study, 4-acetyl-3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline have been used extensively as intermediate compound for the synthesis of new heterocyclic moieties such as, thiadiazole, selenadiazole, thiazolidines and spiro (inole-azoles) linked to 2-pyrazoline-5-ones. IR, NMR, mass spectra and C, H, N elemental analyses, characterized these newly synthesized compounds. Some of these compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity.
Keywords: 2-pyrazolin-5-ones, thiadiazoles, thiazolidines, spiro.

Effects of Waltheria Indica Aerial Parts Extracts on Cognitive Behaviours in Mice
295-302
L.J. Hamidu, J.O. Ayo, A.B. Adelaiye and M.S. Abubakar

Abstract:
This study evaluated the facilitatory actions of Waltheria indica extract on cognitive behavioral responses in mice, with the use of elevated plus maze (EPM) paradigm. The aqueous ethanolic extract of the plant and all its fractions (n-butanol, acetone and ethyl acetate) showed bioactivity in acetic acid-induced stretches in animal model. The study also showed that the extract exhibited nootropic properties in mice. Transfer Latency (TL) of mice treated with doses of extract fractions and piracetam were significantly (P < 0.05) shortened as demonstrated by increased inflexion ratio (IR) compared to controls. The mean IR for mice treated with extract fractions (Aqueous portion, 100 mg kg-1, N-butanol, 100 mg kg-1 and ethyl acetate, 100 mg kg-1) were 2.58 + 0.16, 3.03 + 0.39 and 3.3 + 0.12 respectively. The mean IR value for control group was 0.98 + 0.13 and piracetam, the standard nootropic drug was 3.38 + 0.82. Dunnet test for comparison showed that the ethyl acetate fraction at dose 100 mg kg-1) inhibited the scopolamine induced amnesia (IR, 3.33 + 0.18) similar to the standard drug, piracetam (IR, 3.38 + 0.82).

 

Impact of Integrated Marketing Communication on Brand Loyalty: Brand Image as Mediator
303-310
Muhammad Ehsan Malik, Basharat Naeem and Madiha Munawar

Abstract:
The main purpose of this research endeavor was to empirically assess direct and indirect, through brand image, impact of integrated marketing communication (IMC) on brand loyalty of mobile service consumers. Baron and Kenny (1986) analytical procedures and Sobel (1982) tests were employed to test mediating mechanism of brand image for positive relationship between IMC and brand loyalty. Analysis of survey responses suggested that brand loyalty of consumers of mobile services could be fostered directly and indirectly, through brand image, provided mobile service providers ensure to integrating their marketing communications. Implications of the findings for marketing management and future research are presented, too.
Keywords: Integrated Marketing Communication, Brand Image, Brand Loyalty.

TE01δ Mode Low Pass and Band Pass Dielectric Resonator Filter
311-316
Md Rashid Mahmood and M.T Beg

Abstract:
In this paper a dual band (Low pass and Band Pass) dielectric resonator filter is proposed. Filter is constructed by placing high-quality factor TE01d mode dielectric resonators on the microstrip line. The distance between these dielectric resonator are chosen such that a proper coupling can be achieved. The main focus is to achieve high quality factor so that power handling capabilities of the filter can be increased. This is designed without compromising miniaturization and efficiency. A low pass filter with cut off frequency 3.78 GHz with stop band 2.35 GHz and band pass filter having pass band from 6.18 GHz to 7.18 GHz is has been designed. The simulated and measured result are compared and found to be almost equal with slightly percentage of error. The filter which is proposed for microwave communication is expected to have better quality factor compared to lumped elements-based BPF. The proposed filter has bandwidth of 3.78 GHz and 1 GHz with dielectric constant of 68±1 and Q factor is almost 8000.
Keywords: Tri-Band filter, Multiband filter, Dielectric Resonator Filter, High Q Filter.