European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 107 No 3
July, 2013

A New Method to Locate License Plate in Color Images
Maha Ghayem

Recently, researches widely have been done for license plate recognition and many systems have been also provided to recognize the various license plates. These systems used for many activities such as traffic control and public parking and many others applications. Three main steps for license plate recognition are; to recognize the location of license plate, to separate and recognize the characters. Also, there are some problems for license plate recognition by new methods such as low quality, intense lighting, imaging angular, different distance between camera and automobile, complex background and etc. In this article, a new method proposed to locate license plate. The performance of proposal method is more than similar methods, because in this method no high costs has been used for image processing operations. The characteristics of this method include; high processing and performance, ability to install and run on microprocessors, ability to recognize several license plates for an image and processing on color image without size shifts. Its operational performances are such as issuing electronic fines; create intelligent system to pay complications; controlling tunnels, highways, parking, traffic control plan and etc. In order to reduce these items in this article a blue band has been used besides the license plate of Iranian vehicles as well as a type of color edge detection led to recognize the location of plate by an innovative thresholding. This method is examined in different status and the results are presented. Proposed method in comparison with other methods involved high accuracy. The results of desired data from images of speed control cameras in highways emphasized performance, accuracy, reliability and speed of the proposed system, hence its high accuracy obtained through several experiments.
Keywords: License plate searching, color edge detection, color analysis and morphology, pattern recognition.

A State of Art Review of Dispersive Soils: Identification Methods Perspective
Hassan Shoghi, Mahmoud Ghazavi, Sina Kazemian and Hossein Moayedi

Dispersive soils are characterized by an unstable structure (disperse and crumb easily and rapidly) without signi?cant mechanical assistance in water of low-salt concentration. These soils are highly erodible in nature and tend to erode under low flow rate. Using dispersive soils in different structures like dams, embankment and roadway may cause serious engineering problems which are worldwide, and several structure failures have occurred and reported in many countries. Soil dispersion is a physical–chemical phenomenon that is caused due to presence of certain approach each other. However, in many countries, this material covers a substantial land area and identification of these soils is necessary for geotechnical engineers. In this paper, the dispersive soils and their mechanism are described from chemistry view point, furthermore the dispersive soil identification methods are discussed in the perspective of qualitative methods evaluations; the advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed as well.
Keywords: Dispersive soil, Internal erosion, Emerson class number, Double hydrometer test, Pinhole test, Crumb test, Chemical method, Free swell test.

Predictors of Hepatitis B Vaccine Acceptance among Nigerian Primary Health Care Workers
Abdulraheem IS, Tobin-West CI, Amodu MO and Salami SK

Background: Hepatitis B (HB) is a serious and common infectious disease of the liver. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2009 reported HB to infect nearly 2 billion people around the world. The potential for Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) transmission in the occupational setting is greater than for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The center for disease control (CDC) estimates that 18,000 healthcare workers whose jobs involve exposure to blood became infected with HBV each year. As a result, 250 people will die of fulminate hepatitis, cirrhosis, or liver cancer Objective: This study assesses the prevalence, predictors, relative importance of occupational, epidemiologic, and attitudinal factors in hepatitis B vaccine acceptance. Method: Stratified random samples of 950 health care workers at risk of occupational blood exposure in primary health care centers were studied. Potential reasons for vaccine acceptance or refusal were evaluated with factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of initiating and completing the vaccination. Results: The prevalence of acceptance of HBV vaccination was 79.4%, and of these, 22.5% had completed the required HBV vaccination doses while 48 % had not been vaccinated at all. About two-third (65.4%) of the unvaccinated subjects said they would accept vaccination if offered. Hepatitis B vaccine acceptance was related strongly to history of accidental exposure to blood or blood products, social & peer influence (physicians, supervisors, role models, friends, and spouse) and knowledge of the disease and vaccine, whereas refusal was primarily related to concern about vaccine side effects and problems with vaccine access. Conclusion: Hepatitis B vaccine should be offered routinely to health care workers with increased risk of exposure to blood and blood products as well as during evaluation for occupational blood exposure. Health workers must also be educated on occupational disease risk, liability, and the safety of the hepatitis B vaccine.
Keywords: Hepatitis B, Acceptance, Predictors, Health worker, Nigeria;

FPGA Implementation of Matrix-Vector Multiplication for Image Processing Application
A. Senthil Rajan

Matrix-vector multiplication is a computationally intensive and kernel operation used in many image processing applications. This paper presents a preliminary Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) design and implementation of dense matrix-vector multiplication for use in an image processing application. The design is optimized for speed which is the main requirement for such applications. The design has been implemented on Virtex-4 FPGA using Xilinx ISE 9.2i and the performance is evaluated by computing the execution time on FPGA. FPGA implementation results demonstrate that it can provide a maximum throughput of 16970 frames per second utilizing only 14% Virtex-4 slices and 57% DSP48 blocks which is quite adequate for most real-time image processing applications.
Keywords: Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Hardware Implementation, Image Processing, Matrix-Vector multiplication.

Design and Simulation of a Coded OFDM Modulation Technique Based on Discrete Wavelet Transform
Saad Saffah Hreshee and Defaf Talal Shakir

Multicarrier modulation techniques such as OFDM are used to overcome multipath fading and Inter symbol Interference (ISI) in single carrier systems, where the data stream to be transmitted is divided into several lower rate data streams each being modulated on a subcarrier. To avoid ISI, a small interval, known as the guard time interval, is inserted into OFDM symbols. The length of the guard time interval is chosen to exceed the channel delay spread. Therefore, OFDM can combat the multipath fading and eliminate ISI almost completely. Another problem is the reduction of the error rate in transmitting digital data. For that an error correcting Codes was used in the proposed OFDM system which is suitable for high data rate transmission combined with channel coding scheme for improving reliability of system. These systems called Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (COFDM) systems. This paper prove that the COFDM systems are capable to achieve excellent performance on frequency selective channels because of the combined benefits of multicarrier modulation and coding. The aim of this work is to propose a DWT-COFDM system and to compare the results of this system with FFT-OFDM, DWT-OFDM and FFT-COFDM with respect to BER performance under the effect of AWGN, Flat Fading and Selective Fading channels.
Mots-clés :OFDM, COFDM, Wavelet Transform, DWT, AWGN, Flat Fading and Selective Fading.

Analyse Fréquentielle des Séries de Pluies et Débits Maximaux de L’ouémé et Estimation des Débits de Pointe
Avahounlin Ringo. F, Lawin Agnidé Emmanuel, Alamou Eric, Chabi Amédée and Afouda Abel

L’objectif de ce travail consiste à étudier à l’échelle du bassin de l’Ouémé (situé entre les latitudes 7°58N et 10°12N et les longitudes 1°35E et 3°05E avec une superficie de 46.920 Km2 à l’exutoire de Bonou) les débits de pointe et les précipitations maximales annuelles en vue d’une estimation des quantiles hydropluviométriques. Premièrement, à partir des chroniques de données hydropluviométriques, des séries de précipitations maximales journalières Pmax et des débits de pointe Qmax ont été générés et une analyse fréquentielle a été faite. A ces séries sont ajustées différentes lois de probabilité de valeurs extrêmes (loi logNormale 3, loi log Pearson type 3, et loi Gumbel). Les quantiles relatifs à chaque série ont été analysés ainsi que leur distribution spatiale. Par ailleurs, il est dégagé, à partir de la corrélation entre la superficie des sous bassins et les quantiles hydrologiques observés, une relation de type puissance qui permet d’estimer les débits de pointe à l’échelle du bassin de l’Ouémé. Les valeurs des critères de performance entre les débits estimés et les observations ont permit de confirmer la formulation mathématique permettant d’estimer les débits de pointe et de conclure que les résultats obtenus servent d’indicateur pour la détermination des quantiles hydrologiques maximaux indispensables pour le dimensionnement des ouvrages hydrauliques et la localisation des zones à risques hydrologiques à l’échelle du bassin de l’Ouémé.
Keywords: Précipitations maximales, débit de pointe, bassin de l’Ouémé, quantiles hydrologiques, analyse fréquentielle.

Employee Compensation Management in Nigerian Organisations: Some Observations and Agenda for Research
Obisi.C, Uche.C.B.N and Ifekwem.N.E.

Compensation management strategy at both private and public sector should be fair and equitable enough to help stimulate performance and ensure the realization of organization and corporate goals. When this is done, organizations can win competitive advantage. However this seems not to be the case as employees are under paid with its attendant industrial relations implications. There seem to be inadequate compensation, unfair compensation policies, with its resultant low productivity. Effective strategies and recommendations have been suggested.
Keywords: Compensation Management, Nigerian Organization, Equity.

Strategic Orientation, Survival and Development of Trade Unionism and Trade Unions: An Inward Looking Approach
Chris Obisi, Francis C. Anyim, Uche, C.B.N and Ifekwem.N.E.

Trade unionism and Trade Unions have come a long way in Nigeria and has sustained deliberate state and environmental obstacles coming in its way of survival and growth. This paper among other issues would look at the journey so far and come up with strategic solutions to advance the cause of Trade Unionism and Trade Unions. More importantly, it is the opinion of this work that the progress and demise of Trade Unionism and Trade Unions lie in their hands through their actions and inaction as the greatest enemy of Trade unions could be the Trade Unions themselves.

Iran’s Transition to Learning Economy: Exploring the Intervening Role of Information and Communication Technology
Seyyed Hamid Khodadad Hoseini, Behnam Abdi, Alireza Hassanzadeh and Ali Mohammad Ahmadi

In the last couple of decades, developed countries have shown high economic growth by knowledge creation and diffusion in the whole of economy, i.e. they had a great transition to knowledge-based economy. In contrast, attention to different paradigm is a necessity for developing countries such as Iran, the Islamic Republic of; where sale of natural resources such as raw oil is the main source of national income. So in this qualitative research, we investigate the themes and components of Iran’s transition to learning economy by using grounded theory approach. Findings show that one of the fundamental challenges in Iran’s transition to learning economy is providing an enabling environment of excellent information and communications technology (ICT). ICT have been at the heart of economic changes for more than a decade and plays an important role, notably by contributing to rapid technological progress and productivity growth. Elimination of digital divide between regions and at national level, ICT’s infrastructure development and e-government development are the related important components that should be considered in Iran.
Keywords: Learning economy, Information and Communication Technology, E- Government, Digital Divide, ICT Infrastructure, Iran.

Application des Réseaux de Neurones Artificiels de Type PMC Pour la Prédiction des Teneurs en Carbone Organique dans Les Dépôts du Quaternaire Terminal de la Mer d’Alboran
Abdellah EL Hmaidi, Hicham EL Badaoui, Abdelaziz Abdallaoui and Bouchta EL Moumni

La mer d'Alboran constitue la partie située à l’extrême ouest de la mer Méditerranée. Elle est comprise entre l'Espagne au nord, l'Algérie et le Maroc au sud et le détroit de Gibraltar à l'ouest. Elle appartient à la chaine bético-rifaine et représente un point d’échange à travers le détroit de Gibraltar entre l’océan atlantique à l’Ouest et le bassin algéro-baléare à l’Est. Le présent travail porte sur la prédiction des teneurs en carbone organique dans les dépôts du Quaternaire terminal de la mer d’Alboran, en utilisant deux outils de modélisation : la régression linéaire multiple et les réseaux de neurones artificiels de type Perceptron Multicouches (PMC). Ces derniers ont été effectués avec le langage Matlab qui représente un réseau multicouche non récurent en se basant sur un apprentissage supervisé et un algorithme de levenberg Marquardt. Les résultats obtenus aboutissent à modéliser avec performance les relations entre le carbone organique et les autres paramètres environnementaux dans chacune des bases de données analysées et par conséquent de prédire les teneurs en carbone organique dans les dépôts du Pléistocène – Holocène de la mer d’Alboran.
Keywords: SIG, Réseaux de neurones, régression linéaire multiple, prédiction, carbone organique, carottes Kullenberg, Pléistocène, Holocène, mer d’Alboran.

Tolérance des Rhizobia au Stress Salin: Rôle Osmoprotecteur des Exopolysaccharides Produits Par des Souches de Rhizobia Isolées à Partir du Système Racinaire de Médicago (luzerne) Provenant de la Région Ouest d’Algérie
Yamina Alem, Zoubida Benbayer-Habchi, Zohra Ighilhariz and Abdelkader Bekki

Dans le but de mettre en évidence le rôle protecteur des exopolysaccharides (EPS) rhizobiens dans la tolérance au stress salin, une étude de la production de ces métabolites par des souches de rhizobia appartenant aux genres: Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium et Agrobacterium, isolées à partir du système racinaire de Médicago de sols salins de la région ouest d’Algérie a été réalisée. Cette étude nous a permis dans un premier temps de déterminer de manière qualitative et quantitative la production des EPS. La quantification des EPS a montré que le taux de production varie d’une souche à l’autre. La plus importante quantité d’EPS est produite par la souche rhizobium spSTM 1081(3,20µg/ml). Dans un second temps le test d’efficience des souches productrices a confirmé leur infectivité et leur efficience vis-à-vis de la plante hôte Medicago sativa. Par ailleurs, l’évaluation de la tolérance aux concentrations croissantes de Nacl a révélé la capacité des souches les plus performantes à tolérer une salinité allant jusqu’à 800 mM. Ainsi la production d’EPS varierait selon la nature de la souche testée et la concentration en Nacl utilisée. Enfin, l’essai in vitro d’amélioration de la tolérance des rhizobia non halophiles à la salinité par combinaison avec des fractions d’EPS produites par la souche la plus performante dans des conditions optimales de culture, a montré le rôle osmoprotecteur des EPS contre le stress salin.
Motsclés: Exopolysaccharides - Rhizobia – Salinité – Nodulation - Medicago sativa.

Exact Analytic Solution for Telegraph Equation by Reduced Differential Transform Method
Emad A. Az-Zo’bi

In this work, the reduced differential transform method is proposed for solving different forms of telegraph equation. The exact semi-analytic solution is represented in the form of rapidly convergent series with easily computable components. The proposed iterative scheme can be easily applied to many linear and nonlinear problems. Some illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the method.
Keywords: Reduced differential transform method; Telegraph equations; Exact solution.

The Relationship Between Hardiness and Hopefulness with Life Satisfaction
Ghodsy Ahqhar, Amineh Ahmadi and Forugh Ashqali Farahani

Hardiness is one of personality traits which is considered as a factor for promoting psychological health. It expedites healthiness and leads to constancy and compatibility. Also study of hopefulness has a significant importance as one of the basic variables of psychological health. One of the needs of a society is individuals’ feeling of life satisfaction. Life satisfaction makes security, comfort and all-out confidence in the present and future. The present study investigates the relationship between hardiness and hopefulness with life satisfaction of female state high school students of Tehran city. The participants include all guidance school girl students of Tehran in 1391-1392 educational year. 300 students were selected as sample using Kokoran sampling formula and stratified sampling. Three instruments including Kubasa hardiness questionnaire by Basharat(1997) with reliability and validity of 0.091, hopefulness questionnaire by snyder & lopez(2002)with reliability and validity of 0.094 and life satisfaction questionnaire (mslss) Hipobner (2001) with reliability and validity of 0.087 were used to collect data. SPSS software was used to analyze descriptive and referential statistics including multi-variable regression. Supporting research hypotheses, the results of the study showed that among hardiness sub-scale, challenge and control had a negative meaningful relationship with life satisfaction (p<0.05). hopefulness sub-scales (management and strategy) showed positive relationship with students’ life satisfaction which is statistically meaningful (p<005).
Keywords: Hardiness, hopefulness, students, female students.

The Relationship Between Earnings Quality and Some Aspects of Corporate Governance
Fatemeh Ahmadi

This study examined the relationship between earnings quality and corporate governance. Two measures are intended to measure earnings quality. First measure of earning quality is the ratio of cash flows from operating activities to operating earnings and the second measure of earning quality is measuring of the quality of working capital accruals that had proposed by (Dechow and Dichev, 2002). The relationship between two features of corporate governance means transparency of financial information and structure of the board of directors to earnings quality was studied. The structure of the board of directors was investigated in two dimensions: one the number of irresponsible board members and other percentage of managerial share ownership. The results of Hypothesis test showed that there are positively significant relationship between earnings transparency and earnings quality. However, except the second measure of earnings quality, that had weak relationship with ownership percentage of board members, there was no significant relationship between measures of earnings quality and other features of structure of the board of directors.
Keywords: Quality of earnings, accruals quality, earnings transparency, board structure.

In Search of Entrepreneurial Situational Leadership as a New Theory
Mohammad Reza Zali

The purpose of this paper is to develop the entrepreneurial leadership theory in a contingency approach. Therefore the Entrepreneurial Situational Leadership Theory is developed and presented. This paper uses a narrative review of several papers of various publishers registered with Scopus, to investigate the evolution of leadership theories and entrepreneurial leadership research. The paper integrates Thornberry's descriptive model of Entrepreneurial Leadership Strategies with Entrepreneurial Orientation as Organizational Entrepreneurial Readiness. Hence, the paper develops Thornberry's descriptive model of Entrepreneurial Leadership Strategies into a normative model which suggests four entrepreneurial leadership strategies corresponding with the four levels of Organizational Entrepreneurial Readiness (OER1- 4). In OER1 (unable and unwilling in organizational entrepreneurship), Accelerating leadership strategy is suggested, but in OER2 (unable but willing in organizational entrepreneurship), Mining leadership strategy and in OER3 (able but willing in organizational entrepreneurship) explorer leadership strategy is suggested. Also when organizational entrepreneurial readiness is at the highest level (OER4), integrator leadership strategy is suggested. Moreover, each of the primary strategies of Entrepreneurial Leadership has always a secondary strategy. The secondary strategy of Accelerating and Integrating leadership are Mining and Exploring strategies respectively. Meanwhile, the secondary strategy of Mining leadership is Accelerating or Exploring strategies. Finally at OER3, Mining and Integrating leadership strategies would be the most appropriate backup choices. The integration of Thornberry's model of entrepreneurial leadership strategies with Organizational Entrepreneurial Readiness (Entrepreneurial Orientation) develops it from a descriptive stage to a normative phase leading to a novel situational theory of entrepreneurial leadership.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial Orientation, Organizational Entrepreneurial Readiness, Accelerating leadership, Mining leadership, Exploring strategy, Integrating strategy.