European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 107 No 2
July, 2013

Analyzing Competitiveness of Agriculture Crops in Pakistan
Waqqas Qayyum, Asim Anwar, Muhammad Tariq Mahmood and Sadaf Shahab

Competitiveness necessarily refers to the increased tendency of a nation to compete in the international world market. The paper under discussion also relies heavily upon considering rising export tendencies of agricultural sector crops and increasing trade volumes in terms of these crops as an important measure of competitiveness. The objective of this paper is to figure out competitiveness of some crops (including wheat, rice, cotton and potatoes, onions) in Pakistan measured on the basis of few above mentioned indices including RCA(Revealed Comparative Advantage), NEI (Net Exports Index) and EMS (Export Market Share index). The assessment of competitiveness becomes crucial for Pakistan’s agriculture sector because a major share of GDP (23%) comprises of agricultural products. The different indices used in this study will be helpful at least in making an appraisal about the performance of few agricultural crops which are competitive in nature. An encouraging prospect of improvement is also found in case of competitiveness of potato as depicted by the gradual increasing trend. Net export index being a relative summary of export and import position of a country can add more explanatory power while explaining the concept of competitiveness.

Explant Choice and Bombardment Parameters: Key Factors for Genetic Transformation of Wheat using Biolistic Method
D.C. Tinak Ekom, M.N. Benchekroun, S.M. Udupa, D. Iraqi and M.M. Ennaji

Production of fertile transgenic wheat plants using biolistic method has been reported by several researchers worldwide. While there are several innovative and promising approaches for wheat transformation using somatic embryogenesis as regeneration system with different explants as targets for transformation, the most common approach to wheat transformation is the bombardment of tissue derived from immature embryos. However, mature wheat embryos are a potentially useful alternative to immature embryos, and transgenic wheat plants have already been produced by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli. Moreover, bombardment parameters such as: size and quantity of metal particles (gold or tungsten), bombardment pressures, distance gun/target, DNA concentration per bombardment, type of osmotic treatment were also found to have significant effects in the success of wheat transformation with high efficiency. This review will provide an overview of wheat transformation in previous years, addressing factors that affect transformation while highlighting the successes of the past and prospects for the future in order to optimize them to get more efficient transformation.
Keywords: Biolistic, Bombardment parameters, Explants, Regeneration system, Transgenic Wheat Plants, Transformation Efficiency.

On Fuzzy Volterra Integro-Differential Equations
Nuha A. Rajab, Adil M. Ahmed and Omar M. Al-Faour

Recently fuzzy initial value problems or fuzzy differential equations and fuzzy integral equations have received the considerable amount of attentions. In this paper, high order fuzzy Volterra integro-differential equations of are reduced to linear fuzzy Volterra integro-differential equations of first order. The fuzzy reduction theorem is proven. It is served to reduce any linear fuzzy integro-differential equation of Volterra type of order n, to linear fuzzy Volterra integro-differential equation of first order. A fuzzy valued function is used in each fuzzy equation.
Keywords: Fuzzy valued function, Fuzzy deferential equations, Fuzzy Volterra integral equations, Fuzzy integro-differential equations, Fuzzy reduction;

Comparative Study of Linguistic Structure of Two Germania and Persian Myth
Parastoo Panjeshahi and Seyed Masoud Salami

Mythical Legends of a father and son battle themes are from the Aryan tribes. Many similarities between Germanic epic poem of Hildebrand lied and Rostam and Sohrab attract the attention of many researchers of East and Westover the last two centuries. Here, this study tries to obtain greater understanding of the roots of old patterns, how they enter to their relative nations and interaction of each other using Comparative study of two Germania and Persian myths.
Keywords: Shahnameh, Hildebrand lied poems, Rustam and Sohrab, linguistic structure

Effect of Two Inhibitors of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in the Mediterranean Flour Moth: Biochemical Composition and Ecdyteroid Amount of Gonads
Fatiha Bensalem and Nadia Soltani-Mazouni

In mammals, the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a metallopeptidase associated with the regulation of blood pressure. It was found in several species of insects belonging to different orders and shown that this enzyme stimulates the synthesis of molting hormone (ecdysteroïds) and inhibits the action of testicular ecdysiotropine. The Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a cosmopolitan pest of stored products. In the present study we evaluate the effects of two ACE inhibitors, enalapril and lisinopril, on biochemical composition (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ARN, ADN) and ecdysteroid amounts in E. kuehniella gonads from newly emerged adults after topical treatment of pupae. Enalapril and lisinopril were applied topically (5 and 10 ?g/insect respectively) on newly moulted male and females pupae of E. kuehniella. The results show that enalapril and lisinopril decreased (p< 0.05) the testicular amounts of carbohydrates and proteins, and increased the ovarian amounts of carbohydrates, proteins. No significant difference was recorded on the testicular and ovarian lipid contents as compared to controls. Lastly, treatment was found to increase the amounts of ARN, ADN in both ovaries and testes. In the second series of experiment, enzyme immunoassay measurements of ecdysteroids were made in gonads from newly emerged adults after pupal treatment. Only enalapril was found to affect significantly (p< 0.05) the ecdysteroid amounts in testicles.

A Mathematical Model used for Predicting Correctly the Winner in 2012 American Presidential Elections
Chandrasekhar Putcha and James Doti

This paper develops a method and uses it for predicting the 2012 American Presidential elections. This prediction is based on the principles of probability and statistics. The data used is essentially the polling data from various well- known sources which is supposed to be sufficient for prediction purposes. The assumption is based on the premise that the polls will capture the pulse of the people as to how they are planning to vote in the actual Presidential election and hence if the polling is correct, the mathematical model that uses this information should predict correctly the outcome of the Presidential elections. To that extent, a mathematical dynamic model as the result of polls vary depending upon the timing of the poll and the political events occurring in the country at that time. As is well known, American elections consists of two parts –ELECTORAL COLLEGE and popularity vote. The winner of the American Presidential elections (presumably to be declared as the President of USA) is supposed to definitely get majority in the electoral college and if possible win the popularity vote. The mathematical model developed herein predicts both the winner of the electoral college as well as popularity vote. The developed model predicted with a probability of 80.54% that President Obama would win with 286 electoral votes to Romney’s 252. The actual results while proving the model correctly showed that President Obama received 332 electoral votes to Romney’s 206.The mathematical model developed as part of this study also predicted that President Obama will receive 51.81% of the national 2-party popular vote to Romney’s 48.19% which is extremely close to the actual popularity of 51.1% received by President Obama. It shows that correct mathematical model was used, correct assumptions were made, and correct data was used resulting in the correct prediction, which is also near perfect especially in terms of national popularity vote.

Multiple Kernels Learning for Virtual Screening in Drug Discovery
M. P. Preeja and K. P. Soman

Over the past twenty years computational technique have been applied in the early stages of drug discovery for reducing the time and cost of drug discovery process. Application of in-silico screening helps to access novel drug like molecules from the chemical libraries. Virtual screening provides a complementary approach for High Through-put Screening and very fast screening is possible with this method. This paper proposes a scheme for virtual screening using Support Vector Machine. In SVM the classification accuracy depends on the similarity measurement and in case of molecular graphs, efficient similarity measurement is possible with graph kernel. Different kinds of feature extraction are possible in graph kernels and different kind of graphs kernel gives different notion of similarity. In this paper heuristic multiple kernel for the efficient classification of drug like and non-drug like molecule has been proposed. We test our proposed method using the PTC and MUTAG dataset and the experimental results show the new kernel has produced promising results.
Keywords: Drug discovery, Graph kernel, Heuristic MKL, Ligand Based, SVM, Virtual screening.

An Investigation on Computer Aided Fixture Design and Analysis using FEM Approach
E. Raj Kumar and K. Annamalai

Fixture design plays a major role at the beginning stage before shop floor production. Proper fixture design is crucial to product quality in terms of precision, accuracy and surface finish of the machined parts. Due to the rapid response from the manufacturing applications, the fixture design principles should be integrated in an efficient manner so as to facilitate the fast development of a fixture design. In this study we investigate the design of fixture by means of different fixture location schemes. We also examine the effects of fixture design based on different load applications. The FEM software package is used to calculate the deformation of workpiece under given clamping force specifications.
Keywords: Fixture design, Clamping force, Fixture analysis.

Efficient Variable Source Record Routing over Energetic Source Routing
A. Rengarajan, R. Sugumar and C. Jayakumar

In this study we investigate the relative ability of Internetworking protocols such as IP currently do not allow “mobile hosts” to interoperate easily or conveniently with other hosts on the network. The Variable/Loose Source Routing Protocol (LSRR) is used to specify the route that a packet should take through the network. In source routing the path through the network is set by the source or a device that tells the network source the desired path. It is assumed that the source of the packet knows about the layout of the network and can specify the best path for the packet. We also examine the link power management, minimum power route and route power management for stable distance selection criteria. We also the significant increases the number of nodes in the network and carries out more extensive testing to the protocols. The results is comparing with Energetic/Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). Collectively, our results provide some efficient and stable route is a challenge for the design of routing protocol in LSRR.
Keywords: LSRR, Route reply packet, Transmit power, Link power adjustment, Route power management, DSR, Power route discovery.

Discrete Wavelet Transform Based Source Code Plagiarism Detection
Resmi N.G. and K.P. Soman

Our main objective in this paper is to explore and analyse the use of discrete wavelet transform for source code analysis and hence detect plagiarized source code files from student program-database. We also propose a two-phase approach to detect plagiarisms in student programming assignments. We use an attribute-based algorithm employing discrete wavelet transform in first phase to identify distinct clusters of potentially plagiarized files. In second phase, a structure-based technique - abstract syntax tree matching is used to identify the plagiarized files. The comparison of files in second phase has to be done only within the clusters rather than across the clusters. This greatly reduces the computation involved in the second phase. This two-phase approach is found to be more effective than applying the algorithms independently. Moreover, Daubechies wavelet tends to outperform Haar wavelet in analysing the source code files.
Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform, Abstract Syntax Trees, Source Code Plagiarism Detection.

The Revolution of the Concept of Security in the International Law
Mohammad Ghorbanzadeh, Seyed Bagher Mirabbasi, Nader Mardani and Mohammad Emami

Human security is one of the most important basic rights that one can say it’s the basis of other rights. United Nations Development Programme’s 1994 Human Development Report describes human security as conditions in which people will be free from the restrictions and mental pressures that surround and capture human development. This method became institutions and individuals’ agenda when the traditional point of view towards security could not respond challenges of this area and parallel to the extension of the universal changes, the insecurities increased at national and international levels. National security is the combination of two words: The SECURITY and the NATIONAL which is a new concept that it is mainly based on military threats against states. After World War II, national security was became multi dimension and it includes the military, political, economic and environmental aspects. The present article has clarified the concepts of national and human securities and the following explains the relation between human-centered security and state-centered security. The mutual influence and the existence of their commonality and distinctions are the main subjects of this article.

Sentence Extraction Based Automatic Text Summarization using an Optimized Fuzzy Model
Sundus Ayyaz, Younus Javed and Aasia Khanum

Automatic Text Summarization is the area being explored from more than fifty years and it is gaining importance with time. Due to the rapid growth of digital data on web the problem of information overload is increasing. Automatic text summarization is used to solve this problem by compressing the text so that the users are not required to go through each and every line in document for understanding the core concept behind it. In this paper a sentence extraction based automatic text summarization approach is used to generate summary of scientific documents. The proposed approach consists of three methods. The Preprocessing stage removes noise and produces a clean document. First method is the General Statistical Method (GSM), where feature terms are extracted by paragraph and sentence segmentation which includes tokenization, stop word removal, case folding and removal of non-essential sentences. Three feature terms; cue words, frequent words and sentence position are used to assign weights to each sentence and extract the high score sentences. In second method, the Fuzzy Logic (FL), the results from GSM and identified features are fuzzified and are given as an input to Fuzzy inference system (FIS). The FIS uses the fuzzy rule set to take out only the essential sentences. In third method, the Optimized Fuzzy Model (OFM), the input and output fuzzy parameters as well as the fuzzy rule weights are optimized to get the optimized weight of each feature. Each sentence score is calculated based on these weights and the highly scored sentences are selected to be included in final optimized summary document. Therefore a blend of these three methods generates a good quality summary.
Keywords: Automatic Text Summarization, sentence extraction, General Statistical Method, Fuzzy Logic, Optimized Fuzzy Model.

Resistance Aux Antibiotiques des Souches de Salmonella, Shigella et Campylobacter Responsables de Diarrhees, en Cote D’ivoire en 2004 et 2005
Guessennd Nathalie, Gbonon Valérie Carole, Ouattara N’gnôh. Djénéba, Boni-Cissé Cathérine, Tiekoura Bertin, Kacou-N’Douba Adèle, Dosso Mireille, Courvalin Patrice and Groupe Gear

Les diarrhées sont responsables de 5% des causes de mortalité dans le monde et de 18% des cas de mortalité des enfants de moins de cinq ans. Elles occupent la troisième place des infections le plus meurtrières dans le monde. L’objectif de ce travail était d’étudier la prévalence des différentes étiologies bactériennes de diarrhée et de décrire leur sensibilité vis-à-vis des antibiotiques. Matériel et méthodes: 3079 échantillons de selles diarrhéiques ont été prélevés chez des patients consentants de janvier 2004 à Décembre 2005 dans trois hôpitaux généraux et deux centres hospitaliers universitaires dans la banlieue proche d’Abidjan. Les souches ont fait l’objet d’antibiogramme en milieu gélosé selon les recommandations du CA-SFM, 2008. Résultats: La population d’étude était constituée de 70% d’enfants de moins de 15ans. Dans 39% des cas, un syndrome dysentérique était présent. Une fièvre = 38°C était associée dans 44,7% à une déshydratation sévère. Un taux de 62,5% (75/120) d’automédication par antibiotiques a été noté. Une prévalence de 8% (246/3079) de bactéries entéropathogènes a été enregistrée avec 194 souches de Salmonella et 52 Shigella. Aucun Campylobacter n’a été isolé. Le sérotype Typhimurium était le plus représenté avec 71,1%. Pour Shigella, le sérotype le plus représenté était flexneri avec 63,5% et Shigella dysenteriae n’a été isolé que dans 9,6% des cas. Le céfotaxime était la molécule la plus active aussi bien pour le genre Shigella que pour le genre Salmonella. Aucune bêta-lactamase à spectre élargi n’a été mise en évidence. Le taux de résistance au triméthoprime-sulfaméthoxazole était de 73,1% chez Shigella et de 62,4% chez Salmonella. La gentamicine a montré une bonne sensibilité avec des taux de 9,6% chez Shigella et de 9,3% chez Salmonella. Les sulfamides avaient une faible activité sur l’ensemble des souches testées. La résistance au chloramphénicol était de 74,7%. Le phénotype le plus représenté a été ACSSuTe (56 souches) et 29 souches avaient le phénotype ACSSuTeNal. Sur l’ensemble des souches étudiées, 67,5% (164/243) étaient résistantes à au moins trois antibiotiques. Conclusion: Cette étude a permis de montrer la prédominance des Salmonella dans les diarrhées bactériennes. Les sérotypes Typhimurium et flexneri étaient largement isolés. La résistance au chloramphénicol était très élevée. Ces données devraient servir de bases pour la surveillance de la résistance des bactéries responsables des diarrhées pour des recommandations thérapeutiques.
Keywords: Diarrhées, Antibiotiques, Shigella, Salmonella, Résistance, Côte d’Ivoire.

Oil Price Shocks and their Short and Long-Term Effects on the Iran Economy: Evidence from a Structural VAR Analysis
Mohsen Ebrahimi and Nooshin Shokri

Iran as the second largest producer in OPEC oil exporting countries, is a major supplier of oil in global energy market which can affect the world oil market and accept the impact. In this situation, any shock to the oil market can affect the economy through various channel. By applying a SVAR approach, this paper analyzes the dynamic relationship between asymmetric oil price shocks and major macroeconomic variables in Iran. We use monthly data for the period 1999-2009 .The empirical evidence suggests that oil price changes affect real economic activity. Oil price increases (decreases) have a significant positive (negative) impact on GDP. Oil prices are important in explaining stock price movements. We find that increases (decreases) oil prices shock have a increases (decreases) and statistically significant impact on stock prices. The response of the real exchange rate to asymmetric oil price shocks are significant. Furthermore, the response of CPI to any kind of oil price shocks is significant and positive.
Keywords: Oil price shocks; Iran; SVAR model.

Elaboration of the Relation between Beauty and Islamic City from the Holy Quran Viewpoint
Mohammad Naghizadeh, Iraj Etesam and Shahab-o-din Hemmati

Beauty and elegance of a city is one of the challenges that the urban planners and theoreticians in the current century are faced with it. Among applications of urban aesthetics are utilization of principles of aesthetics for analyzing, assessing and implementation. In this way, the present study, after determining the basic concept and explanation of theoretical necessity of the principles in aesthetic fields, compares the concept of beauty from Quranic and Islamic texts’ viewpoint with the concepts of aesthetics from the Western scholars’ viewpoint. Developing a pattern to recognize a beautiful city based on Islamic and divine words is an objective of this study. In the other words, aesthetics of an Islamic city is to explain the elegance of a manmade environment within the frame of proposed assessing criteria and necessities. The study is conducted based on review of available documents (library) and as a comparative (analysis and conclusion) work.
Keywords: Islamic city, aesthetic, the Holy Quran.