European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 106 No 4
July, 2013

Antibacterial Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Clerodendrum Splendens 70% (G. Don) on Strains of Hospital Infection (Pseudomonas Aeruginosaand Staphylococcus Aureus)
471-476
Guessennd K. Nathalie, Konan Kouadio Fernique, Ouattara Djénéba, Coulibaly Adama and Dosso Mireille

Abstract:
The resistance of growing antibiotic constitutes a major public health problem. The needs for new therapeutic alternatives are crucial. Although various strategies are explored today, exploring new therapeutic approaches from traditional medicine is required. It is for this reason that our goal is to test ethanol extract 70% of Clerodendrum splendens (G. DON) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus responsible for hospital infection. Dilution method in liquid medium agar Muller-Hinton® using different concentrations of extract was allowed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the extract. The results show that all strains are susceptible to ethanol extract 70%. This extract is bactericidal for three of the four bacterial strains. The solvent ethanol focuses much more active ingredients.
Keywords: Ethanol extract 70%, Clerodendrum splendens, bactericidal, hospital infection.


Developing Development Strategies in the Higher Education (Emphasizing on the National University of Tajikistan)
477-486
Masoud Ahmadinejad and Ahmad Reza Ommani

Abstract:
The variable and changing conditions of today world that have created by the explosive changes of technology and communications have caused that organizations choose suitable method to confront the new conditions in order to be able to provide background of own organizational survival and continuance indicating the appropriate reactions against the environmental factors. So management practices and the strategic program is very important as an effective and determining factor for developing the appropriate strategies and explaining the practical solutions to perform this strategies. The main goal of the present research is developing the appropriate strategies in the national university of Tajikistan as one of the higher education institutes based on SWOT model. This research has a descriptive-survey nature and its goal is application. Also the library method has been used as a complementary method. The statistical society of this research is consisting of management, masters and experts collection of the national university of Tajikistan and the sample volume of them is 100 persons. Also two descriptive and inferential statistics methods have been used for the statistical analysis. Software such as SPSS and EXCLE has been used to analyse data. The results of this research found from the internal and external environment and regarding to university position on the internal and external checker matrix and the obtained in the quantity strategic matrix have presented the conservative strategies collection in order of priority and suggested the practical solutions related to performing this strategies to university management.
Keywords: Strategic management, strategic planning, strategy of the external factors, internal factors, threats matrix, opportunities, internal weaknesses and strengths, strategic quantitative planning matrix.


Plurality and Repetition of Crime in the Law of Iran
487-491
Shahabeddin NasseriPoshtDarbandi

Abstract:
Whenever a person commits to different or repeated crimes; however, the mentioned crimes are not discovered or the perpetrator is not received a definite conviction for any of the crimes, the plurality of crime is realized. Sometimes, the crime threatens the society in some specific ways and brings about irreparable dangers for the person and society. One of such dangerous modes is plurality of crime (committing various crimes). Seen from a criminologist perspective, this state is regarded as dangerous signs of misdemeanor. The crime repetition talks about the dangerous nature of the committed person and shows that executing the previous punishments about him is not so effective; therefore, in order that the committed person is chastised, s/he deserves more severe punishment. Therefore, the crime repetition is regarded as one of the qualities of punishment aggravation. According to the consultative theory of 35/02/71 and 25/09/71 since the Act 48 of Islamic Punishment Law has not determined the way of punishment aggravation for the crime repeater and there is not any specific sentence for this, the court is granted the discretion to aggravate the Ta’zir punishments regarding the conditions and quality of the committed crime and the condition and situation of the committed person. On the other hand, most of the lawyers agree upon observing the regulations of crime plurality and there are only some disagreements upon the executing way and determining the punishment. However, there is a clear disagreement on the crime repetition in terms of punishment aggravation and non-aggravation of the committed people. This article tries to study the crime repetition and plurality in the criminal Law of Iran.
Keywords: Crime, crime repetition and plurality, law, Iran.


Comparing Various Approaches of Frequent Pattern Mining with Combined Association Rule
492-502
K. Kavitha and E. Ramaraj

Abstract:
Frequent pattern mining speculates a core theme in data mining research with a wide range of applications. In knowledge discovery community, it is crucial to mine frequent pattern from massive databases. Numerous algorithmshave been emerged to ascertain a frequent pattern that frequently appears in the data set.Among those algorithms, Closed weighted frequent pattern mining (DS-CWFP) conceives closed weighted frequent pattern in the current data and dynamically maintain the transaction information.Another frequent mining approach termed as IP-FPM (Intensified Priority based Frequent Pattern Mining)mine the frequent itemset from the given input and prioritized the generated frequent item set in increasing order using minimum weight.However, frequent patterns generated through aforementionedmining technique exhibit complexity and cannot meet the requirement of the real world. The generic framework CCARM (Combined and Composite Association Rule Mining) proposed by us exploits decision making and combined association rule mining to evolve actionable combined patterns with composite terms. This paper presents a review of various frequent mining techniques (DS-CWFP, IP-FPM and CCARM algorithm). In last, comparative analysis of various frequent patterns mining approaches is percolated on data set with different parameters. Experimental results show the superiority ofthe proposed approach in achieving better performance.
Keywords: Actionable patterns, combined association rule mining, composite mining, frequent pattern, interestingness measure

Variation Spatiale des Concentrations en Éléments Traces Métalliques dans les Sédiments de la Retenue du Barrage Sidi Chahed (Meknès, Maroc)
503-511
Driss Abrid, Abdellah EL Hmaidi, Abdelaziz Abdallaoui and Ali Essahlaoui

Abstract:
Huit éléments traces (Pb, Cd, As, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu et Cr) ont été analysés par ICP-AES dans les sédiments superficiels de la retenue du barrage Sidi Chahed et son bassin versant (NE de Meknès, Maroc). Plusieurs cartes thématiques relatives aux distributions spatiales des teneurs en métaux lourds ont été obtenues par intégration des données dans un SIG. Les résultats montrent des teneurs faibles en Fe, Mn, Zn et Cu qui reflètent plutôt des conditions naturelles en relation avec la nature géologique de la région. Ils mettent en évidence également la présence d’une contamination dominée respectivement par As (3,93 à 7,18 µg/g), Pb (8,62 à 19,09 µg/g), Cd (1,27 à 3,04 µg/g) et Cr (19,95 à 79,07 µg/g) avec des teneurs importantes supérieures à celles des stations prises comme références dans le bassin versant. Les sources de cette contamination seraient probablement en relation avec les eaux de ruissellement, l’érosion des terrains agricoles, les déversements des eaux domestiques et le trafic routier. Il s’agit donc d’une pollution métallique d’origine anthropique liée à l’activité agricole via les engrais et les pesticides.
Mots-clés :Pollution, métaux lourds, Sidi Chahed, sédiments, ICP-AES, SIG.

Image-to-mage Steganography Based on Discrete Cosine Transform
512-522
Reyadh Naoum, Oleg Viktorov, Ahmed Shihab and Marwan Shaker

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to study methods of hiding color images in another color images. It uses the transform domain in the steganography process to increase its robustness against the changes and treatments done for the cover image. In this work, DCT applying smart block matching method between the embedded image and cover image to find locations to hide information blocks. The proposed secret key steganography system includes six stages: test, transform, matching, key generation and substitution, inverse transform and key encryption and hiding. The combination of the steganography with the cryptography techniques is used in the secret key to increase the level of security. Even if the attacker knows the (cipher key) embedded image, it is difficult for him to know where the key is hidden in the stego-image.
Keywords: Steganography, Secret Image, Cover Image, Embedded Image, Stego-Image, Discrete Cosine Transform, Cryptography.


Paucity of Words in Prose Texts Sofia
523-528
Karam-Ali Qadamyari

Abstract:
Paucity of words and blackout or silence or silent mathematics is a key element of the seeker in their spiritual journey to the true lover and it's about virtue entered different traditions in prophetic manner and speech many of elders law and Sufis and it follows that seeker of truth way the silence of silence in the travel and conduct as far as possible avoid of talking. Paucity of words to mean that seeker should avoid saying things that are completely useless and worthless and also in many cases, avoid of speaking general. In this paper the author aims to discuss and explain the location and quality paucity of words in terms of Sofia in their prose texts.
Keywords: Austerity, Paucity of word, Silence, Consonants, Sofia


A Sermon Model on Environmental Conservation for People in Wichianburi District, Phetchabun Province
529-538
Phaparnthong Nilaphun, Bunlert Wongpho and Pairoj Bowjai

Abstract:
This research aimed to develop sermon model on environmental conservation for people through the development of an appropriate quality at the highest level and to compare the knowledge, attitudes, and satisfaction of the people listening to the sermons which was classified by gender, age, education, and community's role. The population used in this study was village health volunteers, Environmental Protection volunteers, local leaders, and youth group who lived in areas of Phunamyod Sud-district, Wichianburi District, Phetchabun Province, a total of 502 people. The sample used in this study was conducted by using purposive sampling from a group of 20 people, a total of 80 people. Tools used in this study were a test of knowledge, attitude, and satisfaction measurement. Data were analyzed by using percentage, mean, and standard deviation, and statistical hypothesis testing including t-test, F-test (One way ANOVA). The results showed that - 1. A development of sermon model on environmental conservation for people in Wichianburi District, Phetchabun Province, had an appropriate quality at the highest level. 2. People had more knowledge of the environmental conservation after hearing sermons than before hearing sermons. The difference was statistically significant at the .05 level which was classified by gender, age, education, and role in the community. After hearing sermons, people had no difference in increase of knowledge before hearing sermons. 3. People had more attitudes about the environmental conservation after hearing sermons than before hearing sermons. The difference was statistically significant at the .05 level which was classified by gender, age, education, and role in the community. After hearing sermons, people had no difference in increase of attitudes before hearing sermons. 4. People had satisfaction with the sermon model on environmental conservation for people at the highest level ( X = 4.67)
Keywords: A Sermon Model on Environmental Conservation for People


The Effect of Homework Varieties as Academic Extra-Curricular Activities on the Development of L2 Writing and its Relationship with Attitudes, Apprehension, and Strategy Emergence in Iranian Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners
539-555
Mahnaz Mostafaei and Behzad Nezakatgoo

Abstract:
The present study intended to investigate the effect of homework varieties as academic extra-curricular activities on the development of L2 writing and its relationship with attitudes, apprehension, and strategy emergence in Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. To do so, sixty homogenized upper intermediate learners (both girls and boys) in TEFL Research Center, Tehran, Iran took part in the study in four groups (three experimental groups and one control group). Pre and post tests of writing, writing attitude questionnaire (Wolcott & Buhr,1987), writing apprehension questionnaire(Daly-Miller,1984), Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL)(Oxford,1989), and learners’ records and diaries were employed in the study. The results of the study revealed that employing homework as an extracurricular academic activity increased the familiarity with writing model, correctness, wording, dictation, grammar, pragmatics, and the like. The findings revealed that via such activities the learners’ writing could improve. The study emphasized that the type of homework and various homework types have different effects on the second language writing development. The study also indicated that learners have the potentiality to use strategies in developing SL writing. The findings of the present research not only could help us improve our understanding of second language, but also it could be employed by a variety of ELT community members in Iranian schools and language institutes. The findings of the present study also stressed that homework writing, specially covering scientific and literary text types, could pave the way for the learners in an EFL situation to improve their performance in second language writing.
Keywords: Homework Varieties, Second Language Writing, Writing Apprehension, Attitude Towards Writing, Writing Strategies


The New LTE Cryptographic Algorithms EEA3 and EIA3 Verification, Implementation and Analytical Evaluation
556-563
Ghizlane Orhanou and Said El Hajji

Abstract:
A new set of cryptographic algorithms is being proposed for inclusion in the "4G" mobile standard called LTE (Long Term Evolution), and the algorithms are open for public evaluation. The new set of confidentiality and integrity algorithms EEA3/EIA3 is based on the new stream cipher ZUC. In the present paper, we are interested in making the verification and the implementation as well as performing the analytical analysis of the two algorithms, as we have done, in previous works, with the first two sets of the LTE cryptographic algorithms EEA1/EIA1 and EEA2/EIA2. The verification of the confidentiality algorithm results on a correction of the proposed 3GPP algorithm code to meet the specifications requirements.
Keywords: LTE, ZUC, Confidentiality, Integrity, Analytical Evaluation, Implementation.


The Importance of Recess and its Impact on Learning
564-570
Azam Mortaheb

Abstract:
Recess provides children with discretionary time to engage in physical activity that helps them develop healthy bodies and enjoyment of movement. It also allows children the opportunity to practice life skills such as cooperation, taking turns, following rules, sharing, communication, negotiation, problem solving, and conflict resolution. Furthermore, participation in physical activity may improve attention, focus, behavior, and learning in the classroom (California Department of Education, 2005; Hannaford, 1995; Jarrett, 1998; Jensen, 2000; Shephard, 1997; Symons, Cinelli, James, & Groff, 1997). In this study the importance of recess and its impact on learning.
Keywords: Recess, cognitive benefits, emotional benefits, the physical benefits and social benefits.


Removal of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) from Aqueous Solution using Sunlight and Nano TiO2
571-575
Vahid Nikkhah Rashidabad, Fahime Jalili, Parvane Chegini, Reza Behbahani and Hamed Mohsenian

Abstract:
In this paper, degradation of MTBE in aqueous solution using the solar UV and nano TiO2 was investigated. The factors which affect photocatalytic removal of MTBE such as; pH, TiO2 and MTBE concentrations were studied and optimum conditions were determined using Taguchy method for designing the experiments. Results showed that the best conditions for removing of MTBE in UV/TiO2 process are, pH=3, 2 g/l the concentration of nano TiO2 and 50 ppm MTBE which leads to more than 88% removal of MTBE in 120minutes.
Keywords: Methyl Tertiary; Butyl Ether; Photo catalytic degradation; Nano TiO2.


Kharameh - Darian Plains Underground Water Quality
576-581
Mojtaba Joukar, MR Espahbod, M. Gohari Moghadam and Mahdi Rahmanian

Abstract:
Kharameh plains in the northeastern city of Shiraz, Fars Province geography lengths to '45° 52 '00° 53 east and latitude to '30° 29 '45° 29 North is located. The regional aquifer is composed of two stratigraphic unit: the unit consists of karst formations and units Sarvak Tarbur and alluvial or alluvial plains Kharameh - Darian. In order to assess the quality of groundwater in the area, according to standard methods EPA 2001, Water resources of the area where the biopsy was taken. Tytrsnjy analysis of major elements in the water and light the flame polls show that the dominant facies in the study area faces, calcium sulfate and is Klrvrh. In plain type, Darian 50% carbonate, sulfate, 25%, and 25% is Klrvrh. Kharameh plain sediments in the lower part of the South Shore of Lake Bakhtegan and in other sections of sulfate water type, water type is Klrvrh. Despite their proximity to Lake Bakhtegan Klrvrh types and effects of saline sediments of the lake.
Keywords: Groundwater, Water Stratigraphic Units, Formations, Facies Type Water.


A Novel Modulation Identification Technique using Slot Tracking for SDR
582-593
S. Leones Sherwin Vimalraj and V. Kannan

Abstract:
This paper deals with a novel method for automatic modulation identification suited for Software defined radio. The proposed technique uses a simple method of evaluating the unique pilot sequence appended to each modulated digital data for identification purpose. The performance of the identifier is presented for various modulations under different Signal to Noise Ratios (SNRs). Also the Frequency tracking and Time slot tracking is also discussed along with their pseudocodes. The paper also deals with the Multicluster Architecture using Clustering Algorithm and the Scheduler based implementation of the Tracking Algorithm. The Interference and system capacity analysis is presented as the performance metrics. The results are obtained in the form of Bar charts which are obtained using the scheduler algorithm. This helps to understand how the time slots are used priority wise by different nodes to transmit the modulated signal.
Keywords: Modulation Identifier, Pilot sequence, Frequency Tracker, Clustering, Interference, Automatic Modulation Recognition.


A Study on Attitude of Consumers Towards Foreign Products in Iran: Age, Education and Ethnocentrism Influences
594-603
Amir Hossein Zaafaranlou and Ali Hajiha

Abstract:
One of the most important factors that affects consumers’ attitudes towards foreign products and their willingness to purchase these brands is consumer ethnocentrism. The aim of this research is generally to examine Iranian consumers’ atttitudes towards foreign products. Besides, it is explored how this consumer ethnocentrism affect product judgement of foreign products and willingness to buy these products. The effect of education and age on attitudes is also investigated. Data was collected through a questionnaire.Rresults show that there is a consumer ethnocentrism among Iranian respondents, this changes with respect to different ages and education level. And also, these different age groups, different education level create differences on usage of foreign products. So that, international retailers consider these results thoughtfully.
Keywords: Age, Consumer attitudes, Ethnocentrism, Foreign product, Iran.