European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 106 No 2
July, 2013

Adopting Evidence Based Library and Information Practice as an Approach for Effective Library Services Delivery in Nigeria
159-163
Comrade A.M. Rabiu and Abalalka, Bessy F

Abstract:
This study is an attempt to introduce the emerging paradigm Evidence Based Library and Information Practice in the field of library and information science in Nigeria libraries by way of advocating and justifying the importance for its adoption. There is no library in Nigeria where the new paradigm is practice, as a result, the need for adopting it was articulate herein in the study. The strategies for effective implementation of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice ware equally highlighted and recommendation ware put forward.
Keywords: Library, Evidence Based Library and Information Practice: EBLIP, Professional Librarian.


Comparison of Balance Training on Static Balance in Elderly People in the Morning and Afternoon
164-170
Reyhaneh Foroughi Far, Farhad Farzan Moghadam and Nader Rahnama

Abstract:
During aging, changes occur in all organs that are because increase balance impairment meanwhile the circadian cycle also isn’t ineffective. The present study investigated the effect of a balance training program on static balance in healthy elderly in the morning and afternoon respectively. Twenty four healthy elderly subjects with no history of regular exercise (age 5.57 ± 68.79 years old, height 8.24 ± 1.65 m and weight of 8.92 ± 68.41 kg) were selected as available. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups balance exercises in the morning and afternoon groups. To estimate the equilibrium stork balance test subjects were used. According to the results, a significant difference was not seen between dominant leg static balance - open eyes and dominant leg static balance - open eyes in the morning and the afternoon groups (p>0.05). But dominant leg static balance - closed eyes and non-dominant leg static balance - closed eyes in the morning and afternoon groups were significantly different (p<0.05). The findings of this study it can be concluded that, on balance exercise in the afternoon than in the morning, had a significant effect on static balance, therefore, exercises to improve static balance of the elderly in the afternoon is recommended.
Keywords: Elderly, Balance, Morning, Afternoon.


Some Antecedents of Organizational Justice: Who Determines What is Fair?
171-194
Gauri S. Rai

Abstract:
This study investigated the impact of centralization, formalization, open and accurate communication and leader-member exchange on the dimensions of organizational justice. Several hypotheses were formulated based on empirical findings and theoretical reasoning. Data were collected from 511 staff members from ten health and rehabilitation centers in the southern United States. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the data. Chronbach Alpha was calculated for each scale measuring respective variables. Pearson correlations were computed for each pair of variables. Regression analysis tested the hypotheses. Data revealed that centralization, formalization, communication and leader-member exchange are positively related to distributive and procedural justice but only communication and leader member exchange are positively related to interpersonal and informational justice. Leader-member exchange is the strongest predictor of all the organizational justice dimensions. These findings suggest that it is the leadership, power, policy and communication that determine what is fair. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future directions are discussed.
Keywords: Centralization, Formalization, Organizational Communication, Leader-Member Exchange, Organizational Justice, Social Exchange Theory.


A Comparative Study between Traditional Mineral Nutrition and Alternative Sources on Anise Plant
195-206
F.A.S. Hassan and E.F. Ali

Abstract:
The effect of different alternative fertilizer sources in comparison with the traditional mineral nutrition on growth characters, yield components and oil content of Pimpinella anisum L. plant was investigated. The alternative sources used in this study were cattle manure (CM), phosphorein, and Halex-2. Combination among these sources or with 1/2 recommended dose of NPK chemical fertilizers were also studied. All treatments applied significantly promoted the growth, fruit yield and volatile oil content compared to the untreated control. The GC-MS results showed that the main components of volatile oil were anethole and carvone. The chemical analysis of anise leaves indicate that the total chlorophyll and carotenoids content, total carbohydrates percentage in leaves and fruits and N, P and K percentages were significantly improves as a result of applying any fertilization treatment compared to the control. The nitrate and nitrite of anise fruits were significantly reduced as a result of using any alternative fertilizer treatment however; the RD treatment recorded the highest values in this respect. The combination treatments among alternative sources or combined with 1/2 recommended dose of NPK chemical fertilizers were more effective than separate application. In order to obtain high quality of anise fruits and volatile oil, decrease the production cost, protect the environment from pollution and save the chemical fertilizers, the treatment of using Halex-2 plus phosphorein or at least adding ½ RD to Halex-2 or phosphorein bio-fertilizers was recommended. These treatments came in the second rank after the RD of chemical fertilizer and without significant difference in most cases.
Keywords: Cattle manure; Biofertilizers; Volatile oil; Chlorophyll; Carbohydrates; Nitrate; Nitrite

Evaluating Religious Education in Nigerian Catholic Schools
207-217
Ilechukwu Leonard Chidi and Ugwuozor Felix

Abstract:
Religious Education (R.E) has been one of the most important subjects being taught in the Secondary Schools in Nigeria. This is because the subject helps to streamline the thought, character, moral and aspiration of the students. It also offers hope for a future integrated, disciplined, harmonious and progressive society. Religious Education is a vast subject and it is taught at all levels of education in the country. In this study, the discussion was limited to Christian Religious Education that is, Christian Religious Studies, as it is taught in the secondary schools in the Nigeria. The study tried to analyze the kind of influence religious education has or does not have on the social and personal life of the students. This is necessary because of the youth’s involvement in some negative social practices, like drug abuse, permissiveness, armed robbery, racial violence, prostitution, indiscipline and other Amoral vices. Before the evaluation, the opinions of some authors on the subject will be discussed.
Keywords :Religion * Religious Education* Education *Evaluation* Nigeria* Catholic* Schools* Curriculum* Teaching* Learning.

Design of H-slot Patch Antenna for Ultra Wideband
218-223
Soufian Lakrit, Hassan Ammor and Jaouad Terhzaz

Abstract:
The printed antenna is one of the best antenna structures, due to its low cost and compact design. In this paper, we studied a new approach to improve the effectiveness of radiation and performance antennas with the miniaturization of its size. Indeed, we propose a miniature rectangular printed antenna with three slots in the form of H and which satisfies the multilayer UWB characteristics in terms of bandwidth and reflection coefficient. This antenna is for a system for detecting malignancy the microwave imaging. We use some techniques of miniaturization and expansion of bandwidth in order to achieve our goal. The study was made for the band of UWB frequency range from 3GHz to 10GHz.
Keywords: Patch antenna, Ultra wideband, H-shape slot, multilayer.


An Investigation into the Earliest Historical Evidence on the Alleged Shia Forgery of Surahs Nurayn and Wilayat
224-230
Hassan Rezaee Haftador and Fath Allah NajarZadegan

Abstract:
The two apocryphal Surahs Nurayn and Wilayah are composed of a number of verses borrowed from the Qur’anic canon and integrated in with phrases dealing with Imam ÝAli’s exclusive right to the succession Prophet Muhammad and his distinctive virtues. There are only two such alleged surahs, which were contrived at the hands of anonymous authors in eleventh century AH (sixteenth century CE) India. There is no evidence that would point to their existence prior to this period. As such, the claims that there are more than two apocryphal surahs and that Shias believe that these were actually part of the original Qur’anic canon that were excised when Uthman, the Third Caliph, attempted to produce a unified Qur’anic codex and that they are preserved in the Qur’anic manuscript transcribed by Imam ÝAli are false and unfounded.
Keywords: Surah Nurayn, Surah Wilayat, Qur’anic canon, Uthmani Manuscript, Immunity from distortion, Orientalists


Plurality and Repetition of Crime in the Law of Iran
231-235
Shahabeddin NasseriPoshtDarbandi

Abstract:
Whenever a person commits to different or repeated crimes; however, the mentioned crimes are not discovered or the perpetrator is not received a definite conviction for any of the crimes, the plurality of crime is realized. Sometimes, the crime threatens the society in some specific ways and brings about irreparable dangers for the person and society. One of such dangerous modes is plurality of crime (committing various crimes). Seen from a criminologist perspective, this state is regarded as dangerous signs of misdemeanor. The crime repetition talks about the dangerous nature of the committed person and shows that executing the previous punishments about him is not so effective; therefore, in order that the committed person is chastised, s/he deserves more severe punishment. Therefore, the crime repetition is regarded as one of the qualities of punishment aggravation. According to the consultative theory of 35/02/71 and 25/09/71 since the Act 48 of Islamic Punishment Law has not determined the way of punishment aggravation for the crime repeater and there is not any specific sentence for this, the court is granted the discretion to aggravate the Ta’zir punishments regarding the conditions and quality of the committed crime and the condition and situation of the committed person. On the other hand, most of the lawyers agree upon observing the regulations of crime plurality and there are only some disagreements upon the executing way and determining the punishment. However, there is a clear disagreement on the crime repetition in terms of punishment aggravation and non-aggravation of the committed people. This article tries to study the crime repetition and plurality in the criminal Law of Iran.
Keywords: Crime, crime repetition and plurality, law, Iran


How to be a Good Teacher and a Good Learner
236-241
Ameneh Nejabat

Abstract:
The aim of the present study is to invest tailgate what we all think about teachers and teaching. I recently asked a variety of people the question “what makes a good teacher!” A qualitative research malteds was applied with 64 about – EFL learners in two groups randomly assigned was experimented and control groups. I interviewed with adult - EFL learners and there were teachers of different levels whit different attitudes. The comprehensive English language test (Celt) was given us the pretest to homogenize the student and after a two month treatment another interview to find the learners’ and teachers’ attitudes. This is not only so that teachers can explain and students come to understand, but also so that teachers know what’s going wrong where and how to correct it. The research concludes that teacher should make their lessons interesting; he / she must love her job. He / she must have lots of knowledge, not only of his subject. A good teacher is an entertainer and it means that in a positive sense not a negative sense.
Keywords: Good TTT (teacher talking time), highly motivated, pre – arranged plan


Model of Flood and Landslide Preventing and Solving by Geo-Information Technology of Local Government at Uttaradit Province, Thailand
242-247
Krissana Khamfong, Charlie Navanugraha, Rittirong Junggoth and Prayoon Wongchantra

Abstract:
Landslides due to heavy rainfall are remarkably increased during the last decade. Past record shows that Thailand had lost in life and natural resources. This research aimed to the development on flood and landslide preventing and solving for the local government at Uttaradit Province, Thailand by applying geo-information technology. The data were analyzed by using computer geographic information system (GIS) program Quantum GIS.
Keywords: Geo-Information Technology (GIT), Flood, Landslide, Preventing, Solving.


Experimental Research of Water Adulteration in Raw Milk using Interdigital Capacitor Sensor
248-254
Songgrod Phimphisan, Worrawat Sa-Ngiamvibool and Niwat Angkawisittpan

Abstract:
This paper suggests that for water adulteration in raw milk has been developed using Interdigital capacitor electrical conductance measurements, other than using conventional methods such as determination of specific gravity or of the freezing point temperature, and the compression on frozen samples. The system has been assembled and the experiments were conducted. The characteristics at 1 KHz, 10 KHz and 20±1 ?C for all raw milk samples revealed a linear increase in conductance with increasing water content over the entire of water concentrations. The highest relationship between water adulteration in raw milk and electrical capacity (C) was 0.862 = r = 0.965, 0.000 = a = 0.003, 0.743 = R2 = 0.931. Results shown that the capacitance value of the water adulteration in raw milk were lower than the raw milk without added water. It also provides an opportunity for the development of a microcontroller-base low-cost sensing system.
Keywords: Interdigital Capacitor, Raw Milk, Water Adulteration.


Enhancement of K-Anonymity using Association Rule Hiding Algorithm
255-265
R. Sugumar and A. Rengarajan

Abstract:
Privacy Preserving Data Mining is a research area concerned with the privacy driven from personally identifiable information when considered for data mining. k-anonymity is one of the most classic models, which prevents joining attacks by generalizing or suppressing portions of the released micro data so that no individual can be uniquely distinguished from a group of size k. This paper focuses on how to extend k-anonymity to privacy preserving data mining using association rule hiding algorithm. Association rule hiding algorithm refers to the process of modifying the original database in such a way that certain sensitive association rules disappear without seriously affecting the data and the non sensitive rules.
Keywords: K-anonymity, Privacy Preserving Data Mining, Association Rule Hiding, Generalization.


Providing a Model for Transportation Costs Optimization in Tehran City, Iran
266-271
Reza Emami and Azam Sadeghi

Abstract:
In recent years, environmental concerns have led to wide-spread interest in methodologies and the adoption of sustainable practices in supply chain management. Escalating environmental concerns with prevalent transportation modes has lead to an increased interest in the adoption of sustainable practices in the area of supply chain management. As a part of an overall supply chain strategy, the amount of carbon emissions resulting from the transportation element of a supply chain is a growing concern for supply chain managers and corporate executives alike. In this paper, we review methods for quantifying carbon emissions and estimating the cost of going in a select set of supply chain optimization models.
Keywords: Supply Chain, Carbon Emissions, Transportation Costs.


Investigating the Effects of Listing in Stock Exchange on the Capital Structure of Iranian Companies
272-286
Hamidreza Mirmohammad

Abstract:
Capital structure is one of the basic issues in corporate finance so that its variations have direct effect on different financial aspects of a firm like cost of capital, risk, Investors' expected return and firm value. Listing in stock exchange is one of the most important events that have considerable impacts on a company's capital structure. This study assesses the hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between listing in Tehran stock exchange and companies' capital structure and financial leverage (including total debts to assets ratio, long-term debts to assets ratio and short-term debts to assets ratio). However, in the process of hypotheses examination, separate tests were carried out in term of industry kind and size of the firm. This study was evaluated the data of 85 companies listed in Tehran stock exchange between 2004 and 2011. Due to particular type of data as well as hypothesis format, cross-sectional regression was used to analyze the data. The data of this research has been extracted as panel data while for hypotheses examination purposes the panel data was converted to cross-sectional data before and after listing in Tehran stock exchange. The results of this study show that there is a significant relationship between listing of companies in Tehran stock exchange and the variations of total debts to assets ratio (financial leverage) as well as short-term debts to total assets ratio in companies' capital structure. However, the results do not confirm a significant relationship between listing in Tehran stock exchange and the variations of long-term debts to assets ratio.
Keywords: Listing in stock exchange, capital structure, financial leverage, long-term debts to assets ratio, short-term debts to total assets ratio.


Talinum Paniculatum as Potential Alternative for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Metals
287-296
Daniel Crístian Ferreira Soares, Maria Perpétua Oliveira Ramos, Grácia Divina de Fátima Silva, Lucienir Pains Duarte and Sidney Augusto Vieira Filho

Abstract:
In the present work, the ability of plant Talinum paniculatum in uptake of metals from soil was studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The method was validated through two different standard certified reference materials. Samples of leaves, stems and roots of plant (in natura and extracts) were analyzed and the elements Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Hf, W and Au were determined. K and Fe were determined in concentrations higher than encountered in some other plants, which also are popularly used, in Brazil. Furthermore, the plant was capable to extract and concentrate from soil, the rare elements La, Ce and Th. Finally, a high quantity of potassium and sodium nitrate was determined mainly in leaves and stems of plant. Due to these characteristics, T. paniculatum represents a potential alternative to be used in environmental in situ regeneration processes of soils contaminated with nitrates and metals.
Keywords: Talinum paniculatum, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, phytoremediation, phytoextration and metal soils contaminated.