European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 106 No 1
July, 2013

An Investigation of Delayed Growth Hormone (CCC) and Mechanical Pollination Effects on Alfalfa Properties
7-11
SetarehNikzad, Shahram Taghavy, Sorur Arefi, Amin Nezami and Milad Izadkhah

Abstract:
In order to study of the effect of Cycocel (CCC) dosages and pollination methods on alfalfa seed production an experiment was conducted using split plot design based on randomized complete block with three replications in Borujerd agricultural research station, Iran for two years (2011-12). In split plot design three artificial pollination systems (control, pulling rope over flowers in 70% and 100% pollination stages) were used as main plots and the four hormone dosages (0, 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 liter per hectare) as sub plots.The results is obtained of analysis of variance table show that artificial pollination treatment and cycocel hormone ,their reaction with each other became meaningful the number of raceme per shrub properties and biological performance and also grain weight whole is in 1% level. Generally, in this research observed most influence on properties in artificial pollination in 100% + 70% level and 6/4 litr/ht is in hormone level.
Keywords: Alfalfa seed, artificial pollination, Cycocel.


Modeling and Control of Grid-Connected Wind Turbine with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator
12-21
Rafah Ibraheem Jabbar and V.K. Ramachandaramurthy

Abstract:
Variable speed doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is widely used in modern large wind turbines nowadays. Unlike a fixed-speed wind turbine, a DFIG wind turbine depends strongly on the controls of the system under variable wind conditions. This paper presents the modeling and control doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to the electrical utility grid. The control strategies include maximum power tracking to maximize the energy capture from wind, pitch angle control to limit the generated power in the case of high wind speeds, and double-vector-PWM control to regulate the generated active and reactive power independently. A grid connected wind turbine with DFIG and the control system are simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies.
Keywords: Doubly-Fed Induction Generator, Power Converter, Vector Control, Wind Power Generation.


Characterization of the Ichtyofauna of Bagoé River: Tributary in Niger River (Northern of Côte D’ivoire)
22-23
N’Da Amalan Sylvie, Berté Siaka, N’Zi Konan Gervais, Bamba Mamadou, Koné Tidiani, Kouamélan Essetchi Paul and N’Douba Valentin

Abstract:
The composition and distribution of fish fauna of the river Bagoé in Côte d’Ivoire are studied for the first time. Two areas were considered taking into account anthropogenic activities along the river: an upper zone without gold extraction activities where fishing is more practiced and a lower zone influenced by the gold extraction activities. A total of 83 fish species were captured. They belong 43 genera in 19 families and 8 orders. Five brackish and/or marine species (Pellonula leonensis, Sarotherodon melanotheron, S. galilaeus, Tilapia guineensis and Tetraodon lineatus) and one introduced (Oreochromis niloticus) were identified. Twenty-five species, never recorded in Côte d’Ivoire were observed. As regards the species and families number, the Siluriformes order was the most important species (32% of families and 37% of species). They are followed by Characiformes (17% species) and Perciformes (13% of species). Mormyridae and Mochokidae families (each account for 19% of all species caught) are more represented. The most abundant species in the catches with 16% was Brycinus nurse. Shannon diversity index is higher in the lower area (3.3) than in the upper area (3.08). Relationship between species and environmental variables indicated that the fish species assessment in dry season was influenced by the parameters depth, pH, dissolved oxygen, canopy closure and substrate nature (sand, sand-gravel and mud) and in rainy season by temperature, width, canopy closure and substrate (sand, sand-gravel and dead leaves woods).
Keywords: Ichtyofauna, Inventory, Distribution, West Africa, Côte d’Ivoire, Bagoé River.


Evaluation of Public Sector Health Facilities within the Context of Deprived Regions of Developing World
34-45
Mir Aftab Hussain Talpur, Madzlan Napiah, Imtiaz Ahmed Chandio, Taufique Ahmed Qureshi and Sadaf Qasim

Abstract:
The health sector is one of the prominent factors of social development. The provision of regional health institutions and facilities with respect to the number of people and settlements is a challenging issue for the most of the developing world. The aim of the study is to analyze the public sector health facilities in relation to demographic characteristics of rural regions of developing countries. The data were collected through field visits of the study area (Mirpurkhas Sub Region, Southern Pakistan) and from concerned health sector department. The population statistics were gathered from the district census report and projected up to the year 2035. This outcrop is authenticated statistically with the help of the correlation coefficient test. The comparison is made between available health facilities and the national standards according to sub regional demography. This was found that the study area is struggling from the shortages of public health facilities according to sub regional demographic characteristics. This is concluded that the health perspective of the study area is not in satisfactory conditions. The public health facilities should be consolidated with the provision of affordable and accessible health services. The health accessibility in destitute regions can be enhanced in this way which can be advantageous for the sub regional social sector development of meagre sub regions of developing countries.
Keywords: Social Development, Health Institutions, Demographic Characteristics, Local Rural Population

The Evolutionary Trend of Earned Value Management System from 1900 to Present
46-51
Amir Hossein Alavifar and Shadab Motamedi

Abstract:
Earned value project management is a well-known and important management approach that integrates cost, time and technical performance. The main purpose of EVMS development was to have an effective and efficient cost management and has not widely been used for scheduling and time management. However recent studies depict the significant growth of interest to apply EVMS tools and techniques in engineering, procurement and construction projects. This paper presents a evolutionary trends of Earned value management system from early 20th century to present.
Keywords :EVMS, time management, cost management, performance measurement.

Synchronized WideMac (SWIMAC): A New Efficient MAC Protocol for IR-UWB Based WSN
52-72
Anouar Darif, Rachid Saadane and Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:
In Network’s life time directly depends on the energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN).The introduction of the IEEE802.15.4a (IR-UWB) standard in the field of WSN was promising for researchers especially for its low power consumption feature. To implement such a solution, we need a suitable Mac protocol to exploit the specific features of this technology. When introducing this standard, ALOHA was the only candidate MAC protocol. After that Widemac was the first try to implement an adapted low power consumption MAC protocol to IR-UWB technology. Because of the high energy consumption of ALOHA, and the luck of synchronization in the proposed Widemac protocol, and the low throughput observed in both protocols; this paper presents Synchronized WideMac (SWIMAC): a new distributed Low Power Consumption Medium Access Control protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks based on Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) Physical layer (PHY). We used MiXiM platform under OMNet++ simulator to evaluate the performance of our new protocol.
Keywords: WSN, SWIMAC, WideMac, ALOHA, IR-UWB, IEEE802.15.4a, Low Power Consumptio, OMNet++, MiXiM.


The Survey about Landscape Paintings in Iran’s Contemporary Painting on the Basis of Infatuation, Mimicry and Criticism
73-80
Arman Yaghoobpour, Habibollah Ayatollahi and Mostafa Goodarzi

Abstract:
The importance of Landscape art in Persian painting and other states goes beyond measure which various outlooks and attitudes have been represented for it. From the early, it is focused on a particular method emphasizing on aesthetic and Persian belief in Persian painting. Naturalism and Fusion between man and nature have root in traditional Persian belief. Landscape art in Iran despite European countries is not that much old. The first hallmark of Landscape art in Iran dates back to Qajar era; at that time, Europeans came to Iran for political, trade or cultural purposes. Simultaneously with the emergence of first Landscape paintings in Iran, modernity thought was mentioned as well and achievements of Europe were used in Iran. Confrontation with western modernity started with Infatuation, and continued with imitation and criticism. In present paper, according to three bases as Infatuation, imitation and criticism, modernity was appeared the most in Landscape paintings. The method of this research is such a historical-analytic study and tools used here are Written and visual texts which library study was applied in this paper. The main objective in this paper is use of modernity in Landscape paintings in Iran under which Infatuation, imitation and criticism are considered.
Keywords: Landscape art, contemporary painting, Infatuation, imitation, criticism, Painting


College Students’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Regarding Low-Carbohydrate Diets
81-92
Padmini Shankar, Macaulay Okwuokenye, Gulzar H. Shah, Sara Kitchen, Laura Gunn, Suman Ahuja and Diana Sturges

Abstract:
Poor dietary practices often result in weight gain and increase the potential risk for chronic diseases. As students transition to college, their new found independence and lack of parental supervision provides opportunities to indulge in calorie-rich foods and alcoholic beverages that result in weight gain. In an attempt to combat the weight gain, they resort to strategies they consider “quick-fixes” and one such practice is the adoption of fad diets of which several are popular today. This study focuses on university students’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding low carbohydrate diets. Data were collected through a self-administered survey of 672 students enrolled in Healthful Living courses at a mid-size university in Southeast Georgia. Analysis was performed to generate summary statistics of the sample and to determine factors affecting: (1) avoidance of carbohydrates, (2) purchase of low carbohydrate food products, and (3) participation in diets, with special interest on low carbohydrate diets (i.e., Atkins, South Beach, and Sugar Busters diets). Results of our logistic regression analysis show that factors significantly affecting carbohydrate avoidance include: gender (p<0.0001), race (p=0.0155), BMI (p<0.0001), obtaining nutritional information from books and/or magazines (p=0.0106), and beliefs that: (a) Americans eat more carbohydrates now than in the past (p=0.0362); (b) low carbohydrate foods are more expensive than regular foods (p=0.0064); and (c) a low carbohydrate diet helps to lose weight (p<0.0001).
Keywords: Obesity, Body Mass Index, Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, Low-Carbohydrate Diets, Students, College


An Investigation of Barriers and Strategies for Handmade Carpet Foreign Commercial Development in Iran
93-99
Mohammad Omid

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is analyzing barriers and strategies for handmade carpet foreign commercial development in Iran. This research was done using Delphi method. Statistical Population of this research is 130 elites and experts in handmade industries. Results of testing hypothesis shows that handmade industry in Iran occupied a specific cultural stance in Iran. In addition, results showed that it is possible to promote the real stance of handmade industries in Iran. The result shoed that an important part of Iran’s foreign commerce is devoted to handmade industry and Iran’s handmade carpet is a key industry in foreign commercial of Iran’s handmade industry. Furthermore, the most important obstacles in carpet industry are in production level. Therefore, to solve problems, consideration of obviating production problems is an introductory issue. The emphasized strategies of production units and destroying their distribution by establishing workshops or comprising rural production cooperatives, preparing high-grade primary resources with appropriate price, improvement and completion of working devices is emphasized.
Keywords: Handmade industry, business, carpet, home-based businesses.


Identity and Culture Iranian, in Communication and Dialogue of in the Light of New Media
100-110
Ali Asghar Amini Dehaghi and Mahmoud Shahbandi

Abstract:
Today, with the onset age of globalization, has led to the question of national identity and mass rapid flow of information, not only led to a crisis of meaning, but will also have a fluid nature, and the profound impact of modern media, the nature of identity modern nation, is considered, because the identity of the single domain, and absolute negligence, their departure, and elements of identity, but also consistency with the consolidated entity, are opposed to each other, further into crisis in identity, not the because, change and fluidity of modern identities, should not be interpreted as an identity crisis, and in light of modern media, Iranian national identity with cultural conditions, consists of two elements: time, before and after the advent of Islam, the historical continuity of continuity, nature finds further element to the third element of modernity in the early modern period, the humanitarian challenges in building national identity, has arrived.
Keywords: National identity. Fluidity of identity. Contemporary media. Persian dynamics. Identities of elements. Construct identity. Globalization. Conversation. Dialogue through the media. Identity. Culture.


Increased Coal Replacement in a Cement Kiln Burner by Feeding a Mixture of Solid Hazardous Waste and Shredded Plastic Waste
111-123
W.K. Hiromi Ariyaratne, Morten C. Melaaen and Lars-André Tokheim

Abstract:
The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by combined feeding of plastic waste and solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW) in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. The coal replacement should be achieved without negative impacts on product quality, emissions or overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement kiln by varying SHW and plastic waste feeding rates. Experimental results were analysed using fuel characteristics of coal, SHW and plastic waste. The results revealed that feeding 3 t/hr of SHW plus 2.5 t/hr of plastic waste was acceptable, although giving a slightly lower production rate. This waste feeding rate is equivalent to 52% of coal energy replacement in the main burner. The limiting factor is the free lime content of the clinker. A comparable result for the reduction in production rate could be found from a simulation using a mathematical model of the kiln. Results from the present study were also compared with results from two previous studies, in which SHW and meat and bone meal were the solid alternative fuels used.
Keywords: Mix of Plastic Waste and Solid Hazardous Waste, Full-scale Test, Mathematical Modelling, Free Lime.


A Hybrid Approach for Ranking Hospitals with using Multi Criteria Decision Making and Factor Analysis; Case Study: Boushehr Hospitals
124-133
Parviz Hajiani, Saeedeh Nateghinia and Farzaneh Khosravani

Abstract:
Introduction:
Hospitals play an important role in society’s well-being. Evaluating and giving ranks to hospitals can lead to an increase in rivalry and finally result in efforts of hospitals in order to eliminate their weaknesses and present better services. In this research, a combined approach of multi criteria decision making techniques and factor analysis are introduced to rank hospitals.
Methods:
In this study, after identifying elementary criteria on the basis of Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach in order to rank hospitals, with investigating about aspects of subject, Fuzzy experiment was applied for choosing the most important criteria. Then, using multi criteria decision making techniques and factor analysis, and according to identified criteria, the hospitals of Boushehr province were ranked.
Results:
Research results show that quality index for presented services to patients has had the most importance in evaluation and ranking hospitals. The exhibited model in order to evaluate and give ranks to hospitals on the basis of BSC approach contains 5 aspects of client (patient)- growth, development and learning- financial- organizational, managerial and human resources and treatments.
Conclusion:
Different techniques of multi criteria decision making can be used for giving ranks to hospitals. Applying factor analysis in order to identify independent factors can help to exhibit uniform results using multi criteria decision making techniques.
Keywords: Hospital, BSC, Ranking, Multi criteria decision making, Factor analysis.


Benchmarking Supply Chain Based on SCOR Model using a Mathematical Model; Case Study: An Iranian Hospital
134-138
Amir Bayat Tork, Saeedeh Nateghinia and Somayyeh Abdolhosseini

Abstract:
A reliable supply chain ensures success of organization in meeting its needs. In addition to reduced organizational costs, other favorable outcomes of efficient management of supply chain include high quality and speed and reliability in delivery of services/products. In present research, supply chain health criteria i.e. SCOR ones were studied in a hospital using a simple mathematical model. Results showed a gap between each of these SCOR criteria and favorable standard of managers of this hospital.
Keywords: Supply Chain, SCOR model, AHP.


Studying the Role of Culture in Developing Learning Organizations
139-147
Leila Abdoli, Behrooz Jamali and Ehsan Ghasemi

Abstract:
The aim of this article is identifying the role of culture and culture factors in learning organization in order to develop towards learning organizations. For this reason, we have identified cultural infrastructures, which lead the organization towards learning organization and the obstacles for establishing learning organization are studied here. Studying the cultural infrastructures and analyzing the information caused the infrastructure, communications, technology and knowledge management to be brought up. In order to gathering information about these infrastructures, two kinds of questionnaires are used. The reliability of each of the questions shall be determined by a committee of professors of university through Cronbach’s Alpha method. Data shall be analyzed with SPSS software. In the final discussion from infrastructure view, the desired organization is located in the lower level than the average. At the end, some strategies are presented in order to develop the learning organization.
Keywords: Learning organizations, culture, knowledge management.


Identifying & Ranking the Effective Factors in Developing Organizational Culture
148-158
Leila Abdoli, Ehsan Ghasemi and Behrooz Jamali

Abstract:
Before any evolution, organizational culture should be studied. Culture is not a tangible phenomena and it is not easy to identify its infrastructures. Culture is such an icy mountain that its summit is just clear and its main part is hidden. But, in fact it shows the way of real life of the organization members. Different scholars such as Barnard, Greenfield, Harrison and Edgar Schein declare that it is not possible to describe and analyze the culture without paying attention to the values. Edgar. H. Schein points the values as what should be not what they are. Values show the tastes, interests and preferences. Values have action feature, therefore; they play important role in creating culture. Culture plays different roles in an organization. Firstly, culture determines the organizational border; it means that it separates the organizations from each other (Stephen p. Robbins). Secondly, culture injects a kind of identity feeling in the organization members. Thirdly, culture causes to create a kind of obligation towards s.th in the people. Fourthly, culture causes to stability and resistance of the system. Finally, culture is considered as a control factor that causes to create or form the attitudes and behavior of the employees. In this research, for the first time we want to study the cultural infrastructure in order to be changed into the learning organization. Peter M. Senge says: directors are researchers that study their organization and organizational behavior and make the self -organization phenomena possible with their plans. This is the only way to create the processes which have suitable and effective performance in the world which permanent changing is its feature.
Keywords: Organizational culture, Effective factors in developing organizational culture, Analytic Network Process.