European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 105 No 4
July, 2013

The Powered Plasma Theory and the Last Big Bang Theory: The Theories on the Origin and End of the Universe
458-469
Nixon John

Abstract:
The most welcoming assumption about the Origin of the universe is that it is through a Big Bang. According to the proponents of Big Bang Theory, Big Bang originated from a ‘primordial fireball’. However, in my opinion this ‘fire ball’ was actually, the ‘First Grand Powered Plasma’. In the very beginning, ‘the First Super Force’ was going on working. The First super force was the First Energy. Some Unknown Particles emerged from the First Super Force through an explosion. These Unknown Particles was the ‘First Particles’. These Unknown Particles got transformed as the first Gas Cloud Waves, through an another explosion. It was the First Cloud. Afterwards there was a third explosion that took place in the same spot and as a result of that explosion the First Grand Powered Plasma was formed. Then the fourth explosion occurred - the First Big Bang. As a consequence of the Big Bang from the ‘First Grand Powered Plasma’, universe came out and is still expanding. In order to mark an end to this expansion, there will be another Big Bang named ‘the Last Big Bang’. As a result of the ‘Last Big Bang’, the universe will transform as three different universes-one is the Hollow Universe, another is the Plasma Universe and the third is the White Universe’. These Universes will be infinite. Finally, there will be the last Whole Matter and Energy Transformations and the ending up of physics.
Keywords: The First Super Force, The First Particles, The First Gas Cloud Waves, The First Grand Powered Plasma, The First Big Bang, The Last Big Bang, The Hollow Universe, The Plasma Universe, The White Universe, No Relativity Phenomenon.


The Effect of Various Parameters on Stability of Reinforced Soil Slopes
470-479
Nima Farshidfar and Amin Keshavarz

Abstract:
In this paper, the seismic stability of reinforced soil slopes is studied using pseudo-dynamic analysis. Equilibrium equations that are applicable to the every kind of failure surface are written using Horizontal Slices Method. In written equations, the balance of the vertical and horizontal forces and moment equilibrium is fully satisfied. Failure surface is assumed to be log-spiral, and non-linear equilibrium equations obtained for the system are solved using Newton-Raphson Method. Earthquake effects are applied as horizontal and vertical pseudo-static coefficients to the problem. To solve this problem, a code was developed in MATLAB, and the critical failure surface is calculated using genetic algorithm.At the end, comparing the results obtained in this paper, effects of various parameters and the effect of using pseudo - dynamic analysis in seismic forces modeling is presented.
Keywords: Soil slopes, Pseudo-Dynamic, Genetic algorithm, Optimization, Limit equilibrium method, Log-Spiral failure surface.


Standards of the Voice Substitution in English Vocabularies Extraneous from Arabic
480-487
Jamal Al Orene

Abstract:
This study attempts to identify the phonetic standards used in the English language in dealing with vocabularies of Arab origins. This study shows some of the most significant standards such as: Homogeneity is the reciprocation between consonants from outside the English phonemes and English consonants, where they agree in exit and disagree in features.Convergence is the reciprocation betweenconsonants outside English with its converged exits.Symmetry, thereciprocation between conjoint consonants of the two languages: Arabic and English with its’ similar in English. Omitting is toomit some of the consonants from outside English phonemes system.
Keywords: Phonetic standards, exit, feature, replace.


Fault Finding via Dynamics of Queuing Systems (A System Dynamics Approach)
488-494
Mohammad Ehsanifar, Amin Ahwazian, Mohsen Cheraghi, Mitra Ebrahimi and Hadi Ajorloo

Abstract:
Queuing (queue) is a vital part of life and social systems formed simultaneously with the development of social communities. It is inevitably involved in the activities of organizations. Queuing theory has its roots early in the twentieth century during the study on telecommunication systems when it was introduced as a branch of mathematics. It was at this time that queuing theory used and investigated as a useful tool to improve productivity and increase the effectiveness of organizations. More system component interactions can be observed in systems where human works as a service provider. Such systems are considered as dynamic system. This article is an attempt to show in detail the contract assignment in Coordination Office of Major Engineering Project Contracts and Construction Contracts of National South Oilfields Company. For this purpose, fault finding and system dynamics of the contract assignment are used to reduce expected duration (waiting time) of contract assignment from its request time to the assignment time. Moreover, a dynamic model of the system dynamics is presented.
Keywords: Queue, Dynamic systems, Dynamic model, Causal diagram, Flow chart, Fault finding, Simulation

Testing the Fama-French Model in Tehran Stock Exchange
495-501
Belghis Bavarsad and Sayed Mohammad Nejad Hossieni

Abstract:
This study examined to the Fama & French three-factor model in predicting the return on stock in Tehran Stock Exchange between 2001 and 2008 years. Data analysis revealed that the firms with larger shares obtained lower return on stock and the firms with lower book value achieved higher returns.
Keywords :Premium risk, size, book value to market value ratio, Tehran Stock Exchange.

Surveying the Influence of Transformational Leadership on Empowerment
502-509
Amir Babak Marjani, Kaveh Teymour Nejad and Nafiseh Ravazadeh

Abstract:
The purpose of writing the current paper is to survey the influence of transformational leadership on employees’ empowerment in Benvid Company (one of Iranian one). In the current research to measure transformational leadership, 5 dimensions include Idealized attributes, Idealized Behaviors, Intellectual Stimulation, Inspirational Motivation and Individual Consideration and to measure empowerment 5 dimensions including competency, trust, impact, meaning and self-determination. After proving validity and reliability of 2 questionnaires about transformational leadership and empowerment, factor analysis method was applied to test hypotheses. The results show that transformational leadership has positive influence on empowerment and its dimensions in which impact on meaning was more than others.
Keywords: Transformational leadership, empowerment, competency, trust, impact, meaning and self-determination.


Biomarkers, Indicators of Environmental Stress in Parmelia Perlata at the Level of the Region of Annaba (Algeria)
510-520
Boumedris Zine Eddine, Serradj Ali Ahmed Monia and Djebbar Mohamed Reda

Abstract:
The town of Annaba is regarded as one of the most polluted cities in Algeria. This is due, on the one hand, to the existence of steelworks (ISPAT factory) and a very important car fleet; and, on the other hand, to the city's topographical and climactic characteristics which create an atmosphere that is conductive to pollution. The present study attempts to evaluate the effects of the environmental stress of a lichenous species epiphyte foliaceous Parmelia perlata. It also attempts to study the impact of urban and industrial pollution in the stress physiology of the lichen Parmelia perlata. Lichens were transplanted from an unpolluted area located in a natural in to 2 area polluted areas located at Annaba one with low lichenous diversity this one is prone to various sources of pollution related to its strong urbanization, its industrial complexes and its very intense road traffic. Lichens were exposed to air pollution for 4 months in the form of transplants. After the exposure period, lichens were collected and the chlorophylls a, b, a+ b, antioxidant enzymes such as Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), Guaiacol-peroxidase (GPX) and Catalase (CAT) were analyzed. Our results indicate firstly that the urban environment has a harmful and obvious influence on Parmelia perlata and generally on the lichenous epiphytic vegetation, this influence attenuates gradually with the distance to the urban centre. In addition, physiological parameters like the antioxidant parameters could be used as early warning indicators of stress of atmospheric pollution of lichens.
Keywords: Air pollution, lichen biomonitoring, impact, chlorophylls, enzymes, Parmelia perlata


Does Fruit Mass Affect Seed Number, Seed Germination and Seedling Vigor in Lagenaria Siceraria?
521-532
Yao Koffi Bertin, Koffi Kouamé Kévin, Ondo Azi Alain-Serge, Baudoin Jean-Pierre and Zoro Bi Irié Arsène

Abstract:
Objectives: Oleaginous Lagenaria siceraria is one of the most promising crops in West Africa due to its nutritional and economic potentialities. To take advantages of these attributes, several research programs gathering harvest and post harvest factors are being implemented because seeds frequently present poor quality ie poor germination. In this species, the effect of fruit mass (peasant main harvest factor) on seeds number and their agronomic performance was evaluated to test its reliability as seed maturity criterion. Methodology and results: Fruits of the “round-fruited” and “blocky-fruited”, two cultivars of the species, were harvested at complete senescence of the plant. These fruits were classified into 3 categories following their weight (light, mean and heavy). Following the high correlation (R2>0.80) between fruits weight and seeds number, heavy fruits produced the higher number of seeds while the lighter ones produced few seeds. Seeds viability (germination percentage and germination speed index) and seedlings vigor (emergence percentage, emergence speed index, seedling shoot length and seedling dry weight) were significantly (P < 0.001) influenced by the weight of fruit which produced them. So the highest number of seeds, the best viability and the most vigorous seedlings were obtained with seeds from heavy fruits in both cultivars. Conclusions and application of findings: The results suggest that in oleaginous L. siceraria, seeds must be selected from heavy fruits in order to guaranty their good agronomic quality.
Keywords: Lagenaria siceraria, fruit mass, seeds number, correlation, viability, seedling vigor


Innovation Transfer for Change and Application of Constructionism in Schools
533-538
Thanyawich Vicheanpant

Abstract:
The goal of the research is to create an improved action plan and model for the Innovation transfer to create change and application of constructionism in basic schools. The developed model is a synthesized model from 4 processes; Innovation transfer by Command, Innovation transfer by Relationship, Diffusion. of Innovation by User Participation, and the Innovation transfer by Trust. The advantage of each process was incorporated into creating a strategic framework for the development of DOI (Diffusion Of Innovation) Spiral. The developed model was put through the assessment and validation from 8 experts who provided suggestions on improving the process and assessment. The revised model’s content was verified and the information, content and process of the model receive a validity congruence index of 0.75. and tested on 9 school subjects which were basic schools in the province of Nakhon Nayok. The effectiveness of the model was measured at 70 and verified the efficiency of the Innovation transfer when applied to basic schools under the jurisdiction of The Office of Basic Education and that the quality process required success factors; Characteristics of those acceptance of the innovation, Social Culture, Quality of communication system and Appropriateness of implementation. The leader must posses leadership qualities of being a coordinator, a critical thinker, have distinguished mental and emotional strength, administrative coordination and capability of thinking and management capacity.
Keywords: Innovation transfer, Model, Change, Application, Constructionism, School.


A Creating Wisdom Based Learning School from Constructionism and Learning Organization Theory
539-549
Yaowanart Punpeng and Thanyawich Vicheanpant

Abstract:
This research is a case study of a school in Thailand by the name Darunsikkhalai. This school applied the constructionist learning philosophy of Professor Seymour Papert and Learning organization theory of Peter Senge and developed a new learning philosophy by the name “Wisdom based learning”. The research involved the immersion of the researcher in the subject matter so that it could be observed in its natural setting. This study gives valuable insights about the phase of testing and development of the two philosophies of learning.


Harmony Search Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem in Culture and Ego Tourism in Lampang Province, Thailand
550-557
Kanjana Ruttanateerawichien and Tantikorn Pichpibul

Abstract:
This paper addresses the traveling salesman problem (TSP) for the travelers who need to plan a trip from 21 places of culture and ego tourism located in Lampang Province, Thailand. In this case, the travelers have to spend more time with their manual planning. In order to solve the problem, we developed the decision-making software by using our original approach that based on the harmony search algorithm. Moreover, the algorithm is also proposed by using the probabilistic Clarke-Wright savings algorithm. In this paper, we tested our approach with TSP benchmark problems composed of 27 instances involving from 26 to 150 nodes. Computational results show that our approach is competitive to the best existing algorithms in terms of solution quality for solving TSP.
Keywords: Harmony Search Algorithm, Traveling Salesman Problem.


Multiple Intelligences: A New Perspective in Teaching Listening Skill
558-563
S. Sridevi and V. Thiyagarajan

Abstract:
This paper attempts to propose strategies for teaching second language learners to listen with the help of Multiple Intelligence approach. Multiple Intelligence approach offers ways to examine and form best teaching techniques and strategies in the light of human differences. Firstly, the process of listening and the importance of teaching listening in second language learning are explained. Then, Multiple Intelligence Theory and multiple intelligence approach in ELT scenario are enunciated in detail. Finally, strategies for teaching ESL/EFL learners to listen are also discussed.
Keywords: Multiple Intelligence, Listening, Second language learners, Teaching.


Effets du Cadmium Sur la Production de Superoxyde D’oxygène et Sur la Réponse Antioxydante dans Les Feuilles de Vicia Faba
564-573
Dalila Souguir, Mohamed Hachicha, Gérard Ledoigt, Pascale Goupil and Ezzeddine El Ferjani

Abstract:
Antioxidant activities were monitored in response to cadmium stress in Vicia faba leaves. A metal accumulation was recorded in the leaf tissues at 24 h of treatment with 50, 100 and 200 µM of CdCl2. At this stage (24 h), the production of O2- increased and reached the control at the end of the experiment. The dismutation of O2- to H2O2 is attributed to SOD, which showed an earlier increase (12 h) of its activity. The APX activity increased only at 12 h and those of CAT and GPX showed no changes compared to controls. It seems that the H2O2 produced is not sufficient to activate these enzymes.
Keywords: Antioxidant activities, H2O2; Leaves; Oxygen superoxide; Vicia faba.


Examining the Effect of Relationship Marketing on Export Performance: A Case Study of Iranian Exporting SMEs
574-581
Amir Hossein Zaafaranlou and Amir Vahid Fakhre Daei

Abstract:
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a critical role in the economic development of a country, they are vital to the ability of an economy to innovate, diversify and create new jobs (Poon et al, 1994). The relationship quality of exporter with importer is an integral part of firm’s export marketing strategy. Leonidou et al. (2002), highlights the importance of relationship quality as an essential ingredient of export marketing strategy which is linked directly to firm’s export performance. From this point of view, the direct effect of relationship quality on export performance was analyzed in this study. It aims to enhance the exporting firms’ awareness and understanding about importance of relationship quality in handling international marketing operations. Exporting firms can set themselves apart from global competitors via maintaining good relationships with their importers, consequently also achieving a major goal of marketing which is a value-laden relationship with buyers.
Keywords: Relationship Marketing, Export Performance, Relationship Quality, Exporting Firms, Iran.


Total Harmonic Distortion Analysis by Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation Technique in Different Levels of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverters using Photovoltaic Power Source
582-591
M.S. Sivagamasundari and P. Melba Mary

Abstract:
Photovoltaic power generation is a promising alternative source of energy and has many advantages than the other alternative energy sources like wind, solar, ocean, biomass, geothermal etc. In Photovoltaic power generation multilevel inverters play a vital role in power conversion. The three different topologies, diode-clamped (neutral-point clamped) inverter, capacitor-clamped (flying capacitor) inverter and cascaded h-bridge multilevel inverter are widely used in these multilevel inverters. Among the three topologies, cascaded h-bridge multilevel inverter is more suitable for photovoltaic applications since each pv array can act as a separate dc source for each h-bridge module. This research especially focus on photovoltaic power source as input to the system and analyzes the total harmonic distortion in 7, 9 and 11 levels of cascaded h-bridge multilevel inverters. From this analysis it is found that the total harmonic distortion of the system will be reduced and hence the efficiency of the system will be improved by magnifying fundamental output voltage. The analysis has been done by multicarrier pulse width modulation technique and has been simulated using MATLAB. The simulated output shows very favorable result. It can also be easily extended to more levels.
Keywords: Agility, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Leagility, Leanness, Supply chain.