European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 105 No 3
July, 2013

Researching on Application Based on Zigbee Communication Protocol and RSSI Algorithm
305-309
Monire Norouzi

Abstract:
ZigBee wireless sensor network-based communications technology, with low cost, easy implementation, lower power consumption, suitable for short distance features. Technical basis RSSI signal strength for distance communication at no additional cost, is a short distance away from a fast, easy to implement the algorithm application of Zigbee technology and existing voice RSSI the stops to improve public transport system, automatic-stop feature, scheduling can be arranged according to the vehicle real-time information to improve the public transportation system operating efficiency.
Keywords: Wireless networks; measuring distance; public transport


Fault Analysis in AES-CBC Algorithm using Hamming Code for Space Applications
310-318
V.Gopi and E. Logashanmugam

Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the use of commercial security algorithms like the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Earth observation small satellites. The demand to protect the sensitive and valuable data transmitted from satellites to ground has increased and hence the need to use encryption on board. AES, which is a very popular choice in terrestrial communications, is slowly emerging as the preferred option in the aerospace industry including satellites. This paper first addresses the encryption of satellite imaging data using one of the AES modes–CBC.A detailed analysis of the effect of single even upsets (SEUs) on imaging data during on-board encryption is carried out. The impact of faults in the data occurring during transmission to ground due to noisy channels is also discussed. In order to avoid data corruption due to SEUs, a novel fault-tolerant model of AES is presented, which is based on the Hamming error correction code. The proposed model is designed using Verilog, from which the power and throughput are measured.
Keywords: Advanced Encryption Standard, FPGA.


Optimized Feature Extraction for Identifying user Behavior in Web Mining
319-329
Gobinath. R and M. Hemalatha

Abstract:
The reputation of WWW detonates, an enormous quantity of data is gathered by web servers in the outline of web access logs. This is a well-off source of information for perceptive Web user surfing behavior. The foremost goal is to learn the user’s navigation patterns and their use of web resources in web usage mining. The final step in the pre-processing assignment is to extract features from the accessible transactions in the log. In this paper seven different feature set was extracted from the transaction log entry. Identifying the potential attributes and reducing the dimensionality of the data by not including irrelevant attributes are the major role of feature extraction. The assignment is to convert inconsistent length transactions into fixed-length feature vectors. The potential feature set extraction will lead to better understanding of the user navigation patterns in web server log files instead of taking into the consideration of whole instances in the log file.
Keywords: Data Mining, Web Mining, Web Access Logs, User Identification, Session Identification, Feature Extraction.


Science and Technology Policy-Making; The Inimitable Component of Value Creation “Extracted from the Macro-Level Documents of the I.R. of Iran”
330-340
Ahmad Farmahini Farahani

Abstract:
The perception and application of science and technology play a fundamental role in prosperity of every society. The ever-increasing importance of science and technology as the infrastructure of comprehensive development- i.e. sustainable development- has bestowed a specific status to the related general context and discussions, such as philosophy of science and technology, future studies as well as science and technology management. The influential players of the global competition, in addition to facing challenges and inevitably complying with the international regulations, try to create a competitive advantage from every opportunity and to improve their status through overcoming such challenges. Science and technology policy-making is a guideline and tool which supervises the realization of science and technology objectives and through this puts our society and organizations in a competitive situation to gain competitive advantage which finally leads to wealth-generation capacity and comprehensive development. Without policy-making in science and technology, development is fundamentally hard, if not impossible, and even can be a devastating and inappropriate approach. In this paper it is tried to define obligatory, rational, and fundamental relationship of policy-making in science and technology at national level, for national development approaches and at organization level with obligations, necessities, and approaches for dynamism and glory in wealth-generation and development.
Keywords: Science and Technology Policy Making, Competitive Advantage, Wealth Generation, Sustainable Development

The Development of a Model to Control Hypertension in a Community, Phitsanulok Province, Thailand
341-351
Chanjar Suntayakorn, Ruth McCaffrey and Chommanard Wannapornsiri

Abstract:
The study aimed to create and evaluate a model to control hypertension in community setting. The framework was Orem’s self-care deficit theory and the guideline of The Thai Hypertension Society. The study had four phases: 1) determine the current level of care 2) create a model to improve patient knowledge and other self-care deficits 3) test the model for efficacy and 4) make improvements to the model. Participants included 39 hypertensive patients, their care givers, eight health volunteers, and two nurses. Three experts were invited to discuss and evaluate the model and recommend improvements. The processes of model development included studying the patients’ self-care requisites according to the guideline, determined patients’ self-care deficits, the capability of the patient and finally to assign the responsibility to the care giver, volunteer, and nurse. Findings demonstrated that patients, care givers and volunteers were of little concerned with life style modifications. The third phase of this study revealed that when the stakeholders’ actions were implemented, the patients’ blood pressure decreased, and the care givers and the volunteers felt happy and proud of their function. A group conversation between stakeholders was useful to uncover the experiences of caring for patients and meeting their self-care deficits.
Keywords :Hypertension, Orem’s self-care deficit nursing theory, Community, Thailand

A Study on Clock Synchronization Protocols in Different Networks
352-363
Dahlia Sam and V. Cyril Raj

Abstract:
Clock Synchronization is an important issue in any type of network. An accurate and synchronized clock is very crucial in many distributed applications. Many clock synchronization algorithms have been proposed recently for various types of networks taking into consideration the different issues related with each type of network. This paper makes a detailed study of the existing clock synchronization algorithms and the issues that are focused by each algorithm. A comparative study has also been given based on factors like precision, reliability, complexity and cost. This study will be a guide for researchers in either choosing an existing protocol for their study or for designing their own synchronization protocol based on the specific needs of their applications.
Keywords: Clock Synchronization, Synchronization Issues, Synchronization Protocols.


Studying VDL Model from Fuzzy Logic Perspective in the Management (Case Study of Kashan Payam Noor University)
364-372
Javad Shekarriz, Tayebeh Moghadasinia, Mahdieh Razi and Davood Kianoosh

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the dyad model and its conformity with fuzzy logic, meanwhile two research hypotheses, the relationship between communicative ability and self-esteem and being classified in professor`s in-group or out-group, has been studied from students` point of view (population of 350) in Kashan, Aran, Bidgol and Barzok universities. Finally by analyzing the results and their conformity with fuzzy logic it is concluded that there are individuals between these two groups in VDL other than those were mentioned who is not necessarily characterized by the absolute features of the in- group and out-group. They possess the minimum characteristic of in-group and maximum features of out-group which is so-called as neutral (boundary) groups. This study is conducted as a survey by standardized questionnaire and correlation.
Keywords: Dyad model, Fussy logic, efficient communication, self-esteem


A Management Model for Sub-District Health Insurance Funds in Phetchabun Province
373-382
Poomin Khamnak, Boonchird Pinyoanuntapong and Adisak Singseewo

Abstract:
The purpose of this multi case study qualitative research was to develop a management model for sub-district health insurance funds appropriate to Phetchabun Province in dimensions of concepts, mechanism, process, relevant factors and outcomes in the areas of Sakruat and Sithep Sub-District in Sithep Districts. The informants were two health insurance funds committees who had experience in managing health insurance funds, and the stakeholders in the areas. The purposive sampling was used with the group of community leaders and academics while the accidental sampling was used with the group of people in general. The instruments used for collecting data were unstructured interview, in-depth interview, participant observation, focus group discussion, and after action review technique. The data were analyzed by using content analysis, interpretation, and synthesis. The management model for sub-district health insurance funds was finally concluded. The research results revealed that, according to the management model for sub-district health insurance funds appropriate to Phetchabun Province, the important concepts were about the improvement of life quality of the people, the improvement of public health work in primary service standards, self-reliance of the community, and the involvement of all sectors in the society. The mechanism comprised two components: structure and roles. Regarding the structure, there were five committees: 1) Sub-District Health Insurance Fund Committee, 2) Steering Sub-Committee, 3) Sub-Committee for Academic Affairs, 4) Sub-Committee for Finance and Accounting, and 5) Sub-Committee for Monitoring and Evaluation. The roles and functions of each sub-committee were assigned by the sub-district health insurance fund committee. Within the process, there were 4 stages: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. The relevant factors consisted of the involvement of all sectors in the management, leadership, team work, communication and public relations, coordination, and fund raising of the people. The outcomes were good health and hygiene of people; fund raising of people, local administrative organization and private sectors; places for knowledge sharing of people in the community; covering rules and regulations; health partnership; financial support for organizing activities in the areas; supports of medical instruments, materials, and equipment; building expansion for services; solving of personnel problems by sending scholarship students to further their study at Praboromarajchanok Institute for Health Workforce Development; and satisfaction of the people.
Keywords: Guidelines for development, management model, health insurance funds


Oil Exploitation and the Decrease of Traditional Medicinal Items in the Niger Delta Region: Psycholoical Implications on Mother/Child Health
383-394
Nwoke, Mary Basil

Abstract:
The study investigated the perceived relationship between oil exploitation and decrease of traditional medicinal items in the Niger Delta. Participants were sixteen men and women traditional healers, botanists and traditional midwives; their age range was (55-67), with a mean age of 62years. These provided the preliminary information through interview. Then five hundred participants, 250 men and women workers, age (45-55), with a mean age of 50 years; and 250 post graduate students, age (28-32), with a mean age of 30 years, 125 males and125 females respectively. The workers and students were drawn from the University of Benin, 425 (85%), came from the oil area while 75 (15%) came from other parts of Nigeria. Oil exploitation on medicinal items scale (OEMIS) was developed and validated for the study. The internal consistency of the instrument was determined by item analysis. The correlation indices ranged from 0.36 to 0.81. Alpha reliability coefficient was .89. Three hypotheses were tested. The result was highly significant r=88 p<.01 A two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) used to test the second and third hypotheses were all significant at F(1,497)=30.2 p<.001 and F(1,497)=21.7p<.001respectively. The paper was discussed and the psychological implications were highlighted.
Keywords: Oil exploitation, traditional medicinal items, Niger Delta.


Optimized Hardware Implementations of Real Time Image Processing Edge Detection Algorithms Implementation on FPGA
395-401
Dhanabal R, Bharathi V and Pragnesh Kumar Vajram

Abstract:
Image processing is important in modern data storage and data transmission especially in progressive transmission of images, video coding, digital libraries, and image database, remote sensing. It has to do with manipulation of images done by algorithm to produce desired images. The advantage is that image processing allows much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data in order to avoid problems such as the build-up of noise and signal distortion during processing. Digital image processing has applications reaching out into our everyday life such as medicine, surveillance, automated industry inspection and many more. Implementing such applications on an application specific hardware offers much greater speed than on a general purpose computer where it can be done easier. Implementation a co-processor for image processing is done. The co-processor is modeled for edge detection of images. The Edge detection algorithm will be implemented on an FPGA, where the inherent parallelism offers a better performance. The architecture is like ARM processor which acts as the master is having the images which has to be processed. ARM will transfer the image to the FPGA for processing and after the image is being processed, the FPGA will display the processed image through a VGA display. The image send by ARM will be stored in an instantiated memory in FPGA. Edge detection core implemented in FPGA then reads the image from memory, process it and stores the processed image back in the memory. VGA controller designed reads the processed image from the memory and displays it. Sobel Edge detection algorithm is used for edge detection of images which is efficient in getting smooth edges and also less sensitive to noise.
Keywords: Sobel Edge Detection, Horizontal and Vertical Edges Detection.


Effect of PEG Molecular Weight on Solubility and Release Criteria of Carvedilol from Prepared Solid Dispersions
402-413
Khandaker Sagir Ahmed, Md. Abdullah Al Masum, Sabiha Sultana, Md. Selim Reza and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan

Abstract:
With an aim to improve solubility and dissolution characteristics of practically water insoluble Carvedilol, solid dispersions were prepared with hydrophilic carriers including polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 and 6000 in different ratios. Solvent evaporation technique was followed in preparing the dispersions. Physical mixtures at similar ratios were also prepared to compare the efficacy of the dispersions. The preparations were subjected to drug content analysis, in vitro drug release study, compatibility study by FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal events study by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction pattern by diffractometer, morphology of the samples using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and accelerated stability study. All the dispersions were granular, free flowing and yield satisfactory results in drug content study. FT-IR spectrum of each dispersion was found to be composed of characteristic peaks of the drug and respective carrier that pointed towards the compatibility of drug and carrier. DSC thermographs reported the absence of melting peak of drug due to some amouphous formation, and that probably contributed to the marked improvement of dissolution characteristics of Carvedilol. This changes in crystallinity of drug were also confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD). In vitro drug release study revealed significant improvements in dissolution profile of Carvedilol that was achieved through solid dispersion technique. The release behavior was compared with that of the physical mixtures and the drug itself and was characterized by different mathematical models including Zero order, first order, Korsmyer-peppas and Higuchi equation. Dissolution results were further categorized by calculating mean dissolution time (MDT) and fractional dissolution time values. Overall observation on the release rate, extent, pattern, mechanism and morphology of the dispersions, solid dispersion of Carvedilol and PEG 6000 at ratio of 1:3 (F8) were found to be the best formulation due to having better release profile, smoother surface and stable over the stability period.
Keywords: Absorption window, bioavailability, wettability, solubility behavior, dissolution pattern and surface characteristics.


Analytical Study of Linear and Geometrically Nonlinear Vibration of Rectangular Laminated Plates
414-428
Mahdi Karimi, Alireza Shooshtari and Soheil Razavi

Abstract:
In this paper, the nonlinear equations of motion for laminated composite rectangular plates based on first order shear deformation theory have been derived. By using a perturbation method, the nonlinear equation of motion is solved and analytical relations for the nonlinear frequencies have been obtained. After proving the validity of the obtained analytical relations, as an alternative and simple modeling technique, an artificial neural network (ANN) was also employed to model the laminated square plates and the effects of different parameters on natural and nonlinear frequencies of these plates. The obtained results were in good agreement with analytical approach and the published results.
Keywords: Nonlinear vibration, Simply-supported, laminated plates, Artificial neural network.


Designing a Device for Physical Modeling of Sand Production
429-437
R. Shirinabadi, P. Moarefvaand, K. Goshtasbi and K. Ahangari

Abstract:
When oil and gas are extracted from hydrocarbon reservoirs, sand production cost’s too much every year in oil and gas industries the process of sand production causes erosion in pipes, faucets and valves, and every could stop the production. Separating the grains produced out of oil could be expensive itself. Cleaning the production line from the produced sand, needs hard work; there fore all these problems a kick are caused during sand production process have always made gas and oil producing companies find ways to handle the problems. In this study, using a device made to simulate the sand production process, the mechanism of the process of sand production was studied and in various conditions of fluid pressure and stress, the amount of sand produced was measured and studied. With this device, various rocks could be experimented with different types of fluids, under various stress conditions of modeling and prediction of sand production. In this study, sand with determined grain grading, and water were used to simulate sand production under various condition of pressure the Results showed that the fluid’s higher pressure causes early damage in the pressure arc in rocks, and also in sand production consequently once the pressure are is damaged, the stress and the fluid’s pressure dropped down immediately the experiments, also, revealed that the amount of sand produced increased just as the pressure are is damaged, and after that decrease. In this study, neural fuzzy network and multi-variable regression were used in order to study and analyze the experiment’s results and to extract a proper pattern. The analyses show that there are a reasonable trend and an appropriate correlation among variables, and that the repeatability of the device is satisfactory, so it could be used to simulate sand production.
Keywords: Sand production; Physical modeling device; Oil well; Neural fuzzy network.


Relationship between Personality Type and Coping Styles with Quality of Life among Medical Sciences Students
438-445
Mohammad Sahebalzamani, Firouzeh Moeini and Farzaneh Alimohammadi

Abstract:
The purpose of the study is to examine the Relationship between personality type and coping styles with quality of life among Medical Sciences Students that in this descriptive correlation study, the sample group consists of 400 students in Islamic Azad University Tehran medical branch, which were stratified randomly selected. Questionnaires used in this study, Quality Of life Questionnaire (SF-36), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler and Parker), Type of Personality Inventory (Ratvs). In data analysis, Pearson correlation, stepwise regression and SPSS software were used. The results quality of life is related to overall personality type and type B personality, but there is no relationship between type A personality. Task – oriented coping and Emotion – oriented coping are associated with quality of life, but its subscales (Except for the vitality subscale), no relationship with avoidant coping style. Personality type is associated with Emotion – oriented coping but there is no relationship between Task – oriented coping and avoidant coping style. According to results of this study recommended to evaluate the mental and psychological services to students in various fields to improve the health and quality of life.
Keywords: Type of personality, coping styles, quality of life.


Production, Manufacturing System Operations, and Logistics- Modeling the Metrics of Lean, Agile, and Leagility: An AHP-Based Approach
446-457
Mahboobe Sadat Haj Mirfattah Tabrizi and Javad Khamisabadi

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for estimating whether an existing system can perform as a lean, agile, or leagile manufacturing system. We compared and identified the similarities and differences between leanness and agility, before developing leagility, by identifying the manufacturing features that were particularly affected by interdependent variables by preparing based on the conditions and characteristics that improved solutions to manufacturing practical operations in three case studies. The present article describes the three case studies and examines the three functions of lean, agile and leagile mechanisms by considering certain features. This study measured the available factors and characteristics to build a model based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which was sent to firms and factories to acquire their responses. We determined whether the functions were applicable to the manufacturing systems in the three case studies. The characteristics of the three case studies did not respond to the same functions, which suggests that more details or factors should be developed that might affect their operations to improve manufacturing systems to meet the requirements of customers. The leanness, agility, and leagility features were examined in the three case studies. Using these operations to acquire precise results; may require more tests in more highly developed conditions in certain locations.
Keywords: Agility, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Leagility, Leanness, Supply chain.