European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 105 No 2
July, 2013

Family Firm Internal Variables and Entrepreneurial Orientation Relationship: The Moderating Role of the Board of Directors
Unai Arzubiaga, Txomin Iturralde and Valeriano Sánchez-Famoso

The present article analyzes the influence that some internal factors, which are inherent to family firms, have in the EO of family firms. Most of these internal factors, as family expectations, non-family members involvement in management and generational level have a positive influence in the EO of family firm, whereas the willingness to preserve the SEW of the family has a negative effect on EO. Moreover, we propose a model where the relationships are moderated by the strategic involvement of the Board of director, which plays the role of a mechanism of the Corporate Governance in family firms. In that sense, it is expected that the positive relationships between family expectations, non-family members involvement in management and generational level and the EO of the firm will be enhanced by a high strategic involvement of the Board of Directors. However, it is expected that the negative relationship between SEW and the EO of a family firm, will decrease with a high strategic involvement of the board.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial orientation, family firms, board of directors, corporate entrepreneurship

An Indoor Fingerprinting Localization Approach for ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks
Tareq Alhmiedat, Ghassan Samara and Amer O. Abu Salem

Location tracking systems are increasingly becoming the focus of research in the field of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Received Signal Strength (RSS)-based localization systems are at the forefront of tracking research applications. Radio location fingerprinting is one of the most promising indoor positioning approaches due to its powerful in terms of accuracy and cost. However, fingerprinting systems require the collection of a large number of reference points in the tracking area to achieve reasonable localization accuracy. In this paper, we propose a fingerprinting localization approach based on a RSS technique. The proposed system does not require gathering a large number of reference points and offers good localization accuracy indoors. The implemented approach is based on dividing the tracking area into subareas and assigning a unique feature to each subarea through ranging the RSS values from different reference points. In order to test the proposed system's efficiency, a number of real experiments have been conducted using Jennic sensor nodes.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Tracking, Localization, Fingerprinting, ZigBee.

DOA using Matrix Pencil for Uniform Circular Array with One Snapshot
EL Fadl Adiba, Seddik Bri and Mohamed Habibi

Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms is the method used to estimate the direction of arrival angle of several signals impinging on a sensor array, which plays an important role in array signal processing. The requirement for DOA estimation arises in different areas of signal processing applications including radar, sonar, and wireless communications. The uniform circular array (UCA) estimation of signal parameters via MATRIX PENCIL algorithm was proposed to estimate the DOA of coherent and uncorrelated signals using one single snapshot. First, the mode excitation method was used to transform the UCA in element space into a virtual uniform linear array (VULA) in mode space. Then, Matrix Pencil is used and does not need covariance matrix, which would result in reduced computational complexity. Simulation results verify that Matrix pencil performance is better than ESPRIT for one snapshot.
Keywords: Matrix Pencil, DOA, unitary transform, smart antenna, URA

Study of Alimony Aspects (with Emphasis on the Civil Code of Islamic Republic of Iran)
Bijan Hajiazizi and Razieh Hassankhani

The husband is responsible for meeting the family expenses, including personal expenses of his wife, and the wife has no responsibility in this regard. Also, meeting personal expenses of the wife by her husband is not limited to the case where the woman is unable to provide it, but even if she has a large wealth it is not necessary for her to provide for her expenses and needs from her own property. Among the issues that will be raised when divorce between couples, are financial problems and one of the financial issues is cost of maintenance, and it should be proceeded when divorce. Since the issue of cost of maintenance after the divorce, is in fact continuation of a commitment has been taken between the parties during marriage, therefore, for analyzing the effects of divorce on cost of maintenance, first the rules on maintenance during the marital relations should be analyzed.
Keywords: Alimony, Marriage, Divorce, Wife, Husband

Identification of Different Types of Dowries According to Different Divorces (with Emphasis on the Civil Code of Islamic Republic of Iran)
Bijan Hajiazizi and Razieh Hassankhani

Divorce is cancellation of the permanent marriage. The divorce is a cadence according to which the husband leaves his permanent wife with permission or decree of the court. The divorce has four elements: divorcer, divorcee, utterance of the divorce, and presence of at least two just men who must hear the actual form of divorce. Dowry is one of the financial effects of marriage. After formation of marriage, bilateral rights and obligations of couple is formed, one of these obligations is the right of dowry of wife which husband is obliged to pay it. Marriage portion is of the wife's financial rights that can be requested by the wife in a divorce Under Clause (3) of Regulation Divorce Reform Act ratified in (1991) provided it has not been already received or donated. The husband would be obliged to pay the marriage portion. But this marriage could lead to divorce. In this case, the right is reserved for woman and can be demanded.
Keywords :Marriage, Divorce, dowry

Production of Biogas from Municipal Sludge
Falah F. Banihani

Municipal sewage sludge is regarded as new available energy source, although it could cause serious Environmental pollution. Generally, biogas recovery by anaerobic digestion was seen as an ideal way to treat biomass waste. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the production of biogas from municipal sludge issued from the wastewater treatment plant Irbed city in North Jordan by using anaerobic digestion process. The sludge considered was a complex mixture of substances, essentially organic matters with a rate of 52%. The diluted sludge with a content of 16 g/l of total solids (TS) was fermented in digester of one and half litter capacity under anaerobic conditions during 35 days. The quantity of biogas produced during anaerobic digestion process was 287,23Nml with a yield of 31 Nml biogas/mg COD removed. This quantity corresponded to an energy production equivalent to 31.3 kWh.
Keywords: Biogas, Digestion, Wastewater treatment plant, sludge

Perceived Benefits, Risks and Obstacles of Studying Abroad: A Study of Pakistan
Uzma Mukhtar, Saubia Ramzan and Zohurul Islam

In this study, we aim to investigate the perceived benefits, risks and obstacles of students during their study in foreign countries. Sample of this study is students for Ms leading to PhD that have been sent on scholarship from Higher education of Pakistan (HEC). Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses of study. Later data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Major benefits e.g., mobility of faculty, students with aim of establishment of collaboration and institute building have significant relation with quality of education. On the other hand brain drain, loss of cultural identity are positively related with low quality of education. In addition some major obstacles are also identified by this study in order to focus attention of Government toward defined policies, actions and prior trainings of the scholars before sending on scholarship to achieve the better results.
Keywords: HEC, Cultural Identity, Brain drain, Internationalization of higher education, Pakistan

Culture Disintegration and Syllabus Mutilation to Affect Iranian EFL Learners Attitude and Listening Comprehension Skill
Esmaeil Bagheridoust and Ameneh Nejabat

The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential effects of culture disintegration and text mutilation on Iranian EFL learners both in terms of their attitudes towards the censorship of the material and their listening comprehension. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods was applied with 64 adult- EFL learners in two groups randomly assigned as experimental and control groups. The Comprehensive English Language Test (CELT) was given as the pretest to homogenize the students and after a two-month treatment a parallel test was repeated to explore the effects. In order to find learners’ attitudes towards culture disintegration and text mutilation a validated questionnaire was used. Data analysis findings indicate that learners have a strongly negative attitude towards text mutilation and that EFL learners who participated in the culture-integrated class outperformed those who were taught the mutilated material. The researcher concludes that culture disintegration and syllabus mutilation in English teaching contexts can negatively affect different participants to varying degrees.
Keywords: Culture, Culture Disintegration, Culture Integration, Syllabus Mutilation

Callogenèse et Organogénèse Chez le Pois Chiche (Cicer Arietinum L.)
Louiza Bouabdallah, Zohra Ighilhariz, Chahinez Chekroun and Amina Kadiri

Three Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) genotypes D1 (INRA199), D2 (Twist) and D3(Flip82-150C) callus formation is studied on MS (Murashige et Skoog) culture medium supplemented with different hormonal combinations: M1 (2,4-D/BAP 3/3mgl-1), M2 (2,4-D/BAP, 3/0,1mg l-1), M3 (2,4-D/Kn, 2/4mgl-1) and M4 (2,4D/ANA/Kn, 2/4/1mg l-1). Within 30 days culture, callus formation has been initiated for Cicer arietinum. Callus production is influenced by the type of organ, genotype and hormones. Higher percentage of callus was obtained with stems (internodes) compared to leaflets. The best calli formation was observed on all media with D1 and D2 genotypes. The media M3 and M4 gave a low percentage of callus with leaflets. Shoot regeneration was observed with ILC3229 genotype mature embryos, influenced by hormones (2,4D/BAP or AIA/Kn). Regeneration occurred only on medium containing AIA/ Kn and varied depending on their different concentrations. The best results obtained when using low AIA and Kn concentrations, 0, 5mgl-1 for both.
Keywords: Callogenesis, Cicer arietinum, hormones, organogenesis, in vitro culture.

Nature Dowry in Islamic Jurisprudence
Sedigheh Mosadegh Sedghi

Dowry is an obligation in Islam is on husband and for wife .this obligation is on husband and wife’s characters and is designed on sensitive deminsetion, this obligation is payed in the conflict between husband and wife. The men should pay the dowry .the dowry is a work for women .this study is about dowry in Islam and the relationship between this obligation and the women’s charters. Finally, the Muslim women are considered, there are problems for women in getting this obligation. It must also .reach men who have come to believe that compassion will be undertaken during the marriage .this obligation are religiously even before they ask their reiht, the men should pay it.
Keywords: Dowry, husband, wife, religious, theologies tram a law.

The Without Usury Banking Comment Imam Khomeini and Makarem Shirazi
Parysa SiamieTekmedash

The economic situation with the provisions of Islam seeks to create a special economic regime that its interpretation of the economic system of Islam –economic system of Islam ,economic justice goal and spirit of unity in all trade and economic activities of human beings .therefore in this research to examine banks and banking and bank interest and penalty interest of the bank and removed the necessity as well as a healthy bank services including current accounts ,a good borrower loans ,banking facility is investigated ,as a result of the Shiite imam and makarem shirazi ,including with the Islamic bank services healthy expression of being and non –being of interest to the banks that bank interest of the bank and are deleted.
Keywords: Usury; banking; loan usury; Imam Khomeini; makarem shirazi.

Trick Nature of Usury from the Viewpoint Imam Khomeini and Makarem Shirazi
Parysa SiamieTekmedash

One of the most important and prevalent today`s discussion among scholars, jurists, clergymen and Muslim society is trick of usury .due to that, different definitions of deceit and all kinds of Usury tricks and its division to evidences of trans actional Usury tricks and loan usury and some exceptions about usury has been mentioned .also, expression of some verdicts by clergymen that shows the presence of some Narratives about religions cunnings and intense reaction of holy Quran and Narratives with the matter of usury (It is considered worse than adultery )that leads to appear different ideas about permitting these Usury tricks or not .Finally ,it was recognized that some of clergymen who accept these Narratives agree with Usury tricks and legitimate all Usury tricks including Javaher holder, Sheikh Tusi, Shahid Sani and some other of clergymen don’t accept these Narratives they disagree with Usury tricks and believe that ;deceits and cunnings can`t exclude usury from some consequences and outcomes that has appeared in holy Quran and tradition like ;oppression ,corruption of property ,closing some business and…but some of consider separation and classification including Makarem Shirazihe wants to differentiate between intellectual land non in tell actual deceits and accept all intellectual deceits and rejects nonintellectual one Moqadas Ardabili legitimates Usury tricks while emergency condition.
Keywords: Usury tricks; trading usury; loan usury; Imam Khomeini; makarem shirazi.

The Study of Religious Orientation Role in Creating the Social Commitment of Young People: Case Studies for City of Islam Abadgrab
Mohammad Bostan and Amir Ahmadi

This study was to investigate the relationship between religious orientations with Islam Abadgharb youth social commitment was designed. the statistical society of young people of the city who were as samples of 350 people in the ages 14 to 29 years using random sampling methods are selected. Religious orientation questionnaire “allport” was used then the results obtained were analyzed with the statistical regression. The results showed that between religious orientation and social commitment is a significant and positive relationship. The coefficient obtained for the 0/102 variable with the level of significant direct and positive relationship between the expressions of ranging of two variables. The results of the analysis of the social and religious obligation of output orientation represent the inverse relationship between these variables and the negative was that amount of the obtained correlation coefficient for this variable is equal to 0.05 significant levels and 0/13. The results of the regression analysis showed that adding religious orientation variables inside and outside the job status and marital status, religious education, but a slight change in the mean regression equation created in other words these variables to predict the amount of youth social commitment is important.
Keywords: Social commitment; Religious Orientation; youth; Make the commitment; Islamabad Comprehensive Income Items.

The Principle Objectives of the Individualize Penalties
Parysa SiamieTekmedash and Amir Ahmadi

The purpose of the principle of being personal is that justice and fairness require that the punishment of the offender and the person stuck exclusively to skirt the ones she passed on. In this study, the individual principle goal off penalty has been paid. In the first paragraph of the review objectives person include the following: observe justice, revise and improve the offender, prevent losses of individual offenders, prevention family. And in the second paragraph, a social objective are discussed and includes the following items: modernism and innovation, understanding of the child, recognize the constructive factors of a crime, the criminal provisions, the preparation and the filing editor character for criminals, This principle in criminal law and criminology of the importance of the many different angles that can be studied from jurists.
Keywords: Principle; individual size; penalties; offender; justice; fairness.

An Investigation about Women Employment in Jurisprudence and Law Islamic Republic of Iran
Forouzan Alaeinovin, Amir Ahmadi and Hamed Kheradranjbar

Human is a social animal and he/she is inevitable for having relationship with others .nowadays variety of these relationship in different aspects is so big and huge so that can affect human personality and identity formation .so a big number of human talents and capabilities are appeared in the society . Women also in this arena can attend quantitatively and qualitively and one of the fields for attaining this goal is employment in Islamic societies employment is considered as one of women social rights, they can not only get profit from having a job, but also they can have a share in their society progress .there are some rules and laws about women employment that try to reserve women dignity and virginity when they are employee that we comment about in this article.
Keywords: Employment; Women; Rights; Jurisprudence; Iran; Motivation.