European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 104 No 4
June, 2013

The Deformation Retractions of Fuzz Sphere in Fuzzy Lobachevsky Space and its Folding
549-560
A. E. El-Ahmady and K. Al-Onemi

Abstract:
Our aim in the present paper is to introduce and study new types of fuzzy retractions, fuzzy foldings and fuzzy deformation retracts of fuzzy S3 model in fuzzy Lobachevsky space .Types of fuzzy foldings and fuzzy deformation retracts of fuzzy S3 model are discussed. Types of minimal fuzzy retractions of fuzzy S3 model are presented. The fuzzy foldings of fuzzy S3 model will be deduced, also the limit of this folding will be obtained. Some applications are presented.
Keywords: Fuzzy retractions, Fuzzy foldings, Fuzzy deformation retracts, Fuzzy S3 model in fuzzy Lobachevsky space.
Mathematics Subject Classification Codes:53A35, 58C05, 51F10, 58B34.+.


The Exponential Deformation Retract of the Hypertori and its Foldings
561-568
A. E. El-Ahmady and N. Al-Hazmi

Abstract:
Our aim in the present article is to introduce and study the relation between the deformation retract of the n- dimensional tori Tn and the deformation retract of the tangent space Tp(Tn) . Also, this relation discussed after and before the isometric and topological folding of Tn into itself. New types of conditional folding are presented. Some commutative diagrams are obtained.
Keywords: Retraction, Deformation retract, Folding, N-dimensional tori.
Mathematics Subject Classification Codes:53A35, 51H05, 58C05, 58B34.


Elderly Self Health Care in Roi-Et Province
569-579
Amporn Pusdorn, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Tanarat Khoowaranyoo Thiengkamol

Abstract:
Elderly health is an indicator for policy formulation in all aspects of social, economic and environment. In order to develop the elderly competency for creating good physical and mental health for good relationship with others, it needs knowledge increasing, attitude adjusting, and appropriate practice in daily activity for them to be able to take a responsibility for self, family and community health care. The research objective was to compare knowledge, attitude, and practice for self health care with public consciousness of health care for others between before and after implementation with Participatory-Influence-Appreciation-Control (PAIC). Research design was quasi-experimental research through Participatory-Influence-Appreciation-Control (PAIC) with integration of qualitative research of Focus Group Discussion (FGD) in the process implementation. The Three Dimensional Evaluation (TDE) was employed for participation evaluation of sample group and Four Dimensional Evaluation (FDE) was used for trainer role play evaluation. The questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The sample group of 54 community elderly, were sampling with Purposive Sampling technique. Paired t-test and One Way ANOVA were used for data analysis. The results illustrated that the pretest mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice for self health care with inspiration of public consciousness of health care for others were higher than posttest mean score with statistically significant (p< 0.01, p< 0.01, p< 0.01 and p< 0.01). During training process, the TDE was used for participation evaluation of 54 participants in small focus group discussion and it composed Self-evaluation, Friend-evaluation, and Facilitator-evaluation. The results in past and future situations showed that there were differences of mean scores about participation among TDE with statistical significance (p<0.05, and p<0.05) but in present situation showed that there were no differences of mean scores about participation among TDE with statistical significance (p >0.05). Moreover, FDE were used for trainer role play that composed of Trainer-self evaluation, Trainer-friend evaluation, Audience evaluation, and Expert trainer evaluation by using One-way ANOVA to investigate the mean scores difference of four groups. The results showed that there were no differences of mean scores about trainer role play among FDEs with statistical significance (p>0.05). Conclusions, it is acknowledged from this research that PAIC is able to encourage and challenge the participants to be trainers and facilitators for self health care and to be able to transfer their knowledge, attitude, practice and public consciousness to other elderly in community according to environmental education principle to develop the better life quality for them with sustainability.
Keywords: Development of Model / Elderly / Self Health Care / Roi-Et Province


Flood Disaster Prevention Behavior Integrated with Environmental Education Principle
580-591
Teerasak Lawan, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Chatchai Thiengkamol

Abstract:
In flood season, the peoples who live along with Moon River would be received the flood impact. The causes are due to encroach of people migration into flood risk area, trespass to use the land along with natural water drainage and construction the buildings to obstruct the water drainage way. Additionally, the construction of dike in project of Khong-Chee-Moon has made the prior water drainage canal decrease the size and it results to flood in the rainy season. The research objectives were to study level of flood disaster prevention behavior and to study the effects of independent variables of flood disaster knowledge, environmental education principles, and inspiration of public consciousness to dependent variable of flood disaster prevention behavior of people lives at the bank of Moon River. This research was quantitative research with survey research. The questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. Multiple Regression Analysis was employed for data analysis to predict the effects of independent variables of flood disaster knowledge, environmental education principle, and inspiration of public consciousness to dependent variable of flood disaster prevention behavior. Population was 2,998 peoples living along to Moon River at Had Yao Sub-district, Ponsai District Roi-et Province. Sample group was 380 peoples. The content validity was determined from 5 experts. The questionnaire was tried out with 50 peoples who were not sample group. The reliability of flood disaster knowledge, environmental education principle, inspiration of public consciousness and flood disaster prevention behavior were 904, 0.935, 0.908, 0.924 and 0.952 respectively. The results illustrated that flood disaster prevention behavior was at high level and the effects of flood disaster knowledge, environmental education principle, and inspiration of public consciousness to flood disaster prevention behavior of people lives at the bank of Moon River and these independent variables were able to predict dependent variable of flood disaster prevention behavior with 57.60% (Adjusted R2) with statistically significant at 0.01 level.
Keywords: Flood Disaster Prevention Behavior / Environmental Education Principle.

Self-Health Prevention from Dust Impact of the Village Health Volunteers
592-602
Chairunt Moolmanee, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Tanarat Khoowaranyoo Thiengkamol

Abstract:
Particulates or particulate matter or dust is air pollution that causes harmful effect to human health and it is also an origin conflict of interest in community. The vigorous impact goes along with time contact with particulates. Competency developments for village health volunteer to be a prototype for self practice to prevent from particulates impact can be implemented through Participatory- Appreciation- Influence-Control (PAIC). In order to transfer this knowledge to the others, it needs to increase environmental knowledge, adjust attitude to change people behavior to practice themselves properly based on public consciousness. The research objective was to compare knowledge on dust impact, environmental attitude, environmental law, public consciousness of environmental conservation and self practice to prevent from dust impact between before and after implementation with PAIC. Research design was quasi-experimental research through PAIC with integration of qualitative research of Focus Group Discussion (FGD) in the process implementation. The Three Dimensional Evaluation (TDE) was employed for participation evaluation of sample group and Four Dimensional Evaluation (FDE) was used for trainer role play evaluation. The questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The sample group of 50 village health volunteers, were sampling with Purposive Sampling technique. Paired t-test and One Way ANOVA were used for data analysis. The results illustrated that the posttest mean scores of knowledge on dust impact, environmental attitude, environmental law, public consciousness of environmental conservation and self practice to prevent from dust impact, and training achievement were higher than pretest mean score with statistically significant (p< 0.01, p< 0.01, p< 0.05, p< 0.01, p< 0.01 and p< 0.01). During training process, the TDE was used for participation evaluation of 50 participants in small focus group discussion and it composed Self-evaluation, Friend-evaluation, and Facilitator-evaluation. The results in past and future situations showed that there were differences of mean scores about participation among TDE with statistical significance (p<0.01, and p<0.05) but in present situation showed that there were no differences of mean scores about participation among TDE with statistical significance (p >0.05). Moreover, FDE were used for trainer role play that composed of Trainer-self evaluation, Trainer-friend evaluation, Audience evaluation, and Expert trainer evaluation by using One-way ANOVA to investigate the mean scores difference of four groups. The results showed that there were no differences of mean scores about trainer role play among FDEs with statistical significance (p>0.05). Recommendations, this study is able to make village health volunteers gain more knowledge of particulates, environmental law, and self practice to prevent from dust impact subjectively. Moreover, they change their perception to environmental attitude and increase their public consciousness of environmental conservation after training with PAIC process with integration of environmental education including making them to be trainers and facilitators to transfer this body of knowledge to others in community to be able to practice for self practice to prevent from dust impact sustainably.
Keywords :Self-Health Prevention / Dust Impact / Village Health Volunteer /

Environmental Conservation Promotion for Food Stand Entrepreneur
603-613
Komkrit Chaisena, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Chatchai Thiengkamol

Abstract:
At present, the food with contamination of germs has effected to health of Thai people. The report of food toxic is epidemic in every year. Therefore, it needs to solve at the origin of problem. Particularly, the food stand is a very important problem since it serves food to people every day. If the food stand entrepreneur has knowledge and understanding and awareness to his/her important role of food cooking sanitation and environmental public health with regarding to the quality of life and environmental quality. The research objective was to compare knowledge of environmental education, food sanitation, law of environmental health, public consciousness toward environment and self practice toward environment of food stand entrepreneur between before and after implementation with Participatory-Influence-Appreciation-Control (PAIC). Research design was quasi-experimental research through PAIC with integration of qualitative research of Focus Group Discussion (FGD) in the process implementation. The Three Dimensional Evaluation (TDE) was employed for participation evaluation of sample group and Four Dimensional Evaluation (FDE) was used for trainer role play evaluation. The questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The sample group of 40 food stand entrepreneurs, were sampling with Purposive Sampling technique. Paired t-test and One Way ANOVA were used for data analysis. The results illustrated that the posttest mean scores of knowledge of environmental education, food sanitation, law of environmental health, public consciousness toward environment and self practice toward environment of food stand entrepreneur were higher than pretest mean score with statistically significant (p< 0.01, p< 0.01, p< 0.05, p< 0.01 and p< 0.01). During training process, the TDE was used for participation evaluation of 40 participants in small focus group discussion and it composed Self-evaluation, Friend-evaluation, and Facilitator-evaluation. The results in past, present and future situations showed that there were differences of mean scores about participation among TDE with statistical significance (p<0.01, p<0.05, and p<0.01). Moreover, FDE were used for trainer role play that composed of Trainer-self evaluation, Trainer-friend evaluation, Audience evaluation, and Expert trainer evaluation by using One-way ANOVA to investigate the mean score differences of four groups. The results showed that there were no difference of mean scores about trainer role play among FDEs with statistical significance (p>0.05). Recommendations, this study is able to make food stand entrepreneurs gain more knowledge of environmental education, food sanitation, law of environmental health, public consciousness toward environment and self practice toward environment of food stand entrepreneur. Furthermore, they change their opinion toward food sanitation attitude, increase their public consciousness toward environment and their behavior to have self practice for environmental conservation after training with PAIC process with integration of environmental education including making them to be trainers and facilitators to transfer this body of knowledge to their members in the same food stand and to other entrepreneurs as well.
Keywords: Environmental Conservation / Promotion / Food Stand Entrepreneur.


Environmental Conservation for Good Quality of Life
614-624
Somchai Boonruang, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Chatchai Thiengkamol

Abstract:
Presently, the environmental crisis has occurred due to emphasizing on economic development according to national social and development plan because almost types of natural resources has been introduced for utility without economization. This cause the degradation of environmental quality at all levels whether local up to nation and global level and it makes also impacts to quality of soil, water, and air. Additionally, the rapid growth of population has caused the huge waste accumulation that impact to daily living. Particularly, the environmental quality has impacted to human health and life quality and has also caused different diseases. The research objective was to compare knowledge of health care, environmental conservation, environmental education, public consciousness and good quality of life between before and after implementation with Participatory-Influence-Appreciation-Control (PAIC). Research design was quasi-experimental research through PAIC with integration of qualitative research of Focus Group Discussion (FGD) in the process implementation. The Three Dimensional Evaluation (TDE) was employed for participation evaluation of sample group and Four Dimensional Evaluation (FDE) was used for trainer role play evaluation. The questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The sample group of 50 public health volunteers, were sampling with Purposive Sampling technique. Paired t-test and One Way ANOVA were used for data analysis. The results illustrated that the posttest mean scores of 5 aspects of knowledge of health care, environmental conservation, environmental education, public consciousness and good quality of life were higher than pretest mean score with statistically significant (p< 0.01, p< 0.01, p< 0.01, p< 0.01 and p< 0.01). During training process, the TDE was used for participation evaluation of 50 participants in small focus group discussion and it composed Self-evaluation, Friend-evaluation, and Facilitator-evaluation. The results in past, present and future situations showed that there were no differences of mean scores about participation among TDE with statistical significance (p>0.05, p>0.05, and p>0.05). Moreover, FDE were used for trainer role play that composed of Trainer-self evaluation, Trainer-friend evaluation, Audience evaluation, and Expert trainer evaluation by using One-way ANOVA to investigate the mean scores difference of four groups. The results showed that there were no differences of mean scores about trainer role play among FDEs with statistical significance (p>0.05). Conclusions, PAIC was implemented on environmental conservation for development of good life quality would make public health volunteer of community in Srakaew Sub-district, Phanomprai District, Roi-Et Province had 5 aspects of knowledge of health care, environmental conservation, environmental education, public consciousness and good quality of life. Therefore, they are able to play as trainer to transfer their knowledge to others in community and they will be good role model as well.
Keywords: Environmental Conservation / Good Quality of Life


A Place for “Disinterested View” to the Nature, an Approach to “True Happiness” of Human Being
625-633
Ali Rahmani

Abstract:
This paper is about the context for achieving “True happiness” in terms of controlling “Egocentrism” as one of the causes of individual and social problems and lack of proper attention to this important issue in urban planning, in general. Most of the urban environments which have been used to improve ethics in various forms, in terms of objective and subjective, are human-made and are experiencing the same problem that we are trying to solve. In order to find a region-free solution that is free of human influence, establishing meaningful relationships with natural phenomena of the possible wild natural phenomena in or out of cities have been proposed. Therefore, by correcting attitudes towards the natural environment and extending this to the community and personal world, we can take a step towards solving the problem. In this approach, the assumption is that, the negative consequences of "egocentrism" which is a vital and essential principle can be monitored and corrected by mutual arousals arising from ‘disinterested view” to these phenomena. Establishing these relationships, in the first place, are focused in terms of working and entertainment there are followed by other urban potentials in the next stage such as parks and excess places of living complexes, administrative and sport gyms. In terms of participation of art and science in the process of development of city’s shape and its components, analyzing the psychological, philosophical, and morals on ethical influences from the nature is the basis of this work as well as our recommendations on its implementation.
Keywords: Causal Relationship Model / Holistic Tourism.


Investigation of Stability of Reinforced Soil Slopes by Pseudo-Static Methods
634-641
Nima Farshidfar and Amin Keshavarz

Abstract:
This paper studies the seismic stability of reinforced soil slopes by carrying out a pseudo-static analysis. Equilibrium equations are written using the horizontal slice method which can be used for any type of slide surface. The provided equilibrium equations completely satisfy the balance between horizontal and vertical forces as well as the moment balance. The slide surface is assumed to be planar and the non-linear equilibrium equations obtained for the system are solved using the Newton-Raphson method. Earthquake effects are included in the problem as horizontal and vertical pseudo-static coefficients. In order to solve the problem, a program was written in MATLAB and the critical slide surface was obtained using the genetic algorithm. A comparison between the results of this research and the results obtained by other researchers indicates that the results obtained by the method employed in this research are very similar to the results obtained by other methods. In addition, the planar slide surface can be used for analyzing the stability of reinforced soil slopes with a relatively proper precision.
Keywords: Reinforced soil slopes, Pesudo-static, Genetic algorithm, Optimization, Limit equilibrium method, Planar failure surface.


Macroscopic, Microscopic and DNA Fingerprinting to Fight Adulteration of Banafsaj (Viola Odorata L) Sold at the Lebanese Herbal Shops
642-651
Marc El Beyrouthy, Maya Kafrouny, Nelly Arnold Apostolides, Ahmed El-Hejin, Loai Siddig, Ahmed Hassan, Esam Azhar and Afif M Abdel Nour

Abstract:
Viola odorata L. (sweet violet) is a very important medicinal plant in the Middle East. It is in great demand, and has been cultivated for cosmetics and medicinal uses since ancient times. In Lebanon and in the Middle East, there is a gap between the demand and supply of Viola odorata, mainly because of difficulties in harvesting which may lead to adulteration and substitution of genuine material. Thus the goal of the present study was to inspect several samples claimed to be of sweet violet from different herbalist shops in Lebanon. For these reasons macroscopic, microscopic and DNA analysis of 10 samples of claimed V. odorata sold in different Lebanese regions were undertaken. By comparing the studied samples with those of genuine V. odorata L. collected from nature, the adulteration was proven. This study showed that the majority of the Lebanese sweet violet was adulterated using Cercis siliquastrum L.
Keywords: Viola odorata L., Violaceae, macroscopy, morpho-anatomy, DNA, adulteration.


Production de H2O2, de MDA et de Composés Phénoliques Chez L’aloe Vera Cultivé en sol Fortement Salin (Parcelle de Kalaât Landelous, Tunisie)
652-662
Dalila Souguir, Mohamed Hachicha, Mohamed Larbi Khouja and Ezzeddine El Ferjani

Abstract:
Aloe vera, a typical xerophyte with important therapeutic and economic values, was grown in Kalaât Landelous in an hydromorphic soil, which is highly saline and which has a shallow saline groundwater. Aloe plants were irrigated with treated wastewater during the dry season. Two years after plantation, Aloe vera showed toxicity symptoms, low growth and higher Na accumulation in leaves than roots. A difference in MDA and H2O2 productions between organs and no changes in the phenolic contents were observed in the Aloe vera tissues.
Keywords: Aloe vera, H2O2, MDA, toxicity symptoms, phenolic content, saline soil.


The Sources of Iran's Business Cycles
663-672
Majid Delavari, Hanieh Mohammadali, Esmaeil Naderi and Nadiya Gandali Alikhani

Abstract:
A business cycle is, in fact, fluctuations of macroeconomic variables and gross domestic product. These fluctuations play a substantial role in any country. Prosperity and depression have been the most impressive problem in Iranian economy during the last decades so government and politicians have always sought a remedy for alleviating its negative effects like inflation and unemployment. This study analyses the underlying causes of Iranian business cycles using structural auto regression (SVAR) in the period between 1965-2009. The findings of this research show that business cycle in oil exporting countries is affected by changes in oil revenues. To identifying how oil shocks spread through different variables we use Bernanke and Sims (1997) technique, imposing a set of long-run economic restrictions that are added to purely statistical restrictions of VAR. In the end, the hypothesis of the thesis verifies that the effect of fiscal policy in generating business cycles is much more than monetary policy and technological shock. But, bear in mind that the effect of technology shock in Iranian economy, in general, could not be ignored.
Keywords: Business Cycle, Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy, Technology Shock.
JEL Classification Codes: E32.E52.E62.O39.


A Modified Zero Suffix Method for Finding an Optimal Solution for Transportation Problems
673-676
Shambhu Sharma, Rama Shanker and Ravi Shanker

Abstract:
In this paper, a modified Zero suffix method for finding an optimal solution of transportation problems has been introduced. The proposed method is free from the problem of degeneracy, requires least number of iterations to reach optimality than the zero suffix method for finding optimal solution of transportation problems. The total transportation cost obtained by the proposed method is better than or equal to that of the zero suffix method. The optimal solution by both methods has been given with two numerical examples for ready comparison. The proposed method is very simple, easy to understand and apply.
Keywords: Transportation problem, optimal solution, algorithm, Zero suffix method.
Mathematics Subject Classification Codes:90C08, 90C90.


A Compact Printed Dipole Slot Antenna for WLAN and RFID Applications
677-682
Poongodi Chenniappan, Deepa Dhanaskodi and Shanmugam Arumugam

Abstract:
A printed dipole slot antenna for 2.4GHz RFID band and 5.2GHz WLAN band application is designed fabricated on FR4 substrate and measured using Agilent network analyzer. This antenna effectively covers both 2.4GHz and 5.2GHz bands. The return losses of the measured results are in agreement with simulated results, the measured S parameters and radiation pattern showed that the proposed design is suitable for RFID and WLAN frequency regions. The measured return loss (S parameter) of is -14.8 dB at 2.4GHz and simulated return loss is -31.61dB at 5.2GHz which is most suitable for RFID and wireless LAN applications.
Keywords: Printed dipole antenna, WLAN, RFID, substrate, gain, radiation pattern.


Development of Two Echelon Inventory Systems for Supply Chain Coordination under Price Dependent Demand
683-697
Syam Sundar Kota, Nararayan S and Nagaraju Dega

Abstract:
In the present day scenario of industrial competition, supply chain management seeks to synchronize a firm’s processes and those of its suppliers to match the flow of materials, services and information with customer demand. It involves the coordination of key processes in the firm such as order placement, order fulfillment and purchasing which are supported by marketing, finance, engineering, information systems, operations and logistics. In this work an attempt has been made to coordinate the members of the supply chain in order to maximize the profit at each level and gross profit of the supply chain. A two level supply chain network with single manufacturer supplying a single product to a single retailer is considered in this work. This work focuses on modeling and optimization of two level supply chain with price dependent demand for optimal replenishment quantity, inventory ratio and gross profit of supply chain with and without coordination. Also, the numerical illustration is carried to observe the behavioral pattern of the decision variables with dependent variables.
Keywords: Supply chain, price dependent demand, and gross profit of supply chain.