European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 104 No 3
June, 2013

Retraction of Chaotic Schwarzchild Space
333-339
A. E. El-Ahmady

Abstract:
Our aim in the present article is to introduce and study a new type of metric ,namely chaotic Schwarzchild metric. New types of geodesics in chaotic Schwarzchild space are presented. The retraction of chaotic Schwarzchild space is defined and discussed. The relations between the retraction of geometry and pure chaotic Schwarzchild space are deduced.
Keywords:Chaotic metric, Geodesics, Retraction, Chaotic Schwarzchild space.
Mathematics Subject Classification Codes:51H10, 57N20.


The Isonormal Folding of Fuzzy Manifolds and its Retractions
340-347
A. E. El-Ahmady

Abstract:
Our aim in the present paper is to introduce and study new types of fuzzy foldings. It is the isonormal fuzzy folding of S2 into itself. The induced fuzzy foldings of two fuzzy systems US2i, US2i are deduced. The relations between the fuzzy folding and fuzzy retraction are achieved. Theorems governing these relations are proved. Some applications are presented.
Keywords: Fuzzy retractions, Fuzzy foldings, Fuzzy deformation retracts, Fuzzy open sphere, manifold.
Mathematics Subject Classification Codes:51H05, 58C05, 51F10.


Performance Comparison of Traditional vs. Evolutionary Algorithms with Kernel Based MI to Solve the ICA Problem
348-376
Ahmed Najah Jabbar

Abstract:
This research aims to provide a comprehensive study for the ability of evolutionary optimization algorithms to blindly separate mixed sources by minimizing the mutual information using kernel density estimation kde. The evolutionary algorithms that are used for the test are Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Invasive Weeds Optimization (IWO), Imperialist Competitive Optimization (ICOA) and Artificial Bee Colony Optimization (ABC). Their performance is compared to the performance of the traditional algorithms that represent different approaches to solve Independent Components Analysis (ICA). The chosen traditional algorithms are Gradient Ascent Algorithm (GAA), Fast ICA (FICA) and Weights Adjusted Second Order Blind Identification (WASOBI). Two examples with four sources linearly mixed by four sensors are used for the test. The first one is suggested by Sergio Cruces for a moderate complexity source mixing. The second example is very difficult to be separated that puts all the algorithms on the line to test their separation performance. The separation performance comparison is conducted using the Inter-Symbol Interference Ratio (ISIR). The ICOA and ABC are the only algorithms that succeeded in the separation throughout the two examples.
Keywords: Kernel density estimation, mutual information minimization, Evolutionary optimization, Independent component analysis


Optimization and High Gain of a Microstrip Patch Antenna Excited by Coaxial Probe for RFID Reader Applications at 2.4 GHz
377-391
Ali El Alami, Saad Dosse Bennani, Moulhime El Bekkali and Ali Benbassou

Abstract:
In this paper, we present the design and optimization a rectangular patch antenna excited by coaxial probe for RFID applications and which operates at the central frequency of 2.4 GHz. The design of the proposed antenna was simulated using the software Ansoft HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulation). This design gives us a return loss reached at -34.42 dB, a high gain of the order of 7.70 dB and a standing wave ratio (VSWR) equal to 1.03.
Keywords: Rectangular patch antenna, coaxial probe, RFID Reader, return loss, gain, VSWR, software HFSS.

Boundary Control Problem for Infinite Order Parabolic System with Time Delay and Control Constraints
392-406
G. M. Bahaa and A. H. Qamlo

Abstract:
A boundary control problem for parabolic system with infinite order and time delay is considered. The performance index has an integral form. Constraints on controls are imposed. To obtain optimality conditions for the Neumann problem, the generalization of the Dubovitskii-Milyutin Theorem was applied.
AMS Subject Classification Codes:35K20, 49J20, 49K20, 93C20.

Limitations of Butler Tourism Area life Cycle and Plogs’ Psychographic Model: An Application to Thailand
407-417
Kaewta Muangasame

Abstract:
There are over 200 citations according to Butler and Plog’s models while only few researches have criticized these models considering the validity of the models in research and their limitation. Therefore, this paper aims to review the limitations of these two models to apply in tourism research by applying a case study of Thailand. The paper illustrated complicated nature of the destination and diversification in tourism activities. In supply side, Butler’s Destination Life Cycle model can be wrong under condition of what it has been discussed in this paper into two aspects; how the model was created in order to understand the complexity of tourism destination, and the validity of his research. From this point, the authors raised many limitations as misleading and may force marketers and planners to discontinue their destination during decline. On the other hand is demand side on which Plog’s model was created to understand the tourist behavior with some limitations. Finally, it analyzed the applicability of the Chaos Model of tourism in terms of understanding the complexity of tourism in recent situation in comparison to those two models that can be limited under conditions of how the models were created and their research validity.
Keywords: Butler’s model, tourism area life cycle, Plogs’ model, Limitation, Thailand, Complexity of tourism.


Causal Relationship Model of Global Warming Alleviation Integrated with Four Noble Truths and Psychological State
418-433
Aekwin Koonboonchan, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Tanarat Khoowaranyoo Thiengkamol

Abstract:
The populations were 37,156 undergraduate student of Mahasarakham University in second semester in academic year of 2012. The Multi-stage simple random sampling technique was employed to collect the sample for 400 undergraduate students. The research instrument was the questionnaire and it was used for data collecting. Structural Equation model (SEM) was used for model verification. The objective of research was to develop the structural relationship model of four noble truths and psychological state affecting to environmental behavior for global warming alleviation through inspiration of public mind. The results revealed that when considering on structural model confirmatory factors of Four Noble Truths (FNT) and Psychological State (PsS), were able to explain the variation of endogenous factors of Inspiration of Public Mind (PM) to caused Environmental Behaviors for Global Warming Alleviation (BEH) with 93.00 percents as the following in equation (1). BEH = 0.79*PM + 0.20*FNT + 0.31*PsS (1) (R2 = 0.93) Moreover, confirmatory factors Four Noble Truths (FNT) and Psychological State (PsS), were able to explain the variation of confirmatory factors of Inspiration of Public Mind (PM) with 82.00 percents. Therefore, the equation can be written as the following equation (2). PM = 0.26*FNT + 0.77*PsS (2) (R2 = 0.82)
Keywords: Causal Relationship Model / Four Noble Truths / Psychological State / Inspiration of Public Mind / Environmental Behavior for Global Warming Alleviation


Causal Relationship Model of Holistic Tourism
434-446
Ratchanee Petchang, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Chatchai Thiengkamol

Abstract:
This research objective was to develop a causal relationship model of holistic tourism. This research was a survey research and the questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection from tourism administrative committee and involved sectors in Uttaradit Province. Population was 5,000 peoples. Multi-stage random sampling was employed for sampling sample group of 400 peoples. Research results were followings. The component analysis of Characteristics of Holistic Tourism (CHT), Environmental Education (EE) and Environmental Conservation Inspiration (ECI) had direct effect to Holistic Tourism Behavior (HTB) with statistically significant at 0.01 level with effect of 69.00 %. The structural equation can be written as the following. HTB = 0.69*ECI + 0.038*CHT + 0.19*EE, (1) R2 = 0.69 Considering of components that effected to environmental conservation inspiration (ECI), it was discovered that Characteristics of Holistic Tourism (CHT) was the most effect. Subsequent was Environmental Education (EE), these were able to explain the variation of Environmental Conservation Inspiration (ECI) with 90%. The structural equation can be written as the following ECI = 0.95*CHT + 0.0056*EE (2) R2 = 0.90 Therefore, the model of CHT and EE influencing through ECI to HTB was verified the proposed model was fitted with all observed variables according to criteria of Chi-Square value differs from zero with no statistical significant at 0.01 level or Chi-Square/df value with lesser or equal to 5, P-value with no statistical significant at 0.01 level and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error Approximation) value with lesser than 0.05 including index level of model congruent value, GFI (Goodness of Fit Index) and index level of model congruent value, AGFI (Adjust Goodness of Fit Index) between 0.90-1.00.
Keywords: Causal Relationship Model / Holistic Tourism.


Causal Relationship Model of Forest Conservation Integration with Psychological State
447-459
Saksri Suebsing, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Chatchai Thiengkamol

Abstract:
The populations were 5,511undergraduate students of the second semester of academic year 2012 of Roi Et Rajabhat University. The Multi-stage random sampling was used to collect the sample for 400 undergraduate students. The questionnaire was employed as instrument for data collection. Structural Equation model (SEM) was used for model verification. The objective was to propose the structural model of environmental education and psychological state affecting to forest conservation behavior via inspiration of public mind. Results illustrated that when considering on structural model confirmatory factors were able to explain the variation of endogenous factors of Inspiration of Public Mind (PM) to caused Forest Conservation Behavior (BEH) with 87.00 as the followings. BEH = 0.58*PM + 0.32*PsS + 0.33*EE (1) (R2 = 0.87) Equation (1) factors that had the most effect to Forest Conservation Behavior (BEH) was Inspiration of Public Mind (PM) subsequences were Psychological State (PsS) and Environmental Education (EE). These were able to explain the variation of Forest Conservation Behavior (BEH) with 87.00 percents as the following in equation (1). Moreover, confirmatory factors Psychological State (PsS) and Environmental Education (EE), were able to explain the variation of confirmatory factors of Inspiration of Public Mind (PM) with 95.00 percents. Therefore, the equation can be written as the following equation (2). PM = 0.29*PsS + 0.79*EE (2) (R2 = 0.95)
Keywords: Causal Relationship Model / Environmental Education / Psychological State / Inspiration of Public Mind / Forest Conservation Behavior.


Casual Relationship Model of Biodiversity Conservation
460-474
Sattra Saisunantharom, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Chatchai Thiengkamol

Abstract:
Global warming situation has caused biodiversity crisis thus it has been a hot issue in the tropically geographical area at equator belt because there is highest biodiversity in the world with important ecosystem of forest in terms of tropical rain forest or tropical evergreen forest, mixed deciduous forest, deciduous dipterocarp forest, peat swamp forest, and mangrove forest. They are the habitat for different wildlife whether mammals, birds, reptilian, and amphibian and they are valuable in terms of genetic variations. These are able to be developed as medicine, food and other chemical products with different benefits for humans because human and environment have interacted each other both direct and indirect. Therefore, biodiversity is highly essence as basic needs for human living. The objective was to develop the structural relationship model of biodiversity and environmental education affecting to environmental conservation behavior for global warming alleviation through inspiration of public consciousness. The populations were 30,895 high school students from school under Secondary Service Area Office 32 (Burirum), Northeastern region of Thailand in academic year of 2012. The survey research was used for study. The sample was collected by Multi-stage random sampling to collect 400 high school students. The research instrument was the questionnaire and it was used for data collection. Structural Equation model (SEM) was used for model verification. The results revealed that when considering on structural model of confirmatory factors of Biodiversity (BD) and Environmental Education (EE) were able to explain the variation of endogenous factors of Inspiration of Public Consciousness (INS) to caused Environmental Conservation Behavior for Global Warming Alleviation (BEH) with 86.00 percents, thus it can be written as the following in equation (1). BEH = 0.40*INS + 0.14*BD + 0.41*EE (1) (R2 = 0.86) Moreover, confirmatory factors of Biodiversity (BD) and Environmental Education (EE) were able to explain the variation of confirmatory factors of Inspiration of Public Consciousness (INS) with 93.00 percents. Therefore, it can be written as the following in equation (2). INS = 0.57*BD + 0.44*EE (2) (R2 = 0.93) Considering on Chi-Square value/df was 1.773 therefore it was lesser than 5, therefore it was accepted that hypothetical model of research was congruent to empirical data. Moreover, it was considered on other statistical values to identify the congruence that were Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) and Adjust Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) were 0.94 and 0.91 respectively (GFI > 0.90 and AGFI > 0.90) and critical number = 268.42 which is more than 200. It indicated that model was congruent to empirical data.
Keywords: Casual Relationship Model / Biodiversity Conservation.


Casual Relationship Model of Learning Behavior of Information Technology
475-487
Narueset Prasertsri, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Tanarat Khoovaranyoo Thiengkamol

Abstract:
In order to promote the undergraduate student to have high competency for learning on environmental conservation for global warming alleviation, it is able to promote through modern learning with high information technology effectively. Therefore it needs to create an inspiration of public consciousness for environmental conservation by self-learning in both educational system and informal educational system with integration of environmental education principle that has philosophy and concept congruent to sustainable development principle and objectively support these youth who are the important power to have appropriate behavior for decreasing global warming problem. The populations were 37,156 undergraduate students of Mahasarakham University in the second semester of the academic year of 2012. The Multi-stage simple random sampling technique was employed to collect the sample for 410 undergraduate students. The research instrument was the questionnaire and it was used for data collecting. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used for model verification by using LISREL version 8.30. The objective was to develop the structural relationship model of leaning behavior of information technology for global warming alleviation. The results revealed that when considering on structural model of confirmatory factors of Information Technology Knowledge (ITK) and Environmental Education (EE) were able to explain the variation of endogenous factors of Inspiration of Public Consciousness of Environmental Conservation (PC) to caused Information Technology Learning Behavior (ITB) with 74.00 percents as the following in equation (1). ITB = 0.47*PM + 0.10*ITK - 0.30*EE (1) (R2 = 0.74) Moreover, confirmatory factors of Environmental Education (EE) and Information Technology Knowledge (ITK) were able to explain the variation of confirmatory factors of Public Consciousness of Environmental Conservation (PC) with 87.00 percents. Therefore, the equation can be written as the following in equation (2). PC = 0.15*ITK + 0.78*EE (2) (R2 = 0.87) Therefore, the model of ITK and EE influencing through PC to BEH was verified the proposed model was fitted with all observed variables according to criteria of Chi-Square value differs from zero with no statistical significant at 0.01 level or Chi-Square/df value with lesser or equal to 5, P-value with no statistical significant at 0.01 level and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error Approximation) value with lesser than 0.05 including index level of model congruent value, GFI (Goodness of Fit Index) and index level of model congruent value, AGFI (Adjust Goodness of Fit Index) between 0.90-1.00.
Keywords: Casual Relationship Model / Leaning Behavior of Information Technology.


Casual Relationship Model of Learning Behavior of Information Technology Integrated with Psychological Factors
488-503
Narueset Prasertsri, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Tanarat Khoovaranyoo Thiengkamol

Abstract:
In order to promote the undergraduate student to have high competency for learning on environmental conservation for global warming alleviation, it is able to promote through modern learning with high information technology effectively. Therefore it needs to create an inspiration of public consciousness for environmental conservation by self-learning in both educational system and informal educational system with integration of environmental education principle that has philosophy and concept congruent to sustainable development principle and objectively support these youth who are the important power to have appropriate behavior for decreasing global warming problem. The populations were 37,010 undergraduate students of Mahasarakham University in the second semester of academic year of 2012. The Multi-stage simple random sampling technique was employed to collect the sample for 410 undergraduate students. The research instrument was the questionnaire and it was used for data collecting. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used for model verification by using LISREL version 8.30. The objective was to develop the structural relationship model of leaning behavior of information technology for global warming alleviation integration with psychological factors. The results revealed that Considering on structural model of confirmatory factors of Information Technology Knowledge (ITK), Psychological Trait (PsT), Psychological State (PsS) and Environmental Education (EE) were able to explain the variation of endogenous factors of Inspiration of Public Consciousness for Environmental Conservation (PC) to caused Information Technology Learning Behavior (ITB) with 74.00 percents as following in equation (1). ITB = 0.50*PM + 0.073*ITK - 0.24*PsT + 0.54*PsS + 0.12*EE (1) (R2 = 0.76) Moreover, confirmatory factors of Environmental Education (EE) and Information Technology Knowledge (ITK) were able to explain the variation of confirmatory factors of Public Consciousness of Environmental Conservation (PC) with 58.00 percents. Therefore, the equation can be written as following in equation (2). PC = 0.26*PsT + 0.48*PsS- 0.017*ITK + 0.055*EE (2) (R2 = 0.58) Therefore, the model of ITK, PsT, PsS, and EE influencing through IPC to BEH was verified the proposed model was fitted with all observed variables according to criteria of Chi-Square value differs from zero with no statistical significant at 0.01 level or Chi-Square/df value with lesser or equal to 5, P-value with no statistical significant at 0.01 level and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error Approximation) value with lesser than 0.05 including index level of model congruent value, GFI (Goodness of Fit Index) and index level of model congruent value, AGFI (Adjust Goodness of Fit Index) between 0.90-1.00.
Keywords: Casual Relationship Model / Leaning Behavior of Information Technology.


Causal Relationship Model of Environmental Conservation of Agriculturist
504-518
Supayon Chomputawat, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Tanarat Khoowaranyoo Thiengkamol

Abstract:
The situation of chemical substance use of global citizen has widely spread across the world in every region whether in industrialization and agricultural countries. The different utilization of chemical substance in terms of type and quantity has depended on objective of each country or each occupation. The impacts of these chemical substances utilization are similar such as environmental impact, ecosystem, health and hygiene system of people who uses or exposes. World Health Organization by expert committee about pesticide and herbicide estimated that about 500,000 around the world received the toxic of these substance and the mortality rate was about 1-10 percents. It depends on the state of cure and treatment. However, the data that was estimated by WHO would be might lower than the real situation since these data were primarily collected from 19 countries and most of them were developed countries. This research objective was to develop a causal relationship model of environmental conservation of agriculturist. This research was a survey research and the questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection from agriculturists in Roi - Et Province in year of 2012. Population was 1,377 agriculturists. Multi-stage random sampling was employed for sampling sample group of 310 agriculturists. The research instrument was the questionnaire and it was used for data collection. Structural Equation model (SEM) was used for model verification. Research results were followings. The component analysis of Knowledge and Understanding on Chemical Substance (Kno), Environmental Education (EE) and Inspiration of Public Consciousness (IPC) had direct effect to Environmental Conservation Behavior (BEH) with statistically significant at 0.01 level with effect of 81.00 %. The structural equation can be written as the following. BEH = 0.89*IPC + 0.16*Kno - 0.11*EE (1) R2 = 0.81 Considering of components that effected to Inspiration of Public Consciousness (IPC) of agriculturist, it was revealed that Environmental Education (EE) was the most effect. Subsequence was Knowledge and Understanding on Chemical Substance (Kno), these were able to explain the variation of Inspiration of Public Consciousness (IPC) with 87%. The structural equation can be written as the following. IPC = 0.94*EE - 0.14*Kno (2) R2 = 0.87 Therefore, the model of Kno and EE influencing through IPC to BEH was verified the proposed model was fitted with all observed variables according to criteria of Chi-Square value differs from zero with no statistical significant at 0.01 level or Chi-Square/df value with lesser or equal to 5, P-value with no statistical significant at 0.01 level and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error Approximation) value with lesser than 0.05 including index level of model congruent value, GFI (Goodness of Fit Index) and index level of model congruent value, AGFI (Adjust Goodness of Fit Index) between 0.90-1.00.
Keywords: Causal Relationship Model / Environmental Conservation / Agriculturist


Casual Relationship Model of Forest Fire Prevention
519-532
Yingsak Kotchachote, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Tanarat Khoovaranyoo Thiengkamol

Abstract:
The populations were 10,688 undergraduate students of Loei Rajabhat University in academic year of 2012. The Multi-stage simple random sampling technique was employed to collect the sample for 400 undergraduate students. The research instrument was the questionnaire and it was used for data collecting. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used for model verification with LISREL. The objective was to develop the structural relationship model of forest fire prevention knowledge and environmental education affecting to forest fire prevention through inspiration of public mind for environmental conservation. The results revealed that when considering on structural model of confirmatory factors of Forest Fire Prevention Knowledge (FFK) and Environmental Education (EE) were able to explain the variation of endogenous factors of Inspiration of Public Mind for Environmental Conservation (PME) to caused Forest Fire Prevention Behaviors (BFP) with 45.00 percents as the following in equation (1). BFP = 0.28*PME + 0.10*FFK + 0.30*EE (1) (R2 = 0.45) Moreover, confirmatory factors of Fire Prevention Knowledge (FFK) and Environmental Education (EE) were able to explain the variation of confirmatory factors of Inspiration of Public Mind for Environmental Conservation (PME) with 52.00 percents. Therefore, the equation can be written as following in equation (2). PME = - 0.089*FFK + 0.74*EE (2) (R2 = 0.52)
Keywords: Casual Relationship Model / Forest Fire Prevention.


Casual Relationship Model of Forest Fire Prevention Integrated with Psychological Factors
533-548
Yingsak Kotchachote, Nongnapas Thiengkamol and Tanarat Khoovaranyoo Thiengkamol

Abstract:
The populations were 10,688 undergraduate students of Loei Rajabhat University in academic year of 2012. The Multi-stage simple random sampling technique was employed to collect the sample for 400 undergraduate students. The research instrument was the questionnaire and it was used for data collecting. LISREL was used for model verification. The objective was to develop the structural relationship model of forest fire prevention knowledge and environmental education affecting to forest fire prevention through inspiration of public mind for environmental conservation. The results revealed that when Considering on structural model of confirmatory factors of Forest Fire Prevention Knowledge (FFK), Psychological Trait (PsT), Psychological State (PsS), and Environmental Education (EE) were able to explain the variation of endogenous factors of Inspiration of Public Mind for Environmental Conservation (PME) to caused Forest Fire Prevention Behaviors (BFP) with 57.00 percents as following in equation (1). BFP= 0.29*PME + 0.24*FFK + 0.22*PsT + 0.17*PsS + 0.45*EE (1) (R2 = 0.57) Moreover, confirmatory factors of Fire Prevention Knowledge (FFK) Psychological Trait (PsT), psychological State (PsS) and Environmental Education (EE) were able to explain the variation of confirmatory factors of Public Mind of Environmental Conservation (PME) with 52.00 percents. Therefore, the equation can be written as following in equation (2). PME = - 0.088*FFK - 0.14*PsT + 0.0061*PsS + 0.86*EE (2) (R2 = 0.57).
Keywords: Casual Relationship Model / Forest Fire Prevention / Psychological Factors.