European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 104 No 2
June, 2013

Malondialdehyde levels in Fuel Pump Attendants in Zaria, Nigeria
173-180
Achie, L. N, Olorunshola, K, V, Odeh O. C, Ayegbusi A. O and Toryila J. E

Abstract:
Working with petroleum products is associated with exposure to the products via inhalation and dermal routes. The effect of exposure to petroleum products on lipid peroxidation among petrol pump workers in Zaria was investigated. Questionnaires were administered to 60 randomly selected subjects. They comprised of 26 human subjects whose jobs did not involve the use of petroleum products that served as control. While 34 randomly selected petrol pump workers who have worked for at least 1 year served as the study group. 5ml of blood was collected by venepuncture from the subjects (control and study group), centrifuged and the serum used to determine levels of malondialdehyde. Results were presented as mean±SD while data was analyzed using t-Test with p<0.05 considered significant. Malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher (p<0.001) in petrol pump workers (1.8±0.24µM) than in control subjects (1.30±0.21 µM). The findings suggest increased oxidative stress (as evidenced by increased levels of malondialdehyde) in fuel pump workers in Zaria. We recommend studies on other biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant treatment, the use of protective devices at work, and bio-monitoring of exposure in the work place.
Keywords: Lipid peroxidation, Malondialdehyde, Oxidative stress, Petrol pump attendants, Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Zaria.


Chemical Composition, Morpho-Anatomy, and DNA Analysis of Rheum Ribes Roots Sold in the Herbalist Shops in Lebanon
181-189
Marc El Beyrouthy, Alaa Zaylaa and Afif M Abdel Nour

Abstract:
Rheum ribes is a very important medicinal plant in the traditional medicine in Lebanon. Its stems and roots are in great demand, and have been used in food and for the medicinal activities it exhibits, especially by its roots. In Lebanon and in the Middle East, there is a gap between the demand and supply of R. ribes roots, mainly because of difficulties in harvesting which may lead to adulteration and substitution of genuine material. Thus the aim of the present study was to inspect several root samples claimed to be Rheum ribes root from different herbalist shops in Lebanon. Macroscopic, microscopic, chemical, and DNA analysis of 13 samples of claimed Rheum ribes root sold in different Lebanese regions were performed. We have compared the bought samples with that of genuine Rheum ribes root collected from nature to prove the adulteration. This study has given a clear profile of the chemical composition of methanol extracts of R. ribes roots using GC/MS. qPCR was used to confirm the chemical composition results. In addition to this, the comparison showed that the majority of the samples bought from various regions in Lebanon, weren’t adulterated.
Keywords: Rheum ribes; root; DNA fingerprinting; GC/MS; falsification.


Multi Constraint Satisfying AODV Routing using Fuzzy Logic
190-198
Gurpreet Singh Saini and Manoj Kumar

Abstract:
Mobile Networks are in need of what we call as an e-age. There have been numerous advancements in this field and soft computing has gained roots in this Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) domain. This documents studies the use of fuzzy logic over Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance vector Routing (AODV). The evaluation of the network using fuzzy logic over AODV has been conducted using selective criteria’s. Both the terms come from two different computing environments, but when combined together can achieve better results; when it comes to QoS based upon selective parameters. The crisp the rules formed in fuzzy logic, better the performance or quality will be achieved in AODV routing mechanism of MANET.
Keywords: AODV; Fuzzy Logic; MANET; Network QoS; Reactive Routing; Multi-metric problem


Design and Hardware Implementation of Ultra-Low-Power Energy Harvesting Circuits Based on Piezoelectric Element for Micro-Devices
199-207
Mahidur R. Sarker, Sawal H. M. Ali, Masuri Othman, M.S. Bhuyan and Md. Shabiul Islam

Abstract:
This paper presents the hardware implementation of Ultra-Low-Power (ULP) energy harvester circuits for micro-devices. One of the most widely used power harvesting techniques for micro-power applications such as the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) uses piezoelectric materials, which convert vibrational energy to electrical energy. The interface circuits between the piezoelectric device and electrical load plays an important role in the energy harvesting process. Most of the previous techniques are mainly passive-based energy harvesting circuits. Generally, the power harvesting capability of the passive technique is very low. The techniques of using passive components incapable to provide the power gain. To increase the harvested energy at least to the level of 0.3V, which is the required supply voltage for many micro-power applications. In development of active based circuits, the AC-DC MOSFET bridge rectifier, voltage regulator circuit, and DC-DC step-up (boost-up) converter using storage devices have been designed. To develop the experimental circuits, the MOSFET and thyristor components etc are mainly used instead of diode. The voltage regulator circuit has designed using MOSFET and op amp components to stabilize the rectified DC voltage. Because the forward voltage potential (0.7V) is higher than the incoming input voltage (0.3V). Finally, we have designed and simulated the complete energy harvester circuit using PSPICE software. The proposed circuits in PSPICE generated the boost-up DC voltage up to 1.63V. In the hardware implementation using breadboard, we obtained similar results as predicted by PSPICE. The energy harvesting system able to start-up the maximum voltage of 1.50 V for input voltage of 0.3V. The overall efficiency of the developed circuit is greater than 85%, following the software simulation and hardware implementation results. It is concluded that the developed circuit output voltage can be used to operate for the applications in micro-devices.
Keywords: Energy harvesting, Low voltage, AC-DC rectifier, DC-DC converter, Wireless Sensor Network.

Formation of The Language Environment: A Factor in the Development of an Individual’s Culture in a Multicultural Society
208-213
S. Tazhbayeva, L. Ilimkhanova, G. Telebayev, S. Jakupov, M.A. Perlenbetov, M. Assilkhanova, E. Kalymbetova and G. Nurysheva

Abstract:
Research has shown that language, which represents the accumulated experience of a particular nation’s people and encompasses the fullness and variety of their lives, is well grounded in their consciousness. In each new generation, an estimation of social values indicates the effectiveness of how particular ethnic groups learn the language attached to that group through the collective experience and knowledge of reality, vulgarity or rejection by other people. Therefore, language has an impact on each individual’s experience, behaviour and level of civility. Thus, identification of areas that are pivotal to the formation of a language becomes the primary factor in an individual’s cultural identity in a multicultural society. We study these areas in the context of the Kazakh language.
Keywords: Kazakh language; culture; ethnic groups; psychology; consciousness; language; multicultural society.

Introducing a Model for Optimal Locating to Establishing of Temporary Storage (Stock) in Assembly Shop by using of Fuzzy TOPSIS Technique (Case Study: Tondar 90 Assembly Shop – Iran Khodro Co)
214-229
Javad Khamisabadi, Mohammad Reza Shahbazkhan, Mohammad Reza Rastgou, Naser Amanpour, Ali Samani, Mahboobe Sadat Hajmirfatah Tabrizi and Mahmood Majd

Abstract:
The main objective of this study was to determine the best location for temporary storage to facilitate assembly lines feeding operation in the field of internal logistics and supply chain management in automobile assembly Tondar 90 Iranian companies. In the first step, the initial study, the assembly hall was divided into four zones .This division is based on the opinions of experts and the establishment of assembly lines. Each area separately studied by the three groups of Industrial Engineering and also introduced three proposed location in each area for establishing the temporary storage. Then, by the expert group, supplying key indicators in each of the proposed location in each area were calculated. Supply key indicators studied in this study include the transportation cost and standard time. Using a set of control data for data matching trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to classify data obtained from undergraduate studies were performed on seven floors. Then, with the use of fuzzy Topsis, priority areas and proposed locations to establishing a temporary storage in the assembly hall were determined. Finally, after two stages of research, to finally establishing a temporary storage, the second area and first proposed location in this area were selected.
Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Logistics, Supply Key Indexes, Fuzzy TOPSIS, Stock.


Electrical Conductivity of Soft Colloidal Polysaccharides: Salt Concentration and Polyelectrolyte Concentration Dependence
230-239
Jean-Pierre S. Sagou

Abstract:
Electrokinetic properties of carboxymethyldextran, a soft and anionic polysaccharide, were analysed in aqueous NaNO3 electrolyte. In that end, the electrical conductivity of the suspension was evaluated from conductometry measurements. The electrical conductivity of the suspension is reduced at large ionic strengths to the contribution of the salt concentration due to the efficient screening of polysaccharide charges. On opposite, the polyion mainly governs the conductance behavior of the suspension as ionic strength decreases, in particular for large polymer concentrations for which electrical double layers overlapping is more important. These electrical conductivity measurements, that furnish new experimental support for the soft polysaccharide in electrolyte solution, have been compared with those predicted from Manning’s counterion condensation theory and Ohshima’s analytical expression.
Keywords: Carboxymethyldextran, electrical conductivity, soft particle, polyion-polyion interactions, overlapping.


Torsional Analysis of Hybrid Composite (E-glass/Epoxy & Carbon/Epoxy) Drive Shaft for Automotives by using Hypermesh
240-248
C. Sivakandhan and P. Suresh Prabhu

Abstract:
Composite materials are one of the rapidly developing field in engineering materials sciences. Composites are now been used widely in various engineering fields especially in automotive and aerospace fields. Composites are known for their light-weight and high strength capabilities. This work deals with the replacement of conventional steel drive shafts with a hybrid composite (E-glass/epoxy & Carbon/epoxy) drive shaft for an automotive. The design parameters were optimized with the intention of reducing the weight and increasing the strength. The design optimization in addition showed considerable potential improvement in the performance of the drive shaft. Due to prototype digitalization, the torsional strength of the composite shafts are analysed here with the help of “Hypermesh”. The model component for analysis were designed according to ASTM standard E2207.The materials choosen were “carbon Epoxy AS4-3501-6” and E-Glass Epoxy.
Keywords: Hybrid Composite, Drive Shaft, Weight Reduction, Hypermesh.


Optimization of Process Parameters of Magneto Rheological Abrasive Flow Nano Finishing Process using Taguchi Method
249-260
S. Kathiresan and B. Mohan

Abstract:
In this present study, a new Magneto rheological (MR) polishing fluid comprises of ferrous particles and cerium oxide abrasive particles dispersed in the viscoplastic base of grease and silicone oil has been developed and Magneto rheological abrasive flow finishing (MRAFF) experiments were carried out to study the effect of the newly developed MR fluid on stainless steel SS 304 work pieces which are widely used in nuclear power plants, chemical plants and heat exchangers. Extrusion pressure of the MR fluid, current and No .of cycles of fluid flow on the work piece were selected as input variables .The effect of input variables was analyzed by means the surface roughness (Ra) of the work piece after the MRAFF process. The extrusion pressure of the fluid was selected at three levels namely 20, 30, 40 bar and current of the magnetic field varied from 2, 4, 6A and the number of cycles selected at 100,200and 300. In this paper, the process parameters are optimized by Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array technique. The results expose that the final surface roughness of stainless steel work pieces are highly influenced by the amount of current followed by the number of cycles and the hydraulic pressure has less significance.
Keywords: Magneto rheological, surface roughness, MR fluid, MR-polishing fluid, Optimization.


A Criss-Cross Shaped Left-Handed Metamaterial
261-269
Kirti Inamdar, Y.P. Kosta and S. Patnaik

Abstract:
In this contribution, a metamaterial inspired from the very famous Jerusalem Cross has been discussed namely Criss-Cross metamaterial (MTM). The theory and formulas for the parameter calculation of MTM has already been developed. Using those fundamentals, the negative behaviour of this new birth has been verified. Several shapes for MTM have been suggested by researchers. Further these shapes have been applied in one or the other RF, MW and optical frequency range applications too. In such scenario, what type of critical reviews can be faced by this new shape has also been discussed. Though this paper presents only simulation results, but the exercise done to obtain them has been rigorous throughout the paper.
Keywords: Left-handed, negative index, cross shape, Jerusalem cross, parameter retrieval.


Study and Optimization of a “Shunt Open Loop” Resonator Integrated into the IMUX Part of a Satellite in Band C
270-283
Nizar Zrigui, Lahbib Zenkouar and Seddik Bri

Abstract:
The mobile communication systems of (radio, mobile, satellite telephony, etc.) use at present, for their need in filtering, filters with more and more severe criteria so much at the electric level (selectivity, insertion losses) and the dimensions. The research works made on microwaves filters used in the IMUX of a communications satellite payload show that the realization of these filters with a volume technology leads to an weight and dimensions, what increases the launch price of a satellite. Planar filters superconductive allow the resolution of this problem of weight and dimensions while keeping excellent electric characteristics. Furthermore, this technology could solve the problems of the central frequency drift of filters due to the not controllable parameters in the manufacturing processes (anisotropy of the engraving, not uniformity of substratum thickness). The very severe specifications of these filters thus require to envisage, to be able to exploit them, either a manufacturing regulation, or to look for topology of resonators less sensitive to the hazards of manufacturing. In this context, the objective of this article is to study and optimize a “Shunt Open loop” resonator integrated into the IMUX part of a satellite in band C.
Keywords: Resonator, planar technology, frequency of echo, substratum thickness, topology.


Fundamental Groups and Foldings of Minkowski Space
284-293
A. E. El-Ahmady

Abstract:
This paper aims to give a combinatorial characterization and also construct representations of the fundamental groups of the submanifolds on Minkowski space by using some geometrical transformations. The homotopy groups of the limit folding on Minkowski space are presented. The homotopy groups of the retractions and deformation retract on Minkowski space are obtained. The fundamental groups of some types of geodesics in the Minkowski space are discussed. New types of homotopy maps are deduced. Theorems governing this connection are achieved.
Keywords: Minkowski spaceM4, Homotopy groups, Foldings, Retractions, Deformation retracts.
Mathematics Subject Classification Codes:53A35, 51H20, 57N10.


On the Geometry of Fuzzy Reissner–Nordstro M Spacetime and Its Fldings
294-393
A. E. El-Ahmady and A. Al-Rdade

Abstract:
Our aim in the present paper is to introduce and study the relation between fuzzy deformation retracts of fuzzy Reissner–Nordström spacetime N4 and fuzzy deformation retracts of fuzzy tangent space TP(N4) . Also, this relation discussed after and before the isometric and topological fuzzy folding of N4. New types of conditional fuzzy folding are presented. Some important commutative diagrams which describe the relation between the fuzzy deformation retracts of N4 and the exponential map are obtained. Some applications are presented.
Keywords: Fuzzy Retractions, Fuzzy Deformation retracts, Fuzzy Folding, Exponential map, Fuzzy Reissner–Nordstr m spacetimeN4
Mathematics Subject Classification Codes:53A35, 51H05, 58C05.


Estimation of the Effectiveness and Functioning of Enterprises in Boards of Corporate Security
304-323
Sergii Kavun, Denis Caleta, Miran Vršec and Robert Brumnik

Abstract:
The main purpose of this study is to show the possibility of estimating the effectiveness and functioning of a System of Economic Security (SES) for enterprises. This estimation will show examples of some of the activities of SES. The conceptual provisions and model basis are based on some of the real indicators of a functioning enterprise. This method can also be used for enterprises in any area of activity that have confirmed the results of modelling from real enterprises and which are functioning under some of the conditions of a high level of uncertainty from the external environment. The model basis is presented as a mathematical model, which is not frequently used in the area of corporate security. Moreover, some of the results received, based on real enterprises, have confirmed the reliability of using these mathematical models based on the results of modelling. Mathematical models were formed based on the data from real enterprises for estimating its effectiveness and functioning. These will allow improvements in the management system and aid forecasting. This possibility is based on received dependences, which can help to create positive recommendations for the future development of enterprises and to carry out optimisation of different kind of expenses.
Keywords: Estimation, Enterprise Functioning and Development, Security, Effectiveness, Mathematical Method.


Guidelines for Identifying Persian Loan Words in Swahili
324-332
Elinaz farmahini Farahani and Yadollah Parmoun

Abstract:
Swahili has been affected not only by neighboring countries’ languages, but also by Persian language over time for political, scientific and cultural reasons, since Iran and eastern Africa have been deeply tied during previous decades. Entering this region, Iranian people have introduced some positive cultural attributes to African ethnics. On the other hand, it is claimed that some other cultures, such as the Arabs, have entered this region with totally different purposes, i.e. occupation and slavery. This paper seeks to evaluate this claim studying a number of Persian, Arabic and Persian-Arabic loanwords in Swahili. To that end, first some criteria is chosen by authors to evaluate the aforementioned points, and then some selected loanwords have been analyzed.
Keywords: Swahili (Culture/language), borrowing (vocabulary), languages or dialects of Persian, Indo-Iranian, Bantu.