European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 104 No 1
June, 2013

Beneficiation of Phosphate Ore by Flotation
Hyonseung Dho

The use of flotation separation is increased considerably as the treatment of low grade, highly disseminated phosphate ores. The single flotation behavior of phosphate and dolomite with either cationic or anionic collector was difficult to separate due to the similar surface properties. The isoelectric points of both phosphate and dolomite were almost pH 4.5. For sedimentary phosphate ores, francolite, sodium silicate reacted with silicate ions quickly and depressed silicate particles immediately. The sodium silicate in the presence of calcium ions were interacted strongly resulting in the formation of calcium silicate precipitates. This calcium silicate formation led to dispersion due to electrostatic repulsion. Calcium silicate in the phosphate flotation precipitates served as a stabilized the froth due to an increase in surface viscosity. This effect compared to other depressants, such as corn starch, increased the selectivity of flotation separation.
Keywords: Phosphate, Mining, Beneficiation, Flotation, Fertilizer, Sodium Silicate.

Technical and Infrastructural Factors Affecting the Use of Solar Energy in Order to Achieve Agricultural Sustainable Development
Parnaz Alimoradian, Seyed Mehdi Mirdamadi, Seyed Jamal Farajollah Hosseini and Mohsen Ebrahimpour

High consumption of fossil fuel in the country created several problems. Problems such as: rising costs and increasing cost of greenhouse crops, transitory of fossil energy resources, environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Despite these problems, it is up to us looking for ways to optimize our energy consumption in greenhouses. One of the ways that can be presented is solar energy because it is inexhaustible, does not cause any environmental pollution and is free. The aim of this study was to determine infrastructure and technical factors affecting the application of solar energy in Iran. This is an applied type research and descriptive/ correlation method was used.The population included greenhouse owners of Tehran and Alburz Provinces. A stratified random was used and 327 of them selected through Cochran formula. To collect information a questionnaire developed. The gathered information processed and analyzed by using SPss and Winbugs software. The results showed that in the technical factors, the performance standards are necessary to promote solar energy in greenhouses and in the Infrastructure factors, the radiation situation in the region have the highest priority.
Keywords: Solar energy, Mechanisms, Sustainable development of agriculture

Knowledge Management and its Effective Role in Supporting Library Systems: Case of King Abdulaziz University Central Library
Muna D. Al Suraihi and Mohammad J. Arif

The concept of knowledge management (KM) held by the Central Library of King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia is the main objective of this paper as well as explore their enthusiasm to implement KM. So, this article seeks to investigate various levels of understanding the KM concepts like: the degree of involvement of academic librarians in KM activities; the skills and expertise needed by academic librarians to participate effectively in KM activities, the degree of involvement of academic librarians in knowledge sharing; and the challenges that face academic librarians in implementing KM. Through this article, we employ a descriptive research design utilizing case study approach through questionnaire to collect the necessary data. Our achieved results show that the KM concept is well understood among academic library staff at KAU central libraries, and the academic library staff has very positive attitudes towards KM practice, where it indicates also that the environment at KAU central libraries is ready for starting KM initiatives albeit some challenges that need to be addressed. Finally, we conclude that in case of using KM techniques, academic libraries can enhance the knowledge environment and become knowledge organization within their institutes through planned knowledge-sharing activities, stored enquiry services, using mentoring systems and rewarding those who share their knowledge and experience.
Keywords: KAU, KM, OPAC, KMS, FAQ, SPSS and IM

Characterisation and Management of Solid Hospital Waste –Comparative Analysis of the Private and Public Institutions
Odewumi. S.G and Onyemkpa C.S

In underdeveloped countries poor waste management is prevalent and hospital wastes present even more peculiar challenges. This study has sought to determine whether there is any significant difference between hospital waste generation in the public and private sector hospitals as well as the knowledge of health workers in relation to the dangers posed by hospital wastes. Using questionnaires, participant observation as tools of study it is shown that there is no significant difference in the character of wastes generated between the public and private sector hospitals except in volume terms. It also shows a sizeable proportion of health workers being ignorant of the dangers posed by hospital wastes. The need to segregate hospital wastes for proper management is highlighted; so also is the need for some form of treatment of the waste before disposal.

Diabetes, Blood Pressure, and Relating Diseases; Reasons and Solutions
Alaa Hussein Al-Darraji

For last decades diabetes, high blood pressure and relating diseases are the most serious problems for millions persons over the world. According to references (1-14), this research explain how glucose pass through plasma membrane to be glucose-6-phosphate inside the cell by assisting of insulin hormone. This means that this research explain by chemistry science all processes of transferring glucose molecules from human's blood to be inside the cell. In addition, this research will explain the action of insulin hormone inside the body. According to results of this research, the main reason of diabetes, high blood pressure and relating diseases is civilization. However, references (1-4) indicated that diabetes, higher blood pressure and relating diseases are well understood diseases but this research indicated that these diseases need a chemist touch to be full understood.

Palynological and Physicochemical Proprieties of Citrus and Eucalyptus Honeys Produced in Blida Region (Algeria)
Salim Zerrouk, Larbi Bougheridi, María Carmen Seijo, Biagio Fallico, Elena Arena and Gabriele Ballistreri

Samples of fifteen unifloral honeys from Eucalyptus and Citrus produced in the Blida region (Algeria) were studied. Pollen features and some physicochemical parameters (water content, electrical conductivity, pH, acidity (free, lactone, and total), total sugar, glucose, fructose, F+G, sucrose, proteins, and hydroxylmethylfurfural contain) were determined. Forty two families and 65 pollen types were identified in the whole samples. Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Apiaceae and Oleaceae were the best represented families and were identified in all the samples. All samples presented moisture, electrical conductivity, pH, acidity, glucose, fructose, sucrose, proteins, and hydroxylmethylfurfural contents according to international standards. Citrus honeys were characterized by low electrical conductivity (272 µS/cm), free acidity (18.50 meq/kg), lactonic acidity (7.02 meq/kg), totale acidity (25.39 meq/kg) and proteins content (373 µg/g) were compared with Eucalyptus honeys: 760 µS/cm, 27.83 meq/kg, 10.64 meq/kg, 38.46 meq/kg and 945.17 µg/g respectively.
Keywords: Pollen analysis, Honey, Physicochemical proprieties, Citrus, Eucalyptus, Algeria.

Analysis of Pakistani Rice Genome Polymorphism by Using RAPD PCR
Shazia Rani, Tasveer Zahra Bokhari, Sobia Niaz, Uzma Younis, Saeed Ahmed Malik, Zahid Mahmood and Ramiz Raja

RAPD profiling is efficient in revealing usable level of DNA polymorphisms among the cultivars of rice. Out of 24 rice genomes, one hybrid (S1), 12 had fine (F group) and 11 had coarse (M group) seed texture. RAPD conditions were optimized and those genomes with best amplifications were selected for further amplifications. Gel electrophoresis showed that F and M rice genomes had more similarities but F11, F12, M1 & M2 of these two distinct textured groups had more similarities with less genetic distances. Total number of amplified bands was 519 in the 23 genotypes by using 11 random decamers. Sixty two polymorphic bands were observed among 23 rice cultivars. The similarity coefficients ranged from 0.16 to 0.87. Eighty seven percent similarities were observed between M4 and M7 but S1 give more polymorphism with respect to F4 and F7, while, all other genomes showed almost no or very less genetic distance among themselves. Dendrogram based on similarity coefficients was constructed by using the Unweighted Pair Group of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA).Cultivars clustered into 6 distinct groups (1-6) and two cultivars S1 and M3 stand separately, although, S1& M3 both are located on the each side of the coarse cultivars group in the Dendrogram.
Keywords: Rice genome, Polymorphism, RAPD PCR.

Pre-Open Sets with Ideal
Rodyna A. Hosny

The notion of pre-open sets, which introduced by Mashhour and [5] has been studied extensively by many topologists [4, and reference there in]. A subset A of a topological space (X,?) is said to be pre-open sets (briefly P-open), if A?Int Cl (A). The complement of pre-open sets is called pre-closed sets. Relevant to the present work is the idea of using topological ideals in describing topological notions, which for some years now has been an interesting subject for investigation [see some of the pioneering works in 1, 3]. We recall here that an ideal I on a topological space (X,?) is a non-empty collection of subsets of X having the heredity property (that is, if A?I and B?A, then B?I) and also satisfying finite additively (that is, if A, B?I, then A?B?I). In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of pre-open sets with respect to an ideal I, which is the extension of the concept of pre-open sets.

The Impact of Human Resources Practices on Employee Retention among Bank Employees
Umbreen Ishfaq , Muhammad Tariq khan, Shamas ul Huda and Bilal Khalid

An effective human resource management practices are the key factor for the success of employee’s retention in an organization. In this study, we use quantitative data for the sake of clarity towards employee’s retention. Quantitative data was collected using the 5-point likert scale with the sample size 278 from bank middle level manager in the Islamabad through convenient sampling technique. The results of the study show that training, employee compensation and appraisal system have significant relation with employees retention but employee empowerment is insignificant with employee’s retention.
Keywords: Employee Empowerment, Training & Development, Appraisal System, Compensation, Employee Retention.

Importance of Customer Loyalty (A Review)
Muhammad Tariq Khan, Naseer Ahmed Khan, Umbreen Ishfaq, Mehfooz Ali and Sarfaraz Tanveer

Loyalty is a great interest receiving phenomenon among marketers especially recent years have shown a growing interest in customer loyalty. Generally speaking, customer loyalty means the intention of repurchasing products and services, and this is the goal of industry. This research article is based information from the literature and explains the importance of the retention of customers. From the vast study of literature it has been found that a 5, percent retention in customers increases the profitability of the firm by 25- to 125 percent.

Compulsive Buying Behavior (A Review Article)
Muhammad Tariq Khan, Naseer Ahmed Khan, Umbreen Ishfaq, Mehfooz Ali and Sarfaraz Tanveer

Compulsive buying nowadays is the subject of growing interest and defined as “A chronic, repetitive purchasing, that becomes a primary response to negative events or feelings”. It is a continuous desire to shop and spend, which compels the compulsive shoppers for buying and to relieve pressure feeling or urge of buying. It is a response to an uncontrollable desire or drive of obtaining, using, or experiencing a feeling of, activity or substance, leading a buyer to repetitively engaging in a behavior ultimately causing harm to the individual. This study is focused on elaborating the concept, reasons effects and importance of compulsive buying on the strength of research studies already made.

Red Light Violation Among Thai Rural Motorcyclists
Orapin Laosee and Ratana Somrongthong

Red light violation is a serious traffic offence, as it is a leading cause of motorcycle crashes at signalled intersections. This study aims to understand red light violations among motorcycle riders and determine the factors associated with red light violations. A cross sectional survey was conducted in public places in rural communities in Thailand. Structured questionnaires were used and administered by trained interviewers in the public spaces to collect information about motorcyclists’ riding behaviours. 1018 rural questionnaire were analyzed. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis were computed to identify associations between independent variables and red light violations. The results showed that there was a high rate of red light violations in last 30 days (42.4%). Multiple logistic regression showed that the motorcyclists who commit red light violations are more likely to use hand-held phones while riding (adjusted OR: 2.912; 95%CI: 2.127-3.978); do not wear a helmet (adjusted OR:1.480; 95%CI: 1.101-1.989); are 15 to 20 years of age (adjusted OR: 1.814 ; 95%CI: 1.234-2.667); and are male (adjusted OR: 1.673 ; 95%CI: 1.262-2.219). These results highlight the need to advocate road safety behaviour among motorcycle riders in rural communities. Law enforcement to increase motorcyclists’ safety awareness and efforts may be conducted to emphasize the importance of obeying traffic laws.
Keywords: Traffic violation; red light violation; motorcycle rider; risky behaviour; injury prevention; Thailand.

Comparison of a Cascaded MLI based Distribution STATCOM and APF with various PWM Techniques for Compensation of Harmonics and Reactive Power using Modified Reference Frame Theory
D. Mohan Reddy and T.Gowrimanohar

The general structure of the multilevel converter is to synthesize a sinusoidal voltage from several levels of voltages, multilevel voltage source converters are emerging as a new breed of power converter options for high power applications. These converter topologies can generate high-quality voltage waveforms with power semiconductor switches operating at a frequency near the fundamental. The “multilevel converter” has drawn tremendous interest in the power industry. Among the available multilevel converter topologies, the cascaded multilevel converter constitutes a promising alternative and providing a modular design that can be extended to allow a transformer less connection. This paper presents a three-phase, five-level and seven level cascaded multilevel voltage source inverter based DSTATCOM and active power filter with various PWM techniques for power line conditioning to improve power quality in the distribution network. The active filter compensates both reactive power and harmonic currents drawn by non-linear loads and additionally it facilitates power factor corrections. The compensation process is based on concept of p-q theory. This proposed cascaded five level and seven level active power filter system is validated through MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Keywords: Cascaded H- Bridge Multilevel Inverter, Distribution STATCOM (DSTATCOM), Reference Frame theory, Power quality, PWM

Transmission Congestion Improvement by Using Series Capacitor
Habib Daryabad

Congestion of transmission lines is an important issue in power systems. Congestion affects on different parameters in power system such as stability, operation, reliability, electricity market trades and so forth. Thus it is necessary to manage the congestion in power systems. Many different methods have been carried out to reduce congestion in transmission lines. In this paper, series capacitor is used for congestion management. In this method, series capacitor is placed in line to reduce total congestion. The proposed method is tested on a typical power system.
Keywords: Series Capacitor, Congestion Management, Local Marginal Prices, Stability.

The Relevance of the Current Zimbabwean Ordinary Level Mathematics Curriculum to Industry: A Case of Gweru Urban
Samuel Mashingaidze and Caroline Bandera

Research works on mathematics curriculum relevance abound. These efforts are to help substitute no longer relevant curricula with vibrant ones that can boost national development. This study investigated the relevance of the current Ordinary Level Mathematics curriculum (4008/4028) to vocational training and the workplace (Industry) in Gweru urban area. A descriptive survey approach was used to collect the relevant data. Anonymous questionnaires were completed by eighty college students (forty-two females and thirty-eight males) and ten college lecturers (six males and four females). Interviews were conducted with twenty high school Mathematics teachers (twelve females and eight males) and ten people from the workplace (six males and four females). The study gave empirical evidence that although the curriculum is relevant on paper challenges encountered fall on its implementation, as students in vocational training are unable to recognize, apply and link high school Mathematics to Mathematics in vocational training and the workplace. This is partly explained by teacher strategies that have little or no real life implications. Although school mathematics teachers indicated that they were aware of what vocational needs are, they raised concerns about several factors that impact on them being effective in lesson delivery. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education, Sport, Arts and Culture should provide mandatory in-service training for Mathematics teachers so that they keep abreast of the developments in Mathematics education issues. High school Mathematics teachers should link Mathematics in school to vocational training and the workplace by occasionally taking pupils to places where Mathematics is applied.
Keywords: Vocational needs, Industry, relevance, rigor