European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 103 No 4
June, 2013

Household’s Socio-Economic Determinants of Internet use at Home in Iran, 2011
Mehdi Yousefi, Abbas Assari Arani, Bahram Sahabi Anoshirvan Kazemnejad and Somayeh Fazaeli

This paper presents an econometric study of factors influencing on Internet use at home in Iran. This study uses data from the Households Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) in 2011 to explore the extent demographic variables affect Internet use at home by households in Iran. A logistic model confirms that household's area of residence, head of household’s education level and household's income deciles factors, Have the greatest impact on Internet use at home.The study found that education is far more important than income in predicting the percentage of households use of internet at home. The results provide information that helps researchers and Educational Centers to select the appropriate options for data gathering and Dissemination of information.
Keywords: Internet; logistic model; Iran.

Performance Analysis of Cascaded Multilevel Inverters using SHE PWM Technique for the Emerging Applications
N. Sivakumar and A. Sumathi

Cascaded Multilevel inverters are important for the emerging applications, such as renewable energy sources, uninterrupted power supplies, flexible AC transmission systems and active power filters. The common structure of Cascaded multilevel inverter is to produce sinusoidal voltage waveform from several levels of dc voltages. These inverters have been received growing attention in the past few years for high power applications. A small total harmonic distortion is the most important feature of these inverters. They have nearly sinusoidal output voltage waveforms, output current with better harmonic shape and also, less stress of electronic components owing to decreased voltage levels, switching losses that are lower than other conventional two level inverters. A smaller filter size and lower EMI, which make them cheaper, lighter and more compact. This paper reviews a comparison of Cascaded multilevel inverter mainly considered for 11- and 15- level in order to achieve lower total harmonic distortion (THD) in the voltage output waveform. To control the output voltage selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM) technique is used. Finally, the emerging and developing areas such as solar energy harvesting, uninterrupted power supplies for future development are also discussed. The results reviewed in this paper prove the validity of the controller by means of an output voltage with minimum distortion
Keywords: Cascaded multilevel inverter, selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM), total harmonic distortion, solar PV array

The Study of Investors’ Decisions in the Capital Market Based on Investors’ Behavior
Mashaallah Valikhani Dehaghani, A’azam Ghorbani, Mohammad Malekmohammadi Faradonbeh, Fatemeh Malekmohammadi Faradonbeh and Azadeh Ahmadian Dehaghani

Investment means changes in the amount of capital. Investor is someone who allocates his assets to others to increase his capital. Therefore investment must be done in assets to create value. Although the behavioral decisions of investors in the capital market are different and they invest while are influenced by various factors. Given the importance of this type of investment, this research attempts to examine the Behavioral aspects of investors’ decisions in the capital market and the most important factors influencing the encouragement or discouragement some investors in the capital market. So the descriptive survey method is used in this study. The statistical population is about 6000 people and the sample included 96 investors and brokers of the stock market in Isfahan. In this study, simple random sampling is used without replacement proportional to the sample size, as well as a questionnaire with 30 questions consistent with the proposed hypothesis and based on the modified model. All questions are discussed as packaging and comply with the five-choice Likert spectrum. In addition, the reliability of questionnaire is estimated 0.872 based on the Cronbach's alpha formula which shows the high value of the questionnaire. Library and field methods are used in data collection and the questionnaire is the research instrument. To analyze the data obtained from the questionnaires SPSS software is used in both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis and Lisrel software is used in the structural equation modeling analysis. The modified model of Faten Zoghlami, is used in this study. The results of the survey shows: The fourth hypothesis with the mean score of 7.203 is in the first order of importance, The third hypothesis with an mean score of 7.104 is in the second order of importance, The first hypothesis with an mean score of 6.536 is in the third order of importance, the ninth Hypothesis with an mean score of 6.036 is in the fourth order of importance, The seventh hypothesis with an mean score of 5.927 is in the fifth order of importance, the eighth Hypothesis with an mean score of 5.688 is in the sixth order of importance, the sixth Hypothesis with an mean score of 5.500 is in the seventh order of importance, the second Hypothesis with an mean score of 4.276 is in the eighth order of importance, the fifth Hypothesis with an mean score of 3.510 is in the ninth order of importance, the tenth Hypothesis with an mean score of 3.219 is in the tenth order of importance. Meanwhile, the fifth and tenth hypotheses with the title of “Sensitivity to the rumors in investment” were not approved. [Dr Mashaallah Valikhani Dehaghani, A’azam Ghorbani, Mohammad Malekmohammadi Faradonbeh, Fatemeh Malekmohammadi Faradonbeh, Azadeh Ahmadian Dehaghani, Behavioral aspects of investors’ decisions in the capital market based on Faten Zoghlami model; A case study of the stock market in Isfahan, Life Sci J 2013;10(x):-] (ISSN: 1097-8135). Xx.
Keywords: Behavioral decisions, investment, behavior of investors, capital market

Heart Survival Card: A Tool for Assessment of Blood Pressure and Management of Hypertension
Oluwadare Ogunlade, Abiodun O. Ayoka and Olufemi E. Ajayi

Hypertension is one of the major non-communicable diseases with great socioeconomic impact. It is a leading cause of cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, ischaemic heart disease, kidney disease and sudden cardiac death. Despite the advancement in the management of hypertension, its awareness, detection, control and prevention are still public health challenges. Global efforts are geared towards overcoming the challenges of hypertension through various public health measures. Heart Survival Card, a colour-coded tool designed for visual appreciation of blood pressure levels was introduced into medical practice in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria to create awareness of blood pressure and hypertension, enhance understanding of blood pressure variations per time and motivate the public towards healthful response to their blood pressure level in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension. Heart Survival Card is a clinical tool that can assist both rural and urban communities in waging war against hypertension and its complications.
Keywords: Hypertension, Blood Pressure, Heart Survival Card.

Modernization of Traditional Quarters of Zanjan City Based on Strategic Principles of New Urbanism
Parna Moradi, Reza Ahmadian and Giti Etemad

During centuries Iran’s cities in which had full-fledged features underwent great changes in few previous decades and those live municipal textures during changing periods of citizenship and its fast development in middle decades of the current century lost their identity in the recent development of physical face of the city. In fact the concept of quarter that was the basis of natural forming of old cities and had been established based on daily requirements of city inhabitants was broken and city places faced many irregularities. By the way, quarter lost its traditional meaning and today is used as unit for physical divisions of city and its servicing level of definition is used. In this research it is tried to offer the concept of modernization and approaches that were used for old textures of the cities, then by introducing principles of new urbanism as one of the new patterns of urbanism we offer the methods of applying these principles to modernize old places of the cities. In order to test these principles to modernize old places, three old places of Zanjan city is selected as an example and then the current and past condition of these places are studied to find analytical indexes. Finally, based on findings of this study some strategies to modernize Zanjan’s old places based on new urbanism are established.
Keywords: Modernization, New urbanism charter, Old places of Zanjan city.

Quality Assessment on Satellite Images using Clustering Techniques
K.M. Sharavana Raju, V. Karthikeyani and T. Meera Devi

Image segmentation plays a significant role in computer vision. It seeks on extracting meaningful objects lying in the image. Region based segmentation technique through clustering is used to extract images based on the colors present in the satellite images. The purpose of clustering is to identify the similar groupings from a large data set to produce a precise representation of the image. In this paper, k-means, fuzzy c means and fuzzy possibility c means clustering algorithms are used to partition an image data set into number of disjoint groups or clusters. The images are clustered for four and six categories and the quality of the images are compared through Davies–Bouldin index and Dunn index. The experiment is carried out on more than 50 satellite images, and for this paper, the LANDSAT satellite image of New York City is used. The results infer that the fuzzy possibility c means clustering algorithm performs better than fuzzy c means and k-means clustering methods.
Keywords: Fuzzy clustering, k-means clustering, satellite image segmentation, image quality, internal criterion.

Examining the Spatial Patterns and Dynamics of Age-Specific Migration in South Korea
Seungbeom Kang, Sung-Hwan Kim and Kabsung Kim

This paper investigates the spatial patterns and dynamics of age-specific migration in South Korea. The migration trends of six age groups are analyzed by incorporating Moran’s I and the Index of Neighborhood Change (INC) through the regionalization process. This study finds that the 20 to 24 and 55 to 74 age groups show greater spatial dependency on Seoul metropolitan area and outer suburban districts than the other age groups. We obtained strong evidence for the “J-turn phenomenon” in the Korean life cycle. In particular, the 20 to 24 age group exhibits significant and extensive out-migration patterns in non-capital areas in contrast with strong inflows into the capital area according to the Local Indicators of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA) cluster maps by age group. The retirement group in the capital area moves far away from the metropolis. Groups in non-capital areas move to regions adjacent to metropolitan cities. Evidence also indicates that regional changes in migration patterns occur more directly through inflow migration rather than outflow migration. Furthermore, INC analysis suggests that spatial patterns change by interacting dynamically with housing supply.
Keywords: Age-Specific Migration, Moran’s I, Regionalization, Index of Neighbourhood Change.

Designing a Business Model for Educational Institutes (Chess Schools)
Reza Mohammad Kazemi, Jahangir Yadollahi Farsi, Farzad Zivyar and Fatemeh Panahi

Proper instruction is essential to ensure the required infrastructures, talent discovery, providing a sustainable instructional context, tapping the existing talents, and meeting the needs of enthusiasts. In this regard, chess schools are the responsible authorities for the qualitative and quantitative development and promotion of this sport. The purpose of this study is to design the components of a business model for chess schools and to examine the status quo. Using the qualitative research method, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 chess school managers and trainers. Afterward, the required concepts were extracted through open coding and then by using the axial coding the categories were determined based on the dimensions of the Osterwalder's model. Following the interviews, the obtained data were analyzed and ultimately, in the form of ontology, a bigger picture of the business model for chess training institutes (chess school) was offered.
Keywords: business, business model, chess schools.

Molecular Identification of Dunaliella Species in Some Iranian Salt Lakes
Azam Janipour, Mahnaz Mazaheri Assadi, Hamideh Ofoghi, Mohammad Reza Kalbassi, Hoda Ahmadi Behazin, Masoumeh Rajabibazl and Hale Kosari

As unialgal green alga Dunaliella spp produce fine chemicals, especially ß- carotene, are considered as highly significant. Strains of Dunaliella vary morphologically and physiologically with the condition of growth. Thus, distinguishing the mixed populations in natural environments to genus and species levels is hard to achieve. Molecular identification, which is based on the size of 18S rDNA gene and number and position of introns in the gene, provides a useful tool to distinguish between mixed populations. In this study, water samples collected from five Iranian hypersaline lakes were examined to test whether there was any difference among the Dunaliella populations using PCR method with conserved primers MA1-MA2, MA1-MA3 and species specific primers DBs-MA2, DSs-MA2 and DPs-MA2 of the 18s rDNA gene. The results show genetic variation among salt lakes vary and the highest diversity was observed in Qom and Urmia salt lakes. Results obtained from PCR products showed species of D. salina, D. bardawil, D. parva, and D. tertiolecta in the studied salt lakes.
Keywords: Dunaliella, Molecular identification, 18S rDNA, Iranian salt lakes.

Modeling of Femur Bone to Diagnose Osteoporosis using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.0A
S. Vivekanandan and Aastha Kapoor

Bone tissue is by nature similar to a structural material that can adapt its form according to its function. Thus, a mathematical description of the functional adaptation of bone and its modeling is essential to understand its behavior. The objective of this paper is to model femur bone by using the physical parameters of a healthy and diseased bone in COMSOL Multiphysics software which is the first ever modeling done in the field of osteoporosis diagnosis as a pre-clinical evaluation methodology. Then, the study has been extended to record their resultant point-load responses i.e. the Von-Mises stress and Tresca stress values and a comparative analysis is made to reach a subtle conclusion. This computational model will deduct bone- response to the mechanical changes which can be used in the development of new medical devices for building biomedical models. It is thus beneficial to the treatment of osteoporotic patients and also assists doctors in pre-clinical studies.
Keywords: Femur bone, Osteoporosis, Wolff’s law of remodeling, COMSOL Multiphysics.

The Weakness of Intellectualism: Iran’s Students and the Lack of Awareness on Intellectualism (2012)
Ahmad Bokharaee

In this research we tried to find an answer to the main question ‘What is the description of awareness and beliefs amongst students of Semnan Province’s universities regarding the intellectualism indicators? It was conducted using the ‘survey' method and the data collection technique used was sample questionnaires amongst students of universities in Iran. Ten intellectualism indicators have been analysed taking into consideration the views of Sartre, Habermas, Said, Aaron and Shils: Self-criticism, criticism orientation, attention to the eminent and common values, attention to others’ problems, constant mental activity, production and refinement of culture, avoiding dogmatism, stability of opinion, utilising one’s expertise to help others and disinclination in obtaining power within the political system.from psychological point of view we looked at the connection between the self-criticism and the topic of cerebral narcissism amongst intellectuals or the phenomenon of dogmatism as a relatively closed cognitive system of beliefs and disbeliefs about reality. The findings of this study confirmed that the importance of intellectualism amongst Iranian students was 48.3% of the noted highest level. Finally it was confirmed that the reason of lower inclination towards the intellectualism amongst the students is related to the cultural elements in the society.
Keywords: Intellectualism, criticism, dogmatism, culture, Iran, awareness, political system, cerebral narcissism.

An Assessment of Account Service Quality from the Customer Perspective
Ferah Yildiz, Güler Dinçel and Ahmet Yanik

Service quality of businesses has gained importance for the maintenance of their operations in an increasingly competitive environment. In this context, quality of the service provided by accounting professionals is important for taxpayers receiving the service. Businesses present the most descriptive information about themselves to the related parties through accounting services. Provision of easily accessible, comparable, accurate and comprehensive information to the related parties is associated with service quality of accounting service providers. Purpose of this study is to show how businesses operating in Kocaeli, Turkey, perceive the quality of service they receive, using five dimensions of the scale developed by Parasuraman. As a result of this study, there is a statistically significant relation between the change of accountants by taxpayers and the service quality dimensions including reliability, readiness, confidence and empathy whereas there is no significant difference with the dimension of physical characteristics. Moreover, there appears to be a statistically significant difference between pysical penalties received by taxpayers for the failure of accountants and overall service quality and its dimensions of physical characteristics, reliability, readiness, confidence and empathy.
Keywords: SERVEQUAL, accounting service, quality of accounting service, perception of quality of accounting service.

Considering the Suggested Plan for Establishment of Women Leisure Complex in Karaj city: Area No 8 in Jahanshahr, Karaj
Ashrafossadat Modarresi, Farah Habib and Mehrvash Kazemi

A fair distribution of facilities and space gains considerable importance regarding city space in providing the needs of citizens and the portion shared by groups and different individuals. City policy makers attempt to find the fairest of the solution. Establishing uni-gender centers is one of the solutions in Iran. These complexes have attractive and different activities which share a common feature which is their womenfolk nature. The present research studies the purposes and outcomes of a cultural and leasure complex in Karaj city of Iran. To this end, suggested site of area No 8 of Karaj is regarded. In this process, weak points and strong points, womens’ abilities and interests is studied. Then the needs are specified and an appropriate designing is achieved through evaluating these needs. The final purpose of this study is to provode a secure and safe place for women which does not prevent them from using the nature. Library-analytical and field observation methods are used in the present research.
Keywords: Leisure complex, Gender, Women

Enhancing the Performance of Multiband Pulsed-OFDM UWB Communication Systems by using M-APSK Modulation Techniques
C.T Manimegalai and R. Kumar

This paper investigates the application of Amplitude Phase Shift Keying (APSK) modulation in the Multiband Pulsed-OFDM UWB Communication Systems. APSK is recognized as spectrally efficient baseband modulation scheme, which is already adopted in several standards for digital video broadcasting, including e.g. Digital Video Broadcasting Satellite -Second Generation (DVB-S2). However, its application in the Multiband Pulsed-OFDM UWB Communication Systems standard has not been studied yet. Therefore, the motivation of this paper is to elaborate on the APSK performance in the Pulsed- MB-UWB and to provide the comparison with already standardized QAM & PSK modulation scheme. The performance of M-APSK modulation for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) is analyzed for different UWB indoor propagation channels (CM1, CM2, CM3 and CM4) provided by the IEEE 802.15.3a Standard activity committee and its performance is compared with MB-UWB Systems.
Keywords: APSK (Amplitude Phase Shift Key), Constellation diagram, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), ultra-wideband (UWB), wireless personal area networks (WPAN).

Influences of Depositional Environment on the Sedimentary Structures, Biostratigraphy and Textural Characteristics of Ajali Sandstone in Ayogwiri – Fugar – Orame Area of Western Anambra Basin
E. Akpofure and J.O. Etu-Efeotor

The depositional environment of the Ajali Sandstone in the western Anambra Basin was studied using data from field outcrop logging, biostratigraphy and granulometric analysis of samples collected from three locations - Ayogwiri, Fugar and Orame. Several internal structures such as the herringbone stratification, epsilon beds, flaser beddings, mud drapes which occur in the Sandstone indicate a tidal environment. All 24 samples used for biostratigraphic analysis were barren of foraminifera, thus precluding age determination, but the palynological analysis yielded few and largely undiagonistic species mainly of continental origin, such as the fungal spore, smooth trilete spore. The textural parameters show the sediments were transported by saltation and suspension transport modes reflective of high and low energy regimes respectively and also indicate a fluvial and shallow marine environment of formation. Corroborating results from all the analyses in the study, the depositional environment of the Ajali Sandstone in the Western Anambra Basin included fluvial and shallow marine environments with very strong and extensive tidal influences.
Keywords: Anambra basin, Ajali Sandstone, Sedimentary structures, Depositional environment, Biostrtigraphy, Paleaoenvironment, Granulometric analysis, Textural Parameters