European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 103 No 3
June, 2013

Magnetic Effects on Direct Numerical Solution of Fluid Flow through A Curved Pipe With Circular Cross Section
343-361
Md. Mainul Hoque, Nisat Nowroz Anika and Md. Mahmud Alam

Abstract:
The flow of conductive fluids in highly conductive curved pipes is studied numerically in this paper. The flow assumed to be steady state, laminar and fully developed. Continuity, Navier-Stokes and appropriate Maxwell equations are solved in toroidal coordinates. Spectral method is applied as a main tool for the numerical technique; where, Fourier series, Chebyshev polynomials, Collocation methods, and Iteration method are used as secondary tools. The dimensionless parameters of the problem are Dean number and magnetic parameter . The flow patterns have been shown graphically for large Dean Numbers as well as magnetic parameter and curvatures . The axial velocity contours are shown to be shifted toward the outer wall. For low magnetic parameter , these contours are nearly circular. The effect of strong transverse magnetic field is to enhance the compression of fluid toward the outer wall. A strong magnetic field is found to confine the secondary flow streamlines to a thin layer near the tube wall.
Keywords: Dean Number, Magnetic parameter, curvature, flow model, Numerical technique.


Studying the Influence Emotional Intelligence on Servant Leadership in Iran Calculation Court
362-368
Hassan Mehrmanesh, Jamshid Edalatian Shahriari and Mehdi Molla Hosseini

Abstract:
By appearing information age and the promotion of interpersonal relationships and the manifest of strategic organizational, the emotional intelligence hypothesis have had a remarkable growth and became one of the popular organizational major. Emotional intelligence is a comprehensive expression including extensive collection of skills and personal specifications which is above certain scope of previous knowledge like technical or professional skills. The influence of emotional intelligence on applying servant leadership style has been assessed in current paper. The results of applying Chi Square and Friedman tests show emotional intelligence and its indices have positive and meaningful influence on applying servant leadership style in which “motivating oneself”, “empathy” and “social skills” were more powerful than others. By using Spearman test the relationship between managers’ demographic characteristics and emotional intelligence was surveyed in which there was positive and meaningful correlation between their ages with emotional intelligence. Finally Binomial test shows that all variables apart from social skills and servant leadership were placed in unfavorable levels
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, servant leadership, emotions


Deviation from Debt Capacity & Systematic Risk: Evidences from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) Listed Companies
369-379
Ali Saeedi and Mahdi Zamani Sabzi

Abstract:
This paper reports findings from a study that systematically evaluated the nature of the relationship between deviation from debt capacity and systematic risk in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) listed companies. Debt capacity has been calculated based on companies being listed in TSE and excluding companies with late payment of bank debt, then debt capacity model for each industry during the period of 5 years was designed and accordingly, the link between the deviation from debt capacity and systematic risk was explored by using unbalanced panel data structure and generalized least squares (GLS). For this purpose, deviation of debt capacity considered as the indicator of excessive use of financial leverage and its relation with systematic risk was tested. The results indicated that there is a significant linear relation between deviation from debt capacity and systematic risk. Therefore, excessive use of debt leads to increase of systematic risk.
Keywords: Debt Capacity, Systematic Risk, Capital Structure, Tehran Stock Exchange


A Generalized Stochastic Model for Estimating Oil Spot and Futures Prices
380-390
A. Alizadeh, Kh. Mafinezhad, A.V. Kamyad and M. Naser-Moghadasi

Abstract:
In this article we develop a three factor model for commodity pricing using the theory of storage. The factors are the spot price, convenience yield and a new volatility stochastic factor. We estimate the model on oil spot and future prices using the Kalman filter. The model is evaluated under two different situations: normal condition and critical condition. In critical condition the oil price has experienced drastic changes.
Keywords: Commodity pricing, theory of storage, Kalman filter, critical condition.

Determination of the Best Fit Probability Distribution for Annual Extreme Precipitation in Bangladesh
391-404
Md. Mohsan Khudri and Farhana Sadia

Abstract:
The selection of an appropriate model depends mainly on the characteristics of available rainfall data at the particular site. As a result, it is necessary to evaluate many available distributions in order to find a suitable model that could provide precise extreme rainfall estimates. This study aimed at determining the best fit probability distribution of annual maximum rainfall data of 22 stations in Bangladesh by using different statistical analyses. Gamma, normal, lognormal, Pearson, generalized extreme value, Weibull and different forms of these distributions were assessed. A couple of goodness of fit tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling and Chi-square was carried out with a view to selecting the best fit probability distribution. On the basis of maximum overall score which is obtained by adding individual point score from three selected goodness of fit test, fourth probability distribution was identified. In addition, graphical technique was employed to visually assess the adequacy of a fitted distribution. Maximum likelihood method was used to estimate the parameters of the distributions considered and then using these parameters, random numbers were generated for actual and estimated maximum annual rainfall of each station. Finally residual standard error (RSE) of each four distributions was computed. The distribution having minimum RSE was selected as the best fit probability distribution for that specific data set. Results exhibited that the generalized extreme value and generalized gamma (4P) distribution have occupied 50% of the total stations, while no other distribution ranked consistently best in different stations
Keywords: Probability distribution, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, Generalized Extreme Value; Precipitation.

The Relationship between the Performance of the Portfolio of Investment Corporate with Liquidity Grade, Profitability Ratios and their Dividends in Tehran Stock Exchange
405-410
Mojtaba Chavoshani, Sajad Gholami and Yusef Ahmadian

Abstract:
This study to investigate the relationship between portfolio performance of investment companies with liquidity grade and profitability ratios and dividend. In this study, population were used consists of all investment firms in Tehran Stock Exchange by the end of 2007, and all the samples have been studied. Researcher has been calculated some of the data such as: Risk, portfolio return, beta, liquidity grade and profitability ratios and dividend by the use of monthly and annually reports of Stock Exchange and firm’s financial reports, and then calculated Sharpe and Trainer in dices for firm’s portfolio and then has been used T-test and regression and comparing the mean of the two communities to accept or reject the research hypotheses. The results were showed the impact of liquidity grade on performance of Investment companies based on Sharp’s index and also showed that Profitability ratios and dividend does not affect in performance of investment companies. Researcher was achieved to above results in linear relationship between portfolio yield of investment companies with liquidity grade and profitability ratios and dividends.
Keywords: Sharpe index, Trainer index, liquidity, profitability ratios, dividend.


Comparative Study of Paravertebral Ozone Application Versus Caudal Epidural Corticosteroids in Low Back Pain Caused by Disk Herniation
411-421
Montaser S Abulkassem, Nagwa M Duha, Mohamed H Affifi, Sherief I Zalat and Alaa E El Saka

Abstract:
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common health problems affecting the population worldwide. Ozone therapy is recently added to treatment method. Concerning its clinical efficacy, several trials were done. Objective: The present study was to evaluate the effect of paravertebral ozone versus caudal epidural corticosteroids in LBP due to disc herniation. Patients & Methods: This prospective randomized study was done after Ethics Committee approval and informed patient consent from 60 adult patients presented to pain clinic of Menofia University hospital. All were complaining from low back pain due to lumber disk herniation. They randomly divided into two groups. Group A: received paravertebral ozone 40-60 cc of O2-O3 mixture (10µg/ml).Group B: received caudal epidural (Diprofos, Lidocaine, bupivacaine) diluted in 30 ml saline. Data were assessed by Japanese orthopedic association scale {JOA score} and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Results were statistically analyzed. Results: VAS showed a significant statistical improvement at 1 month in ozone group than in corticosteroid group (P<0.05), and highly statistically significant improvement at 3 months in corticosteroid group than ozone group (P<0.001).Subjective symptoms of JOA scale showed significant improvement (P<0.05) at 3 months of follow up in corticosteroid group than ozone group. It was found that there is significant improvement in the degree of normalization at 2 weeks (P<0.05), 1 and 3 months of follow up in corticosteroid group than ozone group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Paravertebral ozone induced improvement low back pain due to disc herniation maximally at 1 month. However, steroids caused improvement more than ozone, maximally at 3 months of treatment.
Keywords: Low back pain, Paravertebral Ozon, caudal corticosteroid.


The Effects of Adding Dexmedetomedine to Ketamine on the Postoperative Pain and Recovery for Burn Dressing Operations
422-428
Abd el Azeem .A. El bakry and Montaser Saleh Abulkassem

Abstract:
Background: Dexmedetomedine is a2 agonist drug with sedative and analgesic effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of dexmedetomedine as an adjuvant to ketamine during burn dressing in adult patients. Methods: After Ethics Committee approval and informed patient consent, 60 ASA physical statuses I and II adult burn patients were randomly divided into two groups. In dexmedetomedine group (n=30), patients were premedicated 15 minutes before anesthesia by intravenous (IV) dexmedetomedine 1ug/ kg. In control group (n=30), patients were premedicated by IV saline. Anesthesia was induced in both groups by IV ketamine 1 mg /kg and maintained by 100% oxygen. Ketamine boluses of 0.5-1 mg/ kg were given when needed. Hemodynamic changes, arterial oxygen saturation, pain and sedation were recorded. Pain was assessed by visual analogue score and sedation was assessed by Ramsay score. Results: In dexmedetomedine group the heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure were lower than the control group at all times after premedication (P < 0.01). Sedation scores were significantly higher and pain scores were significantly lower in dexmedetomedine group 15min after premedication (P<0.05) till 12h postoperative (P<0.01) compared to the control group. Patients with postoperative hallucinations, nausea and vomiting were significantly lower in dexmedetomedine group (P<0.05). The number of patients required ketamine boluses and the total ketamine consumption were significantly lower in the dexmedetomedine group compared to the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: During anesthesia for burn dressing operations, ketamine-dexmedetomedine combination offered effective sedation and analgesia, intraoperative and postoperative without any side effects.
Keywords: Burn, dexmedetomedine, dressing changes, ketamine.


Asylum Along with Justice and Purity
429-435
Hojat Izadi and Mohammad Reza Hosseinpour

Abstract:
Asylum, as one of the issues related to Public International Law, has more challenges and problems in today world, due to being industrialized and modernized the societies, divine face of asylum issue was perished and changed to a political and expediential issue and the nature and philosophy of the asylum has been completely changed. Doctrine of the national sovereignty, benefit and expedience of governments were substituted by ethical and humanitarian face of the asylum and as a main criterion, has became the touchstone for acceptance or rejection the asylum request. Considering the remarkable increase of asylum seekers' number and change of their motives from having security and keeping the life, in order to create suitable economic, cultural and social conditions, many problems was made in this field and in international level. Convention in 1951 in Geneva and protocol of 1967 as two main sources of asylum rules, are not responsible against these problems and insufficiency, since provisions and principles of this conventions are not proportionate to the statuses of the today world and conditions of the asylum seekers in today societies. In this essay, it is attempted to realize the nonconformity of the asylum concept in past and present time and to be familiar with nature and basic issues of this matter, while expressing the history of asylum, and clarifying the natural of its main face, and mentioning some of the main issues related to asylum.
Keywords: Asylum, Justice, Conversion in 1951 in Geneva, Doctrine of National Sovereignty, Basic Changes, Divine Face.


Demyelination in Spinal Cord of MS Patient and Clinical Symptoms
436-440
Muhammad Arshad Javid, Muhammad Afzal Khan, Mustansar Mahmood Warrich and Muhammad Ayaz Khan

Abstract:
MRI of spinal cord and brain of MS patient was investigated to assess the consequence of new demyelination at new location of spinal cord after remyelination and its relation with expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Disability of MS patient was correlated with lesion location from dorsal to cervical level of spinal cord in follow up of case. New lesion formation at cervical cord upgraded the EDSS. New demyelination at new location in spinal cord of MS patient was independent of chronic demyelination however new demyelination presented chronic clinical symptoms in patient with multiple sclerosis with higher EDSS.
Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Spinal Cord.


Sequencing Ontology Alignment for DNA Annotation and Damage Identification
441-450
Mohammad Ibrahim Khan and Md.Sarwar Kamal

Abstract:
We have developed DNA Sequencing Ontology (DSO) as knowledge Base for Computational Biology (CB). In our earlier work we only developed a system to check the matching. In this Knowledge Base comprises and organizes a common and structured vocabulary, process and probabilistic models. Annotation and DNA sequencing for DNA damage, Pair Wise Alignment is performed in most of the current genome research and projects. DNA damage identification is important to assess diseases in animals. Besides to maintain a meaningful interpretation, DSO helps to integrate various databases that are relevant such as MEDLINE, OHSUMED, and NCBI. It is important to have a process that ensures ontological impact over various DNA sequencing methods. Here we have designed and implemented a DNA sequencing semantics which cover all parts of DNA sequence research. Hidden Markov Model with Chapman-Kolmogorov formula is used to regulate database selection. On the other hand, Motif Searching (MS) is done by Baysian Network (BN). DNA damage identification is accomplished by a Heuristic algorithm developed by us. We also present a software package (LoDNA) which performs annotation based on DSO.
Keywords: DNA Sequencing Ontology (DSO), Computational Biology (CB), Pair Wise Alignment, DNA damage, Hidden Markov Model, Chapman-Kolmogorov formula, Baysian Network, Motif Searching (MS).


Modeling the Prediction of Academic Self-Efficacy in Payam-e-Noor University Students in Terms of Achievement Goals: Explaining the Mediatory Role of State Anxiety
451-459
Ahmad Rastegar, Khatere Hosseini, Mohammad Hassan Seif and Saeed Talebi

Abstract:
To investigate the relationships between attribute anxiety and achievement goals and academic self-efficacy among the Fars Payam-e-Noor University students, 332 students were selected using the relative categorical sampling method and answered a questionnaire made up of subscales of Middleton and Midgley achievement goals (1997), Spliberger et al state anxiety (1973) and Midgley et al academic self-efficacy (1997). The findings indicated that performance-avoidance goals negatively influence academic self-efficacy through the mediating role of state anxiety. Moreover, the indirect and positive effects of mastery and performance-attitude goals on academic self-efficacy through the mediating role of state anxiety were not confirmed.
Keywords: Mastery goals, performance-attitude goals, state anxiety.


Improve the Security in Route Discovery of AODV in Wireless Mesh Networks
460-467
K. Sundaramoorthy and S. Srinivasa Rao Madhane

Abstract:
Generally the Wireless Mesh Networks uses the hybrid routing protocols to handle the traffic flow in the Mesh network. But, the hybrid protocols did not consider the security related problems. But our proposed routing protocol is Advanced Protective Ad-Hoc On demand Distance vector routing protocol which can securely discover the route between the pair of nodes in the Wireless Mesh Network. In this, we are utilizing Polynomial bi variate key pre distribution scheme to provide authentication and security. In this scenario each node is assigned with random key as well as polynomial bi variate key. By using this, the link will be generated dynamically by analyzing the key values. The source node sends a hello message which contains the Source node ID. The node within its transmission range will compute the key value by evaluating each of its polynomial shares. After identify that both are having the same polynomial, the source node broadcast its random key. When the node within its communication range heard this message, it will compute the communication key which is used for authentication. Then route its data packets through this node. The proposed scheme is evaluated by using the Network Simulator (NS2).


Investigating the Effect of Speech Tools (Video Media (TV)) and Internet on the Consumers’ Purchasing Behavior in Developed Countries
468-476
Mohammad Yaser Mazhari, Mohammad Mahmoud, Inda Sukati, Bawer Marwan Abdulahad and Safeen Saber Azeez

Abstract:
The contemporary competitive environment, drawing consumers is challenging and quite difficult to be attained. One remarkable method for marketers to attract customers is through advertisement and its allied tools. This study intends to find out the level of the influence of advertising tools, such as the speech tool (video Media (TV)) and Internet, on consumers’ purchasing behavior with regards to the purchase of detergents in Kuala Lumpur (KL) in Malaysia. Likewise, delves into the comparative influences of advertising tools between the two advertising tools. There are 384 costumer-respondents in these studies who are residents of KL. The instrument utilized in data gathering was through a questionnaire survey and the data were analyzed based on Friedman and One-Sample Test model. The findings revealed that there exists significant difference between the two advertising instruments (speech tools (video Media (TV) and Internet) which have been used in this research. Results show that the Internet medium is more effective on influencing consumers’ behavior on purchasing detergent than the TV.
Keywords: Consumer behavior, advertising tools, detergents, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.


Analysis for using Communications Technology to Promote Education Reform
477-482
Thanyawich Vicheanpant

Abstract:
The analysis from the survey of Information and Communications Technology (CT) systems in various countries designates that there are 2 aspects of CT usage to develop education. The First aspect is CT system to improve quality of life in order to assist learning such as the issue of 4 basic needs educational opportunity, and preventing children from withdrawing from the education system for various reasons. The Second aspect is CT system for managing content, curriculum, and classroom. CT systems for education used in each country can be divided into 13 aspects, which are:Using CT, Administration and Management, Blended Learning, Students Information System, Learning Management System, Website Portal, Learning Material, Teacher Development, Life-Direction Tracking, Performance Screening, CT Disability, Quality of Life Tracking, Individuality Alert. Each country (including Thailand) uses CT system.