European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 103 No 2
June, 2013

Quelques Aspects de La Reproduction du Fuligule Nyroca Aytya Nyroca Dans le Lac Tonga (Site Ramsar Nord-Est Algerien)
165-174
Badis Bakhouche, Khalil Draidi, Moussa Houhamdi and Zihad Bouslama

Abstract:
Le fuligule nyroca (Aythya nyroca), espèce nicheuse dans le Nord-Est Algérien fréquente le lac Tonga toute l’année avec une variation des effectifs atteignant son maximum à partir de la deuxième moitié du mois d’août jusqu’à la deuxième moitié du mois de septembre. Notre travail porte sur l’écologie de la reproduction de cette espèce dans le lac Tonga et a été réalisé pendant l’année 2012. Nous avons pu localiser 112 nids dont 55% d’entre eux ont été installés dans des petits ilots de végétation. La grandeur de ponte est de 9,46 œuf/nid et le succès de l’éclosion de 59%. La principale cause de l’échec d’éclosion des œufs est la prédation des nids.
Motsclé : Fuligule nyroca, Aythya nyroca, lac Tonga, dénombrement, reproduction, taux d’échec.


A Comparative Look at the Spirituality in Higher Education University Students’ Search for Meaning and Purpose; Albania & USA
175-184
Ahmet Ecirli

Abstract:
This paper mainly deals with a national study to find out the level of college students’ search for meaning and purpose carried out by HERI - Higher Education Research Institute Graduate School of Education & Information Studies at UCLA- University of California, Los Angeles. The findings as a result of the report involve 112,232 first-year students attending 236 various colleges and universities across the US between the years 2003 and 2007; help us to improve our understanding of the role that spirituality plays in students’ lives and to ascertain strategies that institutions can use to advance students’ spiritual growth. A similar study using the instruments of HERI has been carried out by our research team at Beder University to find out the similarities and differences for spirituality in higher education in Albania. The study was based on data collected in early fall and late summer 2012 from 2360 students attending a national sample of 18 colleges and universities in Albania. The research contributes to the understanding as to how higher education medium serve students considering their religious and spiritual identities. The notions surveyed include students’ search for “spiritual issues and questions such as the meaning of life and work”, their view for “spirituality and related qualities such as compassion, generosity, optimism, and kindness”, their “engagement in spiritual/religious commitment”, the effects of spiritualty on academic and personal development. The findings of this study show a current comparative look at the “Spirituality in Higher Education” in Albania and the USA.
Keywords: Spirituality in higher education, spiritual commitment, spiritual issues and qualities, academic and personal development, meaning of life and work


Is the Application of Simple Trading Rules a Powerful Tool for Profitability Prediction?: The Case of the FTSE-20 of the Athens Exchange
185-206
Georgia S. Demiri, Apostolos G. Christopoulos, Ioannis G. Dokas and Konstantinos P. Vergos

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to test the profitability predicting power of firms, by using Moving Average (MA), the simplest and most popular trading rule. The Index FTSE-20 of the Athens Exchange (ASE) is employed in order to compare the ability of this technique with the performance of a buy-and-hold strategy to earn excessive profits. The rules of the Moving Average are applied with bands of various periods and RSI Oscillator and SI Oscillator. In the empirical analysis daily stock values of the 20 largest capitalised firms of the ASE are elaborated for the period 2004-2012. The results are encouraging, particularly, for the effectiveness of simple moving averages, while for the efficiency of the oscillators the results are rather discouraging. The investment strategies are suited for short investment periods as long the excessive profits “evaporate” as the time passes and the transaction costs increase. The statistical significance of the results is controlled by the t-statistics, accepting the possibility of error due to non-normality of the data, while, the Granger Casualty test is also applied. Finally, linear and EGARCH models are estimated in order to predict the future price changes of the FTSE20 Index. It is concluded that the linear model is satisfactory in terms of interpretation and predictability while the estimated EGARCH model is more complicated and its predictability is lower than that of the linear model.
Keywords: Technical Analysis, Trading Rules, Moving Average, Oscillators, Granger test, Linear Regression, EGARCH


Brain Extracting Using a Simple Standard Deviation and Mathematical Morphology in Medical Images MRI
207-217
Samir Bara, Mounir Ait Kerroum and Ahmed Hammouch

Abstract:
We have developed a new method for extracting the region of interest brain, from MRI brain. This new method called Brain extracting using a simple standard deviation and Mathematical Morphology in (BSDM), is a pre-segmentation of brain tissues; it is performed using hybrid techniques based on simple elementary operations of optimal mathematical morphology operators. The performance of this method is validated on medical images. The results obtained show the good performance of this approach
Keywords: Edge detection, Image analysis, Mathematical morphology, Brain extracting, MRI images.

Report on the Development of Standard Criteria of Environmental Education for School Under Tak Primary Educational Service Area Office 1
218-226
Paisarn Pandan, Vinai Veeravatnanond and Raveevan Sananvorakiat

Abstract:
The purposes of this research were to 1) analyze the factors of and establish the standard criteria of environmental education for schools under Tak Primary Educational Service Area Office 1; and 2) carry out a confirmatory factors analysis for the standard criteria of environmental education. The sample used in the study was 350 educational administrators, school administrators and teachers under Tak Primary Educational Service Area Office 1 obtained by purposive selection and simple random sampling with the use of random number table. The research instruments were a questionnaire for the focus group, a questionnaire, and an evaluation form. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics including index of item-objective congruence (IOC), alpha coefficient ( ), percentage, mean ( ), and standard deviation (S.D.). The research results were as follows. 1) The standard criteria for schools under Tak Primary Educational Service Area Office 1 comprised 6 standards, 12 sub-standards, and 60 indicators. They were Standard 1 Management with 2 sub-standards and 10 indicators, Standard 2 Learning Management with 2 sub-standards and 10 indicators, Standard 3 Learner Quality with 2 sub-standards and 10 indicators, Standard 4 Environmental Management in Schools with 2 sub-standards and 10 indicators, Standard 5 Involvement with Community with 2 sub-standards and 10 indicators, and Standard 6 Assessment and Evaluation with 2 sub-standards and 10 indicators. 2) Regarding the confirmatory factors analysis with the sample of 350 people, it was found that the appropriateness of the standard criteria with the standard indicators of environmental education for schools under Tak Primary Educational Service Area Office 1 in general was at the high level ( = 4.11)
Keywords: Standard criteria of environmental education schools.

A Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Human Resource Development Techniques in the Non-Government Organizations of Balochistan
227-238
Saubia Ramzan and Uzma Mukhtar

Abstract:
The development of human resource has been envisaged as organizational transformation in experience and knowledge which is deemed as vital for both individuals and organizations to fulfil the mandatory capability for organizational change and expansion. Contemporary approach towards the development of human resource has justified the compatibility of both organizational needs and individual’s objectives for the overall progression. This vividly discloses the separation of training process from the development as having longer term future for more tedious responsibilities. This activity is indispensible to tackle the additional and transformed responsibilities through enhanced experience or formal education. The development as an activity also extends to longer period of time in order to accept new horizons of growth and flourishing endurance for individuals and organizations. This paper attempts to explore the development techniques for human resource in the NGOs of Balochistan as being least developed province of Pakistan. It emphasizes the effectiveness of development techniques categorized in two different types of traditional and innovative groups. The study also reveals information about the current use of these techniques for human resource development in the NGO sector in order to evaluate the level of awareness about both types of techniques. In the perspective of research study, the categorization has been performed to analyse the effectiveness of development techniques through different angles. Moreover, the use of information technology as an aid in the development process has also been analysed in the organizations in order to evaluate the effectiveness of innovative techniques
Keywords: Development Techniques, NGOs, Human Resource, Effectiveness, Learning, Innovative Techniques.


Dimensionality Reduction of High Dimensional Data Using Fractional Cuckoo Search Algorithm to Improve Clustering Process
239-255
Golda George and Latha Parthiban

Abstract:
Dimensionality reduction is essential in multidimensional data mining since the dimensionality of real time data could easily reach higher dimensions. Most recent efforts on dimensionality reduction, however, are not adequate to multidimensional data due to lack of scalability. In this paper, we use the optimization algorithm for dimension reduction process. The optimization algorithm adopted for the proposed approach is the cuckoo search algorithm. The modifications on cuckoo search bring it as a dimensionality reduction algorithm to fit in the multidimensional clustering. The cuckoo search is selected for the dimensionality reduction process is because of the specific characteristics produced by the cuckoo search algorithm. Here, we introduce a modified cuckoo search algorithm called fractional cuckoo search (FCS) algorithm with levy space. We modified the cuckoo search algorithm to reduce the dimension and select the best dimension. Once the high dimensional data reduced in to low dimensional data, then the data is supplied to the clustering algorithm to make the partition easily. Finally, the experimentation is made with synthetic and real datasets (iris and wine) and we have proved the efficiency of the FCS algorithm 12.3% on iris, 35.1% on wine and synthetic dataset has 30.75% better than the FPSO in terms of accuracy.
Keywords: Cuckoo search algorithm, levy flights, dimension reduction, high dimensional database, fractional cuckoo search.


Bioactivity of Injected Boric Acid on German Cockroaches: Lethality, Analysis of Residues and Acethylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-Transferase Activities
256-266
Dahbia Habes, Karim Bouazdia, Rouhia Messiad, Anissa Boussatha and Noureddine Soltani

Abstract:
Conventional insecticides have been used widely to control cockroach which have developed resistance to these compounds. Thus, interest has again centred on lesser-used insecticides such as boric acid. Its mode of action on insects has not been satisfactorily established. In Algeria, Blattella germanica L. (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) is a serious pest in the urban environment and their infestations were controlled for many years by organophosphate, carbamate, or pyrethroid insecticides. In order to obtain more information on the mode of action of boric acid, an inorganic insecticide, we first evaluated the toxicity of boric acid administered by injection on newly emerged male adults. The compound was been administered by injection at different doses ranging from 25, 50, 100 and 200µg/insect to newly emerged adults. Mortality was measured at different time’s treatment (1, 2, 3 and 6 days). Treatment resulted in a dose–dependent mortality since LD50 and DL90 recorded were 77,62 and 194,98 µg/insect at 6 day respectively, while the TL50 and TL90 were 2,99 and 7,63 days respectively. In a second series of experiments, the amount of residue was determined by a colorimetric method in several organs (hemolymph, gut, testes, fat body and body) by a colorimetric method. The compound was investigated on the activities of acethylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S- transferases (GSTs). The analysis was made as function of the dose (LD50 and DL90) and the time following treatment (1 to 6 days). Results revealed that the amount of residues detected in these organs increased as function the time following of treatment. In addition, the amount was relatively important in fat body followed by testicles, midgut, posterior gut, foregut and hemolymph. Data showed that the compound induced GSTs and reduced the activity of AChE.
Keywords: Cockroaches, Blattella germanica, Inorganic insecticide, Boric acid, Toxicity, Residues, Glutathione S-transferase, Acethylcholinesterase.


Cardiac Arrhythmia Classification Using Regularized Least Squares Classifier
267-281
Hamza Baali, Momoh.J.E.Salami, Rini Akmeliawati and Aida Khorshidtalab

Abstract:
An algorithm for arrhythmia classification that conforms to the standard of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) is examined in this paper. Three inter-patient classification scenarios are considered namely, detection of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs), detection of supraventricular ectopic beats (SVEBs) and the multiclass recommended taxonomy. A new set of features extracted from the application of orthogonal decomposition of the ECG signal has been developed. These features in conjunction with some commonly used features are fed into the Regularized Least Squares Classifier (RLSC) with linear kernel. The proposed classification scheme shows good separation capability between the classes of ECG arrhythmias as it achieved a Balanced Classification Rate (BCR) of 83.9 % for the multiclass scenario which is comparable to the state-of-the-art performance of automatic arrhythmia classification.
Keywords: Arrhythmia Classification, AAMI, ECG, RLSC, Orthogonal Transforms.


Practical Proposal for Roundabouts Bypass Calculation
282-295
Raffaele Mauro and Marco Guerrieri

Abstract:
The capacity of roundabout intersections depends, among other things, on the geometric features of the layout and, especially, on the outer diameter and the number of lanes at entry and at the ring road. If the capacity of one or more entries has to be increased in recently-built or already operating intersections, specific lanes can also be added in order not to let vehicles go into the ring road, but rather directly into the legs exiting from the roundabout. These lanes, called bypass or slip lanes, can be implemented in both conventional schemes and such innovative intersections as “turbo”, “C” and “flower” roundabouts. Whereas at roundabouts with four or more legs only right-turn bypass lanes can be used, 3-leg roundabouts also allow through bypass lanes to be implemented. The geometric design of bypass lanes and the choice of the regulation type for traffic flows (right-of-way rules) should satisfy specific needs every time, considering that they can give rise to very different effects in terms of roundabout functionality. The design parameters for bypass lanes obtained from the most recent international guidelines are described in the paper, together with the capacity formulations to estimate bypass lanes as well as roundabout entries. Moreover, the results from several MOE (measures of effectiveness) comparisons between roundabouts with or without bypass lanes are reported in order to point out if and when a bypass lane leads to a real improvement in the functionality of a road intersection. The results of the paper can be used by engineers for technical applications for design the bypass lanes in urban and rural roundabouts with conventional or innovative layouts.
Keywords: Through and right-turn bypass lanes, geometric layouts, performances analysis.


Comprehensive Investigation on Harmonic Spreading Effects of SPWM and RPWM Methods
296-303
T.Jarin and P.Subburaj

Abstract:
Random pulse width modulation (RPWM) technique has emerged as a most used modulation strategy instead of sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) for the voltage source inverter (VSI) fed AC motor drives when the issues like acoustic noise, vibration etc. are the main concern. A comprehensive comparison of SPWM and Pseudo Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) bit based RPWM is presented in this paper. The distribution of harmonic power in the output voltage of VSI when controlled using SPWM is studied for three phase star connected resistive load. . A MATLAB based organized comparative analysis of SPWM and RPWM methods characteristics such as total harmonic distortion (THD) in output line voltage, DC bus utilization and the harmonic spread factor (HSF) is presented.
Keywords: Harmonic spread factor (HSF), random pulse width modulation (RPWM), total harmonic distortion (THD).


An Analytical Approach to Pricing Discrete Barrier Options under Time-Dependent Models
304-312
Mohammad H. Beheshti, Amir T. Payandeh Najafabadi and Rahman Farnoosh

Abstract:
Consider the problem of pricing a discrete barrier option under a time-dependent framework. This article provides an analytical solution for such an interesting problem in two steps . Namely, in the first step, the problem in hand restates a time invariant which has an exact solution. Secondly, the exact solution for the time-dependent model arrives by substituting such a solution in an integral equation. Applications to the Greeks of the contracts are given.
Keywords: Barrier option, Black-Scholes framework, Discrete monitoring, Time-dependent model.


Tunable and Reconfigurable Spectrum Sliced Microwave Photonic Filter Using Parallel Fabry-Perot Filters with External Delay and Windowing
313-325
R. K. Jeyachitra and J. Martin Leo Manickam

Abstract:
A tunable and reconfigurable microwave photonic filter based on two Fabry-Perot filters connected in parallel and one filter with an external delay element (Fiber delay/Fiber Bragg Grating(FBG)) and high profiled windowing techniques is proposed. The architecture shows discrete filter tuning and reconfiguration capabilities using a spectrum slicing technique, realizes multi-tap, transversal RF filter with high frequency operation. Discrete tunability is achieved by changing delay time offered external delay in the filter configuration. The reconfigurable spectrum of the proposed filter is developed by employing different high profiled apodization techniques. The frequency responses of the filter by employing windows are tabulated and compared with that of filter without windowing. Simulation results show high FSR, sidelobe suppression and high Quality factor with this configuration using simple and cost effective filter architecture.
Keywords: Apodization, Fabry-Perot (FP) filter, fiber delay, FBG, microwave photonics, Quality factor (Q-factor), spectrum slicing, tunability, reconfigurability


Mobility Issues in 4G Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
326-332
K.Komala and P.Indumathi

Abstract:
A Heterogeneous Network is a network consisting of mix of macro cells, pico cells, femto cells, Remote Radio Heads (RRH) and relays. It is a 4G technology denoted as HetNet. A HetNet consists of infrastructure with different wireless access technologies, different network architectures and protocols for the various needs of the mobile users. There is a very tremendous traffic growth in broadband wireless networks. The major advantages of HetNets are improvement in the performances of the network, reducing the transmitter-to-receiver distance and providing a better spatial reuse of the spectrum. One of the research challenges of HetNets is the mobility management in order to achieve global roaming among the different access technologies. As the handover decisions play a major role in mobility management, the types of handover techniques are analyzed. The performance measures such as handoff delay and packet loss are analyzed with the help of the network simulator NS-2.
Keywords: HetNets, Mobility Management, Handover, Handoff, Wireless LAN.


Le Fuligule Nyroca (Aythya Nyroca) dans le Lac Tonga (Nord Est de l’Algérie): Dénombrement et Étude des Rythmes d’Activités
333-342
Khalil Draidi, Badis Bakhouche, Salah Tlailia, Moussa Houhamdi and Zihad Bouslama

Abstract:
La présente étude s’est déroulée dans le lac Tonga (extrême Nord-Est de l’Algérie) qui représente un important site de nidification pour plusieurs espèces d’oiseaux aquatiques , dont certaines sont très rares ou en recul dans leurs habitats, comme l’Erismature à tête blanche (Oxyura leucocephala) et le Fuligule nyroca (Aythya nyroca). Notre travail porte sur le dénombrement hebdomadaire de l’effectif du Fuligule nyroca (Aythya nyroca) et l’étude des rythmes d’activités diurnes de cette espèce. Pour ce faire, un cycle annuel a été mené (de Janvier à Décembre 2012) à raison de deux sorties par mois et ce en utilisant la méthode scan (Altman, 1974, Baldassare et al., 1988, Losito et al., 1989, Tamisier et Dehorter 1999). Le comportement instantané d’un échantillon d’oiseau est enregistré à un interval d’une demi-heure à partir de 07 heures du matin jusqu’à 18 heures totalisant 264 heures d’observation. Lors de notre étude, nous avons remarqué que notre modèle pond toute l’année lui donnant ainsi le statut sédentaire avec toutefois des fluctuations des effectifs. Les résultats obtenus reflètent la présence d’une métapopulation dans le lac Tonga. Le budget temps de notre espèce est dominé par le sommeil 33,62% suivi respectivement par la nage et l’alimentation 29,12%, 24,63%). La toilette (10,50%) et le vol (2,46%) seraient des activités secondaires. Tandis que la parade et l’antagonisme n’ont pas dépassé le 1%.
Keywords: Lac Tonga, Fuligule nyroca, l’Algérie, Parc national, Budget temps, population