European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 103 No 1
June, 2013

Design of a Blood-Warming Device for Resource-Limited Settings
C.F. Adams, J.D. Chirawurah, P.E. Agbekoh and Elsie Effah Kaufmann

Blood warming is usually required to get the temperature of blood to 37o C from storage temperatures of 1–6 oC to prevent hypothermia during transfusions. Needs assessment at various hospitals revealed that blood warming is a major challenge in Ghana. Local methods of warming blood include leaving blood bags on walls in the open at ambient temperature to warm, putting bags in warm water or leaving blood bags under running tap water. These methods are inefficient, unsafe and time consuming. Efficient blood warmers are available but they are very expensive and unaffordable for the resource-limited hospitals surveyed. A cost effective, safe and efficient blood warming and thawing device was designed to address the above-mentioned problems in resource-limited settings. Materials and components were selected based on specifications obtained from potential users, functional analysis, existing products and standards. The components of the device are encased in a housing insulated with polymer foam to reduce heat loss to the environment. It is anticipated that this intervention will be invaluable in situations where quick blood transfusions are required to save lives.
Keywords: Engineering Design, Hypothermia, Blood Warmer, Blood Tansfusions, Prototype, Simulation, Red Blood Cells (RBCs), Haemolysis.

Development of Regeneration and Transformation Protocol for Barley of Indian Origin using Immature Embryos
Hassan Rostami, Archana Giri, Ammar Taghavi and Seyed Amir Yassini

A reliable protocol of regeneration and Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation was developed for barley genotype of Indian origin HOR 4961 using immature embryos. The highest callus induction frequency (92%) was obtained on MS basal media fortified with 2mg/l 2,4-D. 90% plantlets were regenerated from embryogenic calli on regeneration media with 1mg/l BAP and 0.1 mg/l 2,4-D. Genetic transformation was carried out by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring binary vector pCAMBIA1301 using optimized regeneration protocol. The highest gus expression (87%) was achieved when 200mg/l acetosyringone was applied with 30 minutes infection time and 5 days co-cultivation period. The insertion of uidA gene was confirmed in hygromycin resistant plants by PCR and an average genetic transformation efficiency of 5.33% recorded. The present protocol can pave the way for studding the functional genomics through transgenic approach as well as introducing new characters in this important crop.
Keywords: Barley (Hordeum vulgare), Regeneration System, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Transformation Protocol, gus Expression

On using the Methodologies of Digital Image Processing in the Early Detection of Plant Diseases
Khalid M. Hosny and Mohamed I. Ammar

A new image processing-based method for early detection of plant diseases is presented in this work. Colored images of plants are captured where more attention is paid to more susceptible parts like leaves. Quaternion Zernike moments and their invariants to geometric transformations are computed for the captured colored images where the features vector of these images is compared with the corresponding ones of healthy plants. The proposed method is routinely applied in the early steps of plant growth to detect visual symptoms of the well-known or any unknown plant diseases.
Keywords: Color images, Plant diseases, Quaternion Zernike moments, Data Classification Techniques, Powdery Mildew, Downy Mildew

Unified Authentication Model for Weblet Creation Migration and Service Access
Madhu Nika Aravamudhan, Ramanujan Iyengar and V.S. Shankar Sriram

In the realm of elastic web applications, weblets require to be created and migrated between mobile terminals and cloud infrastructure. Authentication between these partitioned components and among the service backbone has had antecedents in open systems, using single-factor token-based mechanisms and has evolved to becoming ones where both OAuth and DAuth were used to accomplish two levels of authentication. Apropos to several systems described in the past that favour a unified and streamlined mechanism, it is proposed here that a token-based pseudo-two factor authentication system solves the twofold problems of having multiple authentication service endpoints and that of assigning appropriate permissions to the right resources. Additional security is also available for components such as shared credentials, session information and across mobile devices and other end terminals.
Keywords: Cloud Computing, Elastic Applications, weblets, token, authentication, unified proxy.

Studying the Relationship between Inter-Organizational Communication Strategy and Employees Empowerment (Case Study: Kerman Telecommunication Company)
Hamid Taboli, Mahdi Dehghani Soltani and Hamid Reza Altaha

Present study aims at studying the relationship between inter-organizational strategy and employees’ empowerment in Kerman Telecommunication Company. Its population consists of 745 subjects. Random layered sampling method is used to gather sample volume of whom 79 were selected as the sample. To analyze data, descriptive and inductive statistics along with Spearman test were used. Data collection tool is a standard questionnaire on inter-organizational relations strategy and employees’ empowerment. Facial validity is used for its validity and Chronbach’s alpha is used for its reliability. Chronbach’s alpha ratio is 0.94 for inter-organizational relations strategy and 0.96 for employees’ empowerment which show that the questionnaire enjoys very well reliability. Findings indicate that there is a significant relationship between inter-organizational strategy and employees’ empowerment in Kerman Telecommunication Company.
Keywords: Inter-organizational relations strategy, Employees’ empowerment.

Causality Test and Effects of Non-Petroleum Exports on the Economic Growth of OPEC Member Countries
Yahya Mohaghegh, Mohammad Daneshnia and Nasrallah Hosainpou

The relationship between export and economic growth has a long history in the economical literature. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the causality relationship between non-petroleum exports and economic growth in the countries selected from OPEC. To do so, annual data during 1970 to 2009 are employed. This research is conducted using econometrics of panel data along with novel methodology of Hsiao causality test in regressions that more likely to be irregular (SUR). The results of the research show the positive and meaningful effect of non-petroleum exports on economic growth of these countries. Also, the results of causality tests show that the causality relationship in these countries between non-petroleum exports and economic growth is bidirectional.
Keywords: Economic growth, non-petroleum exports, panel data, causality test, OPEC member countries.

On Managing Uncertainty with Rough Petri Nets in Medical Diagnosis
Mosaad W. Hassan and Moustafa M. El-Ashry

Today, in order to discover and diagnose many complex problems in medicine are a costly and time consuming tasks. This is because the medical knowledge on the symptomatology as well as the diagnosis and the experts’ evaluation are sources of uncertainty. Many computational intelligence techniques have contributed to solve diagnosis of disease and therapeutic treatments. Each of these techniques used its own approach to represent and manage uncertainty. This paper presents an approach aimed at supporting the physicians, with imperfect data, and medical diagnosis, which utilize a combination of Petri net and rough set theory. The contribution of this paper is to define an intelligent model whose quality of diagnosis relies on the employment of properties of both Petri net (such as continuous enabling, level-of-enabling) and rough set theory (such as approximation). Rough Petri net models are proposed for constructing rough set structure, generating decision rules based on specific reduct, representing decision rule, and computing certainty and coverage factors. Also, all algorithms required for these tasks are presented. Finally, the proposed models are applied on a simple medical information system.
Keywords: Rough Set, Rough Petri Nets, Medical Diagnosis, Uncertainty Management.

Design of a Linear Synchronous Reactor using a DC Voltage Controlled Statcom
Abdulkareem Mokif Obais and Jagadeesh Pasupuleti

In this paper, a single-phase linearly and continuously controlled synchronous reactor is presented. It is a harmonic-free single-phase statcom. The statcom is constructed of a full bridge voltage source inverter shunted by a DC capacitor and absorbs reactive power from the AC supply through a somewhat small series reactor. The statcom current is controlled linearly by its DC capacitor voltage. The controlling process is achieved by forcing the capacitor to discharge through a boosted up energy tank when its voltage is exceeding the required value and forcing the tank to recharge the capacitor when the capacitor voltage starts to decline. The DC capacitor voltage control in this paper is carried out without needing to external voltage sources. The compensator design is validated on PSpice.
Keywords: Controlled Reactor, Reactive Power, Statcom, Static Var Compensator.

An Overview of Stator Winding Ground Fault Protection Schemes
A.R. Sultan and M.W. Mustafa

Ground fault generator stator can cause serious damage to the generator. Therefore, the total area of the stator windings must be protected against hazardous condition. Because the conventional methods are unable to discern ground faults close to the neutral point of view, there should be a method to protect entire stator winding. The paper presents ways to discern ground faults for the generator stator. Some suggestions are proposed that can help in ensuring the stator winding ground fault more accurate.
Keywords: Ground Fault Protection, Generator Stator Winding

Application of Bit Planes and Wavelets in Iris Recognition Systems
A. Basit and Muhammad Younus Javed

Identification and verification of human beings is very important because of today’s security condition throughout the world. Recent efforts in computer vision have made it possible to develop automated systems that can recognize individuals efficiently and with high accuracy. Automatic recognition based on iris images is hot topic of research. Iris recognition consists of four steps: image acquisition, iris segmentation, iris normalization and feature extraction & matching. In this paper, iris is normalized using different methods to explore the best method of normalization and two different features extraction methodologies have been proposed. One is related to the bit planes of normalized image and other utilizes the amplitude of wavelet transforms. Effect of the size of normalized images is also investigated. Three different databases are used in the experiment. Recognition results based on bit plane features of the iris have encouraging performance with accuracy of 94.11%, 97.55% and 99.6% on MMU, CASIA ver 1.0 and BATH iris databases respectively. Different wavelets (Haar, Daubechies, Symlet, Coiflet, Biorthogonal and Mexican hat) at different levels with varying number of selected coefficients have been applied to get best iris recognition results. Coiflet wavelet resulted in high accuracies of 98.44%, 99.83% and 100% on MMU, CASIA ver 1.0, and BATH iris databases respectively.
Keywords: Image Processing, Iris Recognition, Biometrics, Pattern Recognition, Bit planes, Wavelet transform.

Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation in Riemann-Liouville Fractional Form
Omar K. Jaradat

We propose some fractional form of nonlinear Schrödinger lagrangian density and fractional nonlinear Schrodinger equation by adding some higher order terms to the fractional linear lagrangian density. We obtain the fractional Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation and the logarithmic fractional form equation naturally in terms of left and right Riemann Liouville fractional definition.
Keywords: Nonlinear Schrodinger Lagrangian density, Fractional calculus, Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, fractional Euler- Lagrange equations, fractional variational principles.

Three Phase Multi-Pulse AC–DC Converter with Current Injection and Line Side Transformer
T. Vivekananda Sibal and S. SenthilKumar

Aiming to a satisfy the stringent aircrafts and spaceships power quality regulations a topology with three phase two 6-pulse ac-dc converter is proposed. This topology consists of an injection circuit, connected in series with two six pulse converter. The main advantage of this converter is the absorption of sinusoidal currents from the ac system which has a harmonic content of 3.93% of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The performance achievements of a 24-pulse converter can also be achieved by a 12-pulse system, which are obtained by connecting two six pulse converter in series with an addition of low harmonic injection current. Hence this topology has a lower component current than other converter circuits. Therefore the performance of this topology ensures low harmonic current absorption and the simulated results are discussed.
Keywords: Index Terms – Bridge converter, three phase multi-pulse rectifier circuit, low harmonic.

A Comparative Review of the Functions of Narrative Time in New Novel and Iranian Drama: A Genettian Approach to Narratology
Akram Bahramian and Mohammad Jafar Yousefian Kenari

Drawing upon some Gerard Genette's key concepts of literary narratology, this paper tries to examine the possibility of using the functions of narrative time in drama. Given that common effects of one narrative function can be found in modern literary works, especially in Iranian new novel and dramas which reflect the impact of world literature on Iranian narrative models, the research emphasizes on the importance of adynamic process of some literary and drama interdisciplinary information. Using Genette's view on narrative time, two texts selected from Iranian dramatic literature (Sepas-2009) and western literary fiction (the Earsers-1953) are comparatively and critically analyzed. In a descriptive-analytic approach, the authors try to show how the concepts related to modern narratology are helpful in analyzing not only novels but also modern dramatic literature. The outcomes of exploring analytic devices related to narrative time such as order, frequency and duration, also functions like Narrative Anachrony, Analepsis and Prolepsis, and Descriptive Pause show Iranian modern dramatic techniques are in functional interaction with modern literary criticism.
Keywords: Iranian dramas, Gerard Genette, Narrative time, New novel, Alain Robbe-Grillet, Alireza Naderi

Earnings Quality and Cost of Equity
Fatemeh Ahmadi, Ghodratollh Heydari Nejad, Ali Akbar Kazemi and Mehdi Barani

This study examines the impact of earnings quality on the cost of equity. So, six criteria for measuring the quality of earnings was considered. The first measures of earnings quality was based on the relationship between operating cash flow and operating profit. The second criterion was earnings quality based on earnings predictability. The third one was sustainable profits that have been reported. The fourth criterion was measuring the total commitment. The fifth one was measuring the quality of working capital accruals. And sixth criterion was the ratio of operating activities cash to operating profit. Then the impact of each of these criteria was assessed on the expense of equity independently. Results of hypothesis testing showed that there were a inverse relationship between all criterion of earnings quality and cost of equity. Firms with higher earnings quality have lower cost of equity than firms with lower earnings quality.
Keywords: Quality of earnings, quality of accruals, costs of equity.

Modified Carry Select Adder using Binary Adder as a BEC-1
Kore Sagar Dattatraya and V. S. Kanchana Bhaaskaran

Arithmetic circuit is the core block of many processor architectures such as digital signal processors and general purpose microprocessors. The carry select adder (CSLA) is one of the fastest adder types favoured in the processor architectures. Many versions of CSLA have been proposed in the literature. This paper presents a modified carry select adder (M-CSLA) that operates at lower power and proves more area efficient. The logic and circuit level modifications made in terms of the logical flow of addition process realize reduction in the number of transistors used, and a corresponding reduction in the area and power dissipation. The validation of the logic is done through extensive simulations for measuring the power and delay. The merits of the design are proved through the total gate count and the number of transistors used in the architecture. 45nm technology libraries have been used in the simulations. The comparison of the proposed architecture against the Square Root CSLA and CSLA using the binary to Excess code-1 convertor (BEC-1) prove the advantages of the modified CSLA.
Keywords: Area efficient CSLA, Low power adder, CSLA, Square Root CSLA