European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 102 No 4
May, 2013

The Relationship between School Environment Understanding and Advanced Purposes with Educational Performance
Ghodsy Ahghar, Amineh Ahmadi and Mojgan Azmakan

The resent research aims at determining the relationship between school environmental understandings and advanced purposes with educational performance of students. the participant include all high school students ( girls)of Tehran city in educational year 1391-92. 300 students were selected randomly through multi-stage sampling. In the first stage Tehran was divided into three regions including north, center and south. In the second stage one educational area from each region was selected randomly and in the last stage one girl high school was chosen. Finally 20 students from one class in each school were selected. The present study is correlational. The instruments include classroom environmental understanding questionnaire by Gentry (2002) with reliability of 78% and advanced purposes questionnaire by McGrigor (1998) with reliability of 89% . total mean of physics and mathematics courses were considered as performance index of students. frequency statistics (frequency, percentage and mean) and inferential statistics ( regression test) were analyzed. supporting the hypotheses they showed that sub-scales like interest, enjoyment and and selection have a positive effect on students’ performance so that with the increase of theses sub-scales, the grade point average of students also increase. But there is a negative relationship between challenge and educational performance so that challenge decreases grade point average. Interest sub-scale have a more positive meaningful relationship with students’ educational performance so that grade point average increases more with increase of interest. All sub-scales of advanced purposes including knowledge skills, performance and avoiding skill and performance have a positive effect on educational performance so that with increase of these sub-scales, students’ grade point average also increases. Among the sub-scales, skill-based purpose have a more positive meaningful relationship so that with increase of skill-based purpose, grade point average also increases.
Keywords: School environment understanding, advanced purposes, educational purposes, students.

Anti-Jamming Performance of Communication Systems Based on Chaotic Modulation and MIMO Schemes Over AWGN Channels
Lwaa Faisal Abdulameer, Jokhakar Jignesh D, U. Sripati and Muralidhar Kulkarni

There has been a growing interest in the use of chaotic techniques for enabling secure communication in recent years. This need has been motivated by the emergence of a number of wireless services which require the channel to provide very low Bit Error Rate (BER) and high bandwidth efficiency along with information security. As more and more information is transacted over wireless media, there has been increasing criminal activity directed against such systems. One important aspect of performance of chaotic communication system is the ability to resist jamming. In this paper, an analysis of anti-jamming performance of a concatenated system comprising of Chaos Shift Keying (CSK) and Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) communication system is presented. The performance of CSK with 2×1 and 2×2 Alamouti schemes for different jammers has been studied. We have analyzed the performance of three common types of jamming, namely single-tone jamming, pulsed sinusoidal jamming and multi-tone jamming by quantifying the BER performance under different levels of noise power over AWGN channels. The results obtained by us indicate that this concatenated system possesses significant anti-jam capability. This capability has been quantified by comparing the performance of the system when operating in an environment affected by different types of jamming signals and AWGN noise.
Keywords: Chaotic technique, CSK, MIMO, Jamming

An Intelligent Malicious Node Detection Model (IMDM) in MANET: A Bayesian Technique (IMDM) in MANET: A Bayesian Technique
Khalid Hussain, Abdul Hanan Abdullah, Saleem Iqbal and Faraz Ahsan

Detection of Malicious behavior or compromised node before transmitting the data packets in pervasive computing is quite a big challenge. This paper presents the Intelligent Malicious Node Detection Model (IMDM) on a self-detection based scheme. We investigate that by using probabilistic methodology in MANET, a node can be able to detect the malicious behavior of the neighbor during forwarding and receiving the RREQ and RREP. Our proposed Intelligence detection model is also proficient to 1. Manage the malicious counter if any neighbor node acts as malicious, 2. The proposed model can be able to identify the real cause of the packet drop. If model found the malicious activities then every neighbor is able to detect it and mark it as malicious against its entry in routing table. After that every register node becomes aware about that malicious node through exchanging the routing table. Simulation results show that within second a network becomes clear from the malicious node for secure communication.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Routing Protocol, AODV, X-AODV, MANET

Analysis of Debt Capacity as a Tax Incentive to Currency Hedging
Milagros Vivel Búa, Luis Otero González, Sara Fernández López and Luis Ignacio Rodríguez Gil

This paper analyzes if exchange hedging increase debt capacity and therefore firm value for 100 firms during period 2004-2007. Using data from disclosures in the annual reports, a questionnaire and the SABI database, we obtained that the volume of currency hedging exerts a significant positive influence on company debt level. On average, currency hedging with derivatives generates an increase in indebtedness of 0.61%, whereas when foreign currency debt is used it reaches 6.68%. This extra volume of debt entails an average tax benefit of 8.78 million Euros when hedging is done with derivatives and 270.48 million Euros when it is done with foreign currency debt. We also found that the contribution of currency hedging to company value fluctuates according to volume of hedging with those financial instruments.
Keywords: Currency Hedging, Debt Capacity, Taxes, Derivatives, Foreign Currency Debt.
JEL Classification Codes: F30, G32, G33.

A Study of the Relationships between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Islamic Azad University Locale 13; Among Supervisors, Managers and Staffs
Gholam Reza Rahimi and Mohammad Reza Noruzi

The main idea of this research is the investigation of the status of the Relationships between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior in Islamic Azad University Locale 13; among supervisors, managers and staffs. Therefore, for testing organizational justice and for investigating organizational citizenship among supervisors, managers and employees we will use for both standard questionnaires in this research. This study's sample is 194 employees in Islamic Azad University in locale 13. After reliability and validity testing the data has been collected by two questionnaires, organizational justice and organizational citizenship. Also descriptive and inferential statistics have been used for analyzing the data. Descriptive statistics for commentary and data categorizing and for hypothesis testing the inferential statistics have been used. Finding shows that; organizational justice has effect on organizational citizenship in Islamic Azad University in locale 13 among three studied groups; supervisors, managers and employees.
Keywords: Organizational Justice, Organizational citizenship behavior, Islamic Azad Universities in local 13.

Political Participation and Political Marketing: A Mixed Methods Research
Hassan Danaee Fard, Ovase Toofani and Mohammad Reza Noruzi

The purpose of this study is to explore political marketing from the perspective adopted by the managers and seniors of Iranian political parties, using grounded theory design and finally to build a conceptual framework of political marketing and tests its impact on political participation using correlation design. Thus The research was conducted using a mixed methods design. In spite of the common beliefs that intellectual symbols is a determining factor in political marketing in Iran, the results of the research indicate that, among others symbols and instruments of political marketing, intellectual symbols played a minor role. However, like other democratic countries, political-party instruments had more impact on citizens’ political participation.
Keywords: Political participation, Political marketing, Citizens’ participation.

Protective Effects of Alcoholic Extract Zingiber Officinale Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Induced Brain Damage in Rat
Mustafa Taha Mohammed and Nisred K. Klichkhanov

Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur in a variety of clinical settings and this remains a significant problem. Oxygen free radicals, produced on reperfusion have been shown to play a major role in I/R injury. Various therapeutic effects have been described for Zingiber officinale. Additionally, it has been presented that Zingiber officinale has protective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs. Therefore, it seems possible that the administration of Zingiber officinale might protect the brain against the ischemia reperfusion injury.The study included knowledge The chemical components of the Zingiber officinale in the alcoholic extract and determine whether Zingiber officinale prevents ischemia-reperfusion brain damage. Thirty-six rats were divided into three groups as control (Group 1), I/R group (Group 2), and Zingiber officinale treatment group (Group 3). All rats underwent brain ischemia for 45 min followed by 60 min period of reperfusion. Rats were internal infused with only 0.9% saline solution in group 2. Rats in group 3 received alcoholic extract of Z. officinale (200mg/kg) for 15 days with the same diet intraperitoneally, before ischemia and before reperfusion. We were used serum for the estimation of the biochemical parameters: oxidative stress levels of nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) and We were used brain tissue for the estimation of GSH ,SOD, GSHPx ,CAT and MDA .The study showed that the Zingiber officinale in the alcoholic extract contain : glycosides , saponins ,tannins ,phenolic compounds , resins ,alkaloids ,proteins and flavonoids .The levels of GSH ,SOD, GSHPx ,CAT enzymes in treatment group were significantly higher than those in the group I/R ,but NO, LPO,MDA in treatment group were lower than in the I/R group.Our results suggest that Zingiber officinale treatment protects the rat brain against ischemia-reperfusion.
Keywords: Zingiber, oxidative stress, ischemia-reperfusion, brain.

A Comparison of Multilevel Inverter for using in 3-Phase Induction Motor
Mahaswari.U and Manikandan.M

Power conditioning systems using inverters are often designed to supply an AC load from a DC source. An inverter is a circuit that changes an AC supply to AC supply without changing the Frequency, phase or shape. Inverters need control of their output voltage and frequency simultaneously. They need also reduced harmonic components in the load current. These inverters find applications in variable speed drives, uninterruptible power supplies and other power conversion systems. Inverters should provide constant and ripple free AC voltage to ensure the safety of these systems. The design of such systems must achieve output voltage behavior close to the ideal AC voltage having low total harmonic distortion with fast transient response to load variations. Recently many configurations of single level inverters have been reported. They have merits such improved output waveform, smaller filter size, high output voltage without use of transformers and lower Electro Magnetic Interference. FPGA has been chosen to implement the pulse width modulation due its fast prototyping, simple hardware and software design.
Keywords: Inverter, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), PWM.

The Signature of Oscillation in Temperature of Cyclic Cylindrical Universe
Alireza Sepehri, Somayyeh Shoorvazi, Ali Ghasempour Nesheli and Aliakbar Moradi Marjaneh

The thermal history of Universe offers a unique opportunity to test the cyclic cylindrical model by calculating Universe temperature and comparing to observational data in previous models and experiments. To this end, first, the quantum states of cyclic cylindrical Universe are studied. It is shown that the ground state for this Universe is a maximally entangled with two-mode squeezed states on expanding and contracting Hilbert spaces of Universe. Next, the production cross section for each Universe state is obtained. It is observed that the probability for producing each state in cyclic Universe depends on different frequencies and damping coefficients in different space-time directions .After that, the thermal distribution of phonon near surface horizon of cyclic cylindrical Universe is obtained . It is found that in each Universe state, different amount of phonons are produced. Finally, using the thermal distribution of phonon, the temperature of cyclic cylindrical Universe is calculated. It is observed that the temperature of cyclic Universe has a periodic dependence on time with minor deviation due to damping coefficients, a result that is consistent estimates obtained by other models and also by observations of Universe temperature at present and big bang. In expanding branches of Universe, the temperature is decreased with going time and shrinks to zero before the end. In contracting branches of Universe, the temperature is increased with going time and becomes very big before the end. Also, this temperature is decreased in each cycle respect to previous cycles due to damped Universe oscillation.
Keywords: Cyclic cylindrical model, Temperature, phonon, Damped Universe oscillation

Review and Rating the Effect of Mixed Factors of Services Marketing on Clients Satisfaction Related to Economical on of Ports and Sailing Department of Mahshahr Port – Southwest of Iran
Abdol Karim Gayem

Achieved by defining the project as "Review and Rating services marketing mix impact on customer satisfaction in Imam Khomeini Port`s Special Economic Zone" In this study, the researcher attempts To explain the impact of each of the elements on customer satisfaction and attempts to determine the severity of them. In other words, tried to identify the priority and impact of each of these factors on Satisfaction of consumers. The main objective of this paper is to identify, explain and describe the marketing mix of services and its impact on customer satisfaction in Imam Khomeini Port`s Special Economic Zone. This is a subject to research in the field of marketing management service And its territory since the beginning of time is 6 months. Geographic scope of the research activities was the Department of Ports and Maritime Services in Imam Khomeini Port`s Special Economic Zone. A total of 215 questionnaires were distributed and collected. Since the questionnaire was designed based on the theoretical view points of experts so it has been positive, therefore, it was valid enough. Research on the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used. The results of the questionnaire survey showed that the alpha coefficient was calculated for the questionnaire was approved. Assumptions, we find the following results: The main hypothesis was confirmed, and all sub-hypotheses were confirmed.
Keywords: Marketing Services-Marketing Mix for Services–Satisfaction.

The Role of Western South Ports of Iran in Non – Oil Export of Khuzestan Province
Abdol Karim Gayem

Due to fluctuations and instability of price and world demand of oil- which cause government revenues and economy to be influenced by external factors- the daily increasing importance of independence from oil incomes has caused the role of nonoil export to be propounded something beyond a tool for exchange incomes . in this regard the attention of many experts and researchers of this field have been referred to the current situation of many experts and researchers of this field have been referred to the current situation of nonoil export. Existence of almost 3,000 kilometers coastal bar in north and south 5,000 kilometers marine border and fulfillment of 90 percent of world foreign trade through the seas, are of remarkable points of this study. Ports as the main gates of countries’ import/export and connection bridges between see and land can accelerate, facilitate and increase development of nonoil export of Abadan ports was considered as the dependent variable and foreign exchange rate, inflation rate, gross domestic production and government oil revenues were regarded as the independent variables of this research. Library method was the method of data collection. Considering the causal relation among the variables, the method of regression analysis using cross sectional data was selected for data analysis. To assure reliability of the variables co- integration method of ARDL and Error correction model were applied. Microfit and Eviews were the software used in this research. In general the results of this research show that in short term and long term, increase of exchange rate, decrease of inflation rate, decrease of government oil revenue have direct (positive) and significant effect on nonoil export. Gross domestic production, in short term, has a direct (positive) and significant effect but in long term, statistically it doesn’t have any significant effect on nonoil export.
Keywords: Non oil export, port, exchange rate, inflation rate, gross domestic production, Government oil revenues.

Christian Fundamentalism in the West vs. Islamic Fundamentalism in the Islamic World
Fatemeh Rajabi

Fundamentalism is an important and complicated debate and without addressing this concept it is impossible to consider the related issues. Topics on fundamentalism have taken this concept away from a “One-dimensional” status and have expanded its scope and domain in all religions and rituals. Studying more about fundamentalism will introduce it in terms of its origin, growth and distribution, both in time and place outside the Islamic world. Moreover, it makes its birth and maturity clear much earlier than its appearance in the Middle East. In general, careful and accurate study of modernism makes it clear that such an ideology in the 20th century with all its scientific and technological achievements and after passing through modernism has been able to attract many people in this century. These attracted people who greatly believe in it, are not just illiterate or low-literate ones, or not those who have no social status. On the contrary, many college educated people, politicians and other celebrities have joined it.
Keywords: Western fundamentalism, Islamic fundamentalism, the West, the Islamic world.

A Study on Issues in Cloud Computing
Ashok George and A. Sumathi

Cloud computing makes the business environment easier by offering huge storage capacity, processing power and infrastructure with the elastic demand. The cloud is helpful in reducing the cost of service and in increasing the availability which is essential for a successful business. Cloud helps the customer to reduce the operational cost, deployment time and maintenance cost. This reason makes the cloud computing a next generation technology. But, the lack of control and security are the big issues in the cloud computing. For this security problem, additional solutions have to be developed to make the cloud computing a grand success in the future. In this paper we have proposed a method to enhance the file integrity, which is very effective in security and very easy to implement. The proposed method is suitable for mobile clients and it helps to improve the file integrity and reduce the complexity.
Keywords: Net Income, Comprehensive Income, Performance Evaluation, Other Comprehensive Income Items

Characterization of South and Central Jordan Oil Shales
Hani M. Alnawafleh and Feras Y. Fraige

Major oil shale (OS) deposits in Jordan are related to the Muwaqqar Chalk Marl formation (MCM) of the Maastrichtian-Palaeocene. These deposits are not true shales but organic-rich carbonates. This study focuses on the characteristics of four oil shale deposits in central and south Jordan. Mineralogical, petrographical and geochemical analyses were performed on surface outcrop oil shale samples. Results show that these oil shale deposits, especially central Jordan deposits, contain significant amounts of organic matter. The mineral matter, majoring as carbonate, makes the bulk of the rock material. Despite the variability in their components content, they show quite similar internal texture. The OS of these deposits is of good quality and in very important for any future OS resources utilization in Jordan.
Keywords: Oil Shale, Jordan, Petrography, TOC, Fissure assay.

Evaluation of Factors Affecting MR Damper Performance in Seismic Response Reduction of Structures
Hossein Bakhshi and Sayed Ehsan Hosseini

Magnetorheological (MR) dampers classified as controllable fluid devices have demonstrated a great deal of promise for reducing seismic response of structures in prior studies. Since the efficiency of this device in reducing seismic response of structures depends highly on the manner in which the design parameters are selected, this paper focuses on detecting important and affecting parameters in performance of this control mechanism which can be practically selected in order to result in an optimal design. For this purpose the optimal parameters of MR damper and weighting matrices of control design have been determined based on minimization of structural responses. A semi-active design is developed in which an MR damper is applied to reduce the structural responses of the considered structure in the numerical simulation. Control input determination is based on a clipped-optimal control algorithm which employs absolute acceleration feedback to control linear structures subjected to earthquake for different values of design parameters and input earthquake characteristics. Results obtained from numerical studies demonstrated that maximum voltage applied to the MR damper, weighting matrices, clipped-optimal control algorithm and also frequency content of the design earthquake are among affecting parameters in MR damper efficiency that should be selected appropriately in practical applications.
Keywords: Control of structures, semi-active control, MR damper, clipped-optimal control