European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 102 No 3
May, 2013

Language of Space and Architecture and Analysis of Transferring Influential Concepts on form in Architectural Spaces
Meisam Mansouri, Sayed Gholam Reza Eslami and Mehrvash Kazemi

Transferring concepts always has been the purpose of architecture. Doubtless space is one of the strategies to arrive at this purpose, also it has two aims: transferring concepts and creating efficient space. Therefore, spaces are important for the role they play in transferring concepts as the main shaping agent for architectural spaces.Man is not passive and submission in confronting environmental information, but she/he acts actively. As a resultaccording to the cognitive knowledge man makes phenomenon in the environment meaningful. But the pattern of perception of outside world of human mind is much influenced by social culture. Therefore, if mental patterns are created out of the mind using space visually and tangibly, there will be a favorable and understandable relationship that impact of that work would be more than its reception. Meantime forms as a device to create sensual works have the greatest portion in providing relationship with these pre and post knowledge items as concepts. In addition, it is necessary to analyze the movement radius and natural areas of movement of people and designing details of forms and spaces should be in accordance with physical abilities and their mental and behavioral characteristics. Certainly forms and spaces motivate curiosity and innovation and by wisely selection and using specific tools like materials, forms and textures one can promote the richness of space. Therefore, in this study it is emphasized that space architecture will be able to create an active and dynamic space and transfer meaning not just form.
Keywords: Architecture, Form, Space, Transferring Concepts

Performance Evaluation via Application of System Dynamics & BSC (Case Study: Persian Gulf International Transportation CO.)
Maryam Mottaghi, Payam Azmoon, Siamak Gheitasi and Seyed Mahmood Ghochani

Balanced score card as a comprehensive set of performance evaluation provides a structure for evaluation of organization strategies and management system. But it can not identity the delay between the operations and their effects on the performance and without considering BSC, inefficient strategies evaluate them. The methodology presented by this paper clarifies the close relationship between BSC and dynamic modeling of systems. BSC-based simulation is used as an efficient tool for evaluating various strategies of the organization and compensating its weakness. If the modeling is done carefully and the validity of the model is proved, this model can be used to determine the goals indices in a definite time and as a tool to investigate and diagnosis the inefficient strategies. This paper deals with the explanation of combining BSC combination and dynamic system to increase the efficiency of BSC and overcoming its weaknesses in Persian Gulf Company.
Keywords: Dynamic system; Balanced score card; simulation; performance evaluation

The Study of the Effect of Earnings Management on the Relationship between Free Cash Flows and Shareholder Value in the Corporations Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange
Sanam Bakhtiarnezhad, Meysam Akhoundzadeh, Ali Habashi, Amin Azizi and Morteza Mohammadpour

The Globalization of organizations and the development of information technology have raised the expectations of investors from information, as a result of which the demand for measuring scales of a related and clear performance have been increased as well. Today, investors, creditors and managers are looking for an in time and reliable index to measure the possession of share holders. Free cash flow is one of these indexes, which is considered as an important scale for financial health of a corporation, but it has its own limitations exposed to accounting tricks. This research investigates and examines the effect of earning management on the relationship between free cash flows and shareholder value of the listed manufacturing companies in Tehran Stock Exchange in years 2003 to 2008 applying multivariate linear regression. The results of the research indicate that there is a direct significant relationship between free cash flows and shareholder value. It also indicates that the managers of these companies tend to use earning management in order to increase the free cash flows and the value and possession of shareholders.
Keywords: Shareholder value, free cash flows, discretionary accruals, earning management

The Effect of Water Conflict on the Geomorpholoical of the Lower Yarmouk River during the Period (1960-2011)
Yusra Alhusban

The purpose of this study is to describe and explain the effects of water conflict between riparians upon the lower Yarmouk River, within 12 km length, and 5 km width, with total area of 60 km ², and at 20km distance from Al wehdeh dam, during the period 1960-2011, The study was carried out from available topographic maps of 1960, 1994 and satellite image of 2011, in addition to field measurements, to analyze the patterns of adjustment of active channel, and valley, caused by the reduction of flow, and incresement of the river bed sediment. The results of the study as flows: - increasing the length of the channel by 50 m between 1960 and 1994 and up to 2.400 kilometers between1960 and 2011. –The active channel narrowed by 200-500 m ² during the study period. –Decreases in banks width in all studied sites. - increasing the amount of meandering river from 1.6 in 1960 to 1.7 in 1994 and up to 2 in 2011.
Keywords: Water Conflict, Yarmouk River, dimensions, meandering, Al wehdeh Dam, channel, TM.

Learning Process for Develop Model of Community Forest Management - A Case Study: Kok Hinlad and Kok Yai in Mahasarakham Province
Nijjaporn Machan, Charlie Navannugraha, Choopuk Sutisa and Prayoon Wongchantra

The purposes of this surway research were: 1) To study general condition of society policy economic and ecology of Kok Hinlad and Kok Yai community forest. 2) To create and develop a master model community forest management from Kok Hinlad and Kok Yai community forest. The qualitative study contains 2 phases. Phase 1: Selected committee of 16 people and of which 64 leadership people from Kok Hinlad and a selected committee of 20 people and of which 80 leadership people from Kok Yai. Phase 2: Develop and evaluation a management model of community forest from a learning stage condisting of 50 people who were purposively sample selected from previous population. The data was collected by interview using questionnaires and consisted 110 questions on the topics of the use of forest natural resources organization system, government forest management and landuse system, participation, and knowledge and wisdom. After the learning process as a whole. The commission with knowledge attitudes participation of Kok Hinlad and Kok Yai were significantly at level 0.05. The results of this study were as follows: 1) the general condition of society policy economic and ecology of Kok Hinlad and Kok Yai community forest have decreased the abundance of natural resources such as food ,animals herbs, and mushroom. Which depend on forest for their livelihood. The ecoculture community forest management is useful for revealing the relationship between natural ecosystem and social system. : 2) The development of this model is named as “PHAKOKS model”.
Keywords: Community forest management, Learning process, PHAKOKS model.

The Relationship between Self-Regulated Learning and Self-Efficacy among Jordanian University Students
Ahmad M. Mahasneh

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between self-regulated learning and self-efficacy. Participants of the study consisted of (433) students (male and females) selected randomly from different faculties of Hashemite University. Regression and correlation analysis were used for data in the establishing the dependence of the two variables. Results indicate that there is a significant positive correlation between self-regulatory and goal setting and planning, keeping records and monitoring, rehearsing and memorizing and seeking social assistance. The self-confidence is positively related to the goal setting and planning, keeping records and monitoring, rehearsing and memorizing and seeking social assistance. Results also indicate that the task difficulty preference are positively related to the goal setting and planning, keeping records and monitoring, rehearsing and memorizing and seeking social assistance.
Keywords: Self-regulated learning, Self-efficacy, Undergraduate student.

The International System Structure and Dichotomy in Dealing with the Nuclear Power of Iran and Israel
Mohammad Abolfathi, Bahram Moradi, Ahmad Kazemi, Seyed Reza Barani and Habb Allah Falahi

The main essence of the new reasoning of realists is that access to the nuclear power from the small countries isn’t dangerous, but the main danger is from the old powers threatening the international system. So today world is observing a dual behaviour of the great powers with the nuclear activities of Iran and Israel. This process is been performing specially with U.S.A support and partnership of other important powers. The presence article focusing on that subject tries to survey the reason of that behaviour with looking at the nature of current international System. It believes that within current international system, the major countries don’t suppose increasing and show of U.S.A power as a challenge to own vital goals, but they find it within the norms and values that their benefits are supplied in bed of those norms.
Keywords: Nature of current international system, hegemonic realism of U.S.A, the great powers, nuclear power.

Movements and International Organizations Based INGO Social International Civil Society in the Globalization Process
Mohammad Abolfathi, Bahram Moradi, Shapoor Amrai and Hoshyar Maleki Tulabi

Today globalization raised, social, INGO political and cultural role of in human society. International nongovernmental organizations half of the 19th century, the international system concerns about active impacts of on human life increase were compiled. this type of movements and organizations are often organized around the following axes are human rights, humanitarian action in armed hostilities against the approach, social entrepreneurs, This thesis asks how Social movements and international organizations con based INGO International civil society in the globalization process at the two approaches, we explore the theoretical basis for the formation and functioning according to the dimensional approach and goals. About the overall approach of these institutions exist two views of the first view of these institutions and processes designed by the major powers led to their interests along with the globalization trend, in line with the government regardless of the second International Peace Research and altruism are working principle such as individual freedom, social altruism, peace, avoid war and ... Make a point emphasized organizations and movements characteristic of this type circuit, and indeed moral government, which is kind of benefits regardless of politics between states and organizations is inter states. Then take the result given the theoretical basis and the objectives and functions is the same as INGO similar parties act in local communities and the role of everyday people to be more bold and less roles of governments and civil societies in the command system of principles between International placed according to the process of globalization the international system toward achieving a kind of civility and international civil society takes steps.
Keywords: Non-governmental international organizations, Social Movements, International civil society, Globalization, The type of government, Peace.

Researching on Data Protection about the Physical Device Being Stolen By using Hybrid Storage
Mortaza Mokhtari Nazarlou

Flash memory, favored by its high speed, low power dissipation and excellent kinetic shock resistance, is a type of memory widely used in USB mass storage devices. Compared with the data stored in Hard Disk Drive (HDD), which can be easily recovered, data stored in Flash memory is hard to be recovered once erased, and this feature is more beneficial to data security. Under such circumstances, it might be a solution to mix Flash with HDD. Thinking into consideration the characteristic that data stored in Flash memory is hard to be recovered once erased. This paper designs a system mixing Flash memory with HDD. It avoids the cracker get the whole plaintext by storing key data, which can be erased when necessary, in Flash.
Keywords: Recover; Flash; plaintext; key data

Mechanical, Morphology and Thermal Properties of Epoxy-Silica Hybrid Nanocomposites
Meenakshi D and Kothandaraman B

An Organic-Inorganic epoxy-silica hybrid nanocomposties has been prepared by in-situ sol-gel process with varying R-value [water: tetraethoxy silane (TEOS) weight ratio], without any catalyst. The preparation was carried out by two methods: i) by sequentially mixing pre-hydrolysed TEOS (with ethanol and water) with epoxy, followed by curing with aliphatic amine and ii) by simultaneously mixing water, TEOS, ethanol and epoxy, followed by aliphatic amine cure. There was an appreciable increase in thermal stability and mechanical properties, of the nanocomposites, compared with neat epoxy. The flexural strength and modulus were enhanced by 40 to 45% in some of these compositions. The distribution of the in situ generated silica, in the epoxy matrix was observed by scanning electron microscopy and an attempt is made to correlate the particle size of the silica with the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. Comparison is also done with a cured epoxy resin film which was subsequently subjected to sol-gel treatment by swelling in TEOS at high temperature followed by hydrolysis by humid air at high temperature.
Keywords: Epoxy, silica, in-situ sol-gel process, R-value, TEOS.

Tradition Woman and Modernity in Bapsi Sidhwa’s Novels
Najia Asrar Zaidi and Aliya. M. Zafar

The emancipation of Pakistani woman and the Pakistani English novel have been advancing together. Closely linked to these is the theme of tradition and modernity that has tremendously impacted Pakistani English fiction. Sidhwa’s novels are based on women’s experiences that can be used to construct knowledge accurately depicting their situation. Being the writer of four well-known novels, she brings to the fore the question of woman’s oppression in South-Asian societies. Her novels depict the collective subjectivity of women as already constituted by others. Through the sufferings of her female protagonists, Sidhwa protests against antiquated social beliefs and practices, religion, customs and male supremacy. Her four novels though notably different from one another, explore women’s condition in particular settings. The Crow Eaters throws light on the status of woman in Parsi community. The novel shows that women are exclusively devoted to their families. Her second novel The Bride is about unjust traditions of Kohistanis that oppress women. Cracking India covers partition with special focus on the rituals of different communities governing the lives of women. Finally, An Amercian Brat portrays the life of a young Parsi girl living in USA who challenges the patriarchal and religious norms related to women’s issues. This paper will examine the role of tradition and modernity impacting the lives of women and that how women come to terms with the most distressing events of life.
Keywords: Tradition, Women, Modernity, Oppression, Emancipation.

Investigating the Social Complexity Associated with the Formation Process of Information Systems Strategy
Walid J. Arif and Mohammad J. Arif

The main objective of this research work is to create an empirical understanding of the social complexity associated with IS strategy formation in practice. Information systems (IS) strategy has been frequently described by top executives as a critical organisational issue. A review of the IS literature reveals that the complexity of this aspect of IS is not very well understood. Studies that comprehensively investigate the social complexity of IS strategy formation in practice are lacking in IS literature. A considerable gap in IS strategy thinking between theory and practice is evident. Using data from a longitudinal interpretive case study, this paper seeks to address the social complexity associated with the formation process of IS strategy. A primary contribution of the research reported in this paper has been the providing of an empirical understanding of the dynamic interactions between the process of IS strategy formation and the social aspects of its context which has been argued but not sufficiently understood. Also, this paper argues that IS strategy formation can be perceived as a reflection of a sense-making process of the organisational social reality. This perspective has significant implications for both theory on and practice of IS strategy.
Keywords: Information Systems, Information Systems Strategy, IS Strategy Theory, Strategic Management, Knowledge Building.

To Study Employed Women's Job Satisfaction in Agriculture Bank (Central Offices)
Hadi Rezghi Shirsavar and Homeyra Paykhan

Considering the importance and decisive role of job satisfaction on functions and various factors of organization and therefore its effect on job performance, productivity and efficiency of staffs as well as the importance and statement of banks in economical system of countries are considered as a bases of growing and economical developments and major index for polarizing countries in international level. Regarding to load factor of each factor and literature of job satisfaction and questionnaire content, obtained factors were identified as follow: first factor: supervision; second factor: job promotion and development; third factor: policies; fourth factor: promotions; fifth factor: job domain and sixth factor: work conditions. Results of t-test show that women job satisfaction is in high level in Agriculture Bank. But in job satisfaction component in terms of job promotion and development (-4/836) because of practical average is smaller than theoretical average, it can be inferred that job satisfaction situation in terms of job promotion and development is in low level in Agriculture Bank.
Keywords: Satisfaction, job satisfaction, women, Agriculture Bank

Greenhouse Automation Based on Wireless Sensor Network with Novel Diagnostic Subsystem
Samir Jasim, Mahmoud Shaker and Ala'a Imran

Greenhouse is a building, which provides controlled climate conditions to the plants to keep them from external hard conditions. Greenhouse technology gives freedom to the farmer to select any crop type in any time during year. This very important issue especially it effected in countries' economies and population food security. Greenhouse needs monitoring and controlling system to operate in its required operation conditions. In this work, we design a greenhouse monitoring and controlling system at same time that meets the needs of Iraqi farmers, cheap, robust, friendly to use and WSN-based. Our designed system supports a lot of functions which the greenhouse manger need them like real-time parameter display, history chart parameter display , upper and lower control threshold set by the user with three control modes of operation and network diagnostic subsystem. The proposed system is implemented practically for monitoring and controlling system to adjust temperature, humidity, and CO2, level and soil moisture inside greenhouse. In which each node consists of arduino platform to process data, XBee S2 as radio transceiver modules and long life rechargeable battery. The monitoring system based on LabView program as Graphical Use Interface (GUI). The prototype is tested on 20mX10m greenhouse available in college of agriculture / University of Babylon and the results obtained are satisfactory according to the recommendation of specialist's staff member in the college.
Keywords: Greenhouse automation, WSN, Zigbee protocol, irrigation control.

Semiotic Analysis of Street Photography of Everyday Life in Tehran in the 60s and 70s of Hijri Shamsi in Iran after the Islamic Revolution
Azadeh Farmahini Farahani, Nader Amiri and Mehdi Akhavian

In documentary photography, society's attitudes has been augmented with the origin belonging to the subcultures and inner layers of the society This article conducts a semiotic and critical analysis of street photographs depicting everyday life of Tehran’s middle classes in the 1980’s and 1990’s through employing theoretic-methodological categories of Fisk’s implicit indication and Barthes’s mythology. Thus, a clear understanding can be obtained of the social, economic, and cultural situation of the era; common definitive lines in everyday lives of the middle classes; culture and art in the society, and the way temporal developments of current life are represented in the transformation of generational objects, details, and configuration of elements in the studied photographs. Results show the relation between everyday life style of people with composition of elements and components of photographs from a semiotic perspective based on aspects of cultural and ideological views of the society. Also visual elements in iconic semiotics represent the hidden meaning of myth in the cultural and ideological systems of the society represented by cultural and artistic aspects of the society and the existing visual signs in the studied photographs change with respect to culture and ideology of the society.
Keywords: Street Photography, Semiotics, The 60-70s of Hijri Shamsi, Tehran