European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 101 No 3
May, 2013

Fuzzy Shortest Path in a Directed Multigraph
Bashir Alam, Siddhartha Sankar Biswas and M. N. Doja

Multigraph is a generalized concept of graph where multiple edges (or arcs/links) may exist between nodes. The existing classical algorithms to find the fuzzy shortest path in graphs is not applicable to multigraphs. There is no work reported in literature so far on finding a fuzzy shortest path in a directed multigraph. In this paper we develop a method and design algorithms to search for a fuzzy shortest path in a directed multigraph. We coin the concept of classical Dijkstra’s algorithm which is applicable to graphs with crisp weights, and then extend this concept to multigraphs where the weights of the arcs are fuzzy numbers (FNs). It is claimed that the method may play a major role in many application areas of computer science, communication network, transportation systems, etc. in particular in those networks which can not be modeled into graphs but into multigraphs.
Keywords: Multiset, multigraph, FN, fuzzy-min-weight arc-set, fuzzy shortest path estimate, fuzzy relaxation.
MSC Code (2000): 05C85

Desulphurisation of Natural Gas by Using Adsorption Method: A Case Study of Lennox Gas Field
Fadi Zakariya Hanna, Immanuel Sebastine and Ribwar K. Abdulrahman

The demand for natural gas in recent era has been dramatic. Indeed, natural gas is existed in deep underground reservoir under specific pressure and temperature. Therefore, it may content many of non-hydrocarbons components for instance, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. In fact, most of gas reservoirs around the world produce sour gas that content acid gases such as H2S & CO2. These gases may consider one of the most obvious problems that facing gas industry. Acid gases in the raw natural gas should be removed or reduced to less 4 ppm for H2S and 2% for CO2. Indeed, acid gases cause several technical problems for natural gas industry for example, equipment corrosion. There are several methods and processes to sweet the sour natural gas for example, chemical absorption, solid bed method and physical absorption. The selection criteria of the most appropriate process for the sour gas may depend on several factors for instance, technology available, process cost and acid gases amount in the sour gas stream. Therefore, this study aims to investigate using natural gas sweetening method by adsorption on Lennox gas field. It will design the sweetening process by adsorption method. According to raw natural gas stream compositions, the Lennox gas field is contained moderate amount of Hydrogen sulfide(H2S) gas about 400 ppm or (0.04)%. Moreover, this H2S amount may consider small and it could be treated by adopting iron sponge process. Thus, this study aims to design iron sponge process for Lennox gas field. Moreover, design calculations covered several process design points for example, bed diameter which it calculated (1.5 ft. ID) and bed life time (17 days).
Keywords: Lennox gas field, Natural gas sweetening, process design, hydrogen sulphide.
Some Nomenclature:RMM Relative Molecular Weight, CO2 Carbon dioxide, H2S Hydrogen sulfide SG specific gravity

Effect of Amino Acids Application and Different Water Regimes on the Growth and Volatile Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Plant Under Taif Region Conditions
F.A.S. Hassan, E.F. Ali and O.M. Al-Zahrany

The influence of deficit irrigation, amino acids (AA) treatments and their combinations on growth, yield and volatile oil content of (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) plant was investigated. Three irrigation treatments were applied in this study. The first treatment was 100% of the field capacity (FC) as a control. The second and third treatments were received 80% and 60% of the FC, respectively as deficit irrigation treatments. AA was applied at 0, 1, 2 and 4 ml L-1. Deficit irrigation treatments significantly reduced the growth parameters, herb and oil yields, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll and N, P and K percentages compared to the control. However, deficit irrigation increased the volatile oil percentage and total carbohydrates. Increasing AA level significantly increased all the previous parameters and the best results were obtained by applying the highest AA level (4 ml L-1). The treatment of 100% FC combined with 4 ml L-1AA was the most effective treatment. The GC results of volatile oil showed that the main components were a-pinine, camphine, 1,8-cineol, verbinone and borneol and were affected by irrigation and AA treatments. Results indicated that there is a high potential for saving water by using amino acids with lower irrigation levels in rosemary production since AA partially alleviated the negative effects of deficit irrigation.
Keywords: Amino acids, Deficit irrigation, Chlorophyll,Volatile oil, Carbohydrates.

A Review of Clustering Based Energy Efficient Genetic Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks
N. Thangadurai and R. Dhanasekaran

Recent advances in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enabled to develop minimum energy consumption clustering algorithms. The WSNs can be used for various applications like battle field, disaster areas and military applications. One important issue in WSNs is the limited battery of sensor nodes. When sensor nodes are placed in a field, it is difficult to replace their batteries. To minimize the energy consumption of nodes, WSNs introduce various protocols and algorithms. Among the techniques, the genetic based energy efficient clustering algorithms are used to minimize the energy consumption of nodes and extend the network lifetime. Genetic algorithm (GA) is an adaptive method for search and optimize problems and the genetic process is based on biological organisms. Clustering is an effective way for reducing energy consumption of a sensor nodes as well as the cost of transmission. This review mainly focus on various clustering based energy efficient Genetic Algorithms applied in WSNs which provide better efficiency.
Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Clustering, Cross over, Mutation Process

A Security Approach using Mobile Agents for Wireless Sensor Networks
D Sheela, G. Mahadevan and R.M.S. Parvathi

This research paper gives new simple solutions/approaches that use Mobile Agents in Security of Wireless Sensor Networks. There are three identified attacks such as cloning attack, sinkhole attack and black hole attack for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). For each attack, a solution/approach is given and it illustrates principles corresponding to that classification. All three solutions run parallel to reduce the cost and energy for this multiple attack detection concept. Description of each solution is given from the viewpoint of the role which a Mobile Agent has in the Wireless Sensor Network. This mechanism does not require more energy .The results show the comparison made with the existing security solution without mobile agents with proposed security solution with the mobile agent. Comparison was also done between the proposed security systems with the security system handling single attack. And it proves that security solution using mobile agents have more efficiency than traditional approaches.
Keywords: WSN, Mobile agent, Attack, Security, Node replication

Enhancement of Overall Effectiveness of Equipment by using TPM Concept
Rajesh.S. Jangaler and G. Ranganath

In today’s competitive world sustain in the market ,customer satisfaction is key factor which can be achieved by providing good quality of the product on time at customer end but it is not possible because of operating the machines below the rated speed, start up loss, break down of the machines and bottle necks in process. The present paper highlights Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) methodology is used as tool for the equipment uptime by Focused improvement (kaizen), Autonomous maintenance activities, Planned maintenance, Technical training in equipment maintenance and operation, early equipment management program, Quality maintenance activities, safety and environmental issues. TPM and problems encountered during the implementation are discussed and analysed. Moreover, the critical success factors for achieving TPM are based on the practical results gained from the study. This models help's how the plant major control over the effective use of their machines and equipment(Capital assets) by using Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) as a measuring tool and how company can build their personalized model for TPM implementation. After the implementation of TPM model machine improved, machine condition on the job training production increases as machine available for more hours for production and in between stoppages are minimized, self-supervision and continuous improvement which results in OEE of the equipment from present stage of 49% to 83%. After implementation of TPM may be noted the product, machines, employees and materials are the same by updated concept when implemented made the difference. All this improvement is within the competence of employee working in the organization, no external person can do it.
Keywords: Total productive maintenance, Overall Effectiveness of equipment, continuous improvement, Planned maintenance, kaizen.

Dual Objective Min-Min Algorithm for Meta Task Scheduling in Grid Computing
T. Kokilavani and D.I. George Amalarethinam

Grid computing harnesses the idle time of resources for effective utilization. It combines the geographically distributed heterogeneous resources to solve a computational intensive problem. The jobs that make use of these available resources are also heterogeneous in nature. Many parameters like execution time, memory capacity, network bandwidth, communication cost etc affect the task scheduling in Grid environment. To improve the overall throughput of the Grid environment effective and efficient load balancing algorithm is needed. Min-Min algorithm is simple which produces minimum makespan. But it fails to produce a load balanced schedule as well as it considers only the execution time of tasks for scheduling. Our previous work [14] was focused on producing a load balanced schedule with minimum makespan in min-min algorithm. This work considers another important parameter, the memory requirement of task in addition to the execution time to make the algorithm efficient in real time environment. Thus Dual Objective Min-Min [DOMM] produces an efficient schedule that balances the load as well as satisfies the memory requirements of tasks.
Keywords: Grid Computing, Task Scheduling, memory requirement, load balancing, Min- Min algorithm

Segmenting Shoppers in Saudi Arabia Demographically in Terms of Store Preference
Mohammad Imdadul Haque

Demography does play a role in choosing the type of store. The study aims to categorize the demographic traits of shoppers in Saudi Arabia with respect to preference of stores. A discriminant analysis of sample respondents points that nationality, education and employment are more likely to result in the person preferring supermarkets and hypermarkets markets while age has effect on preferring small and local convenience stores. This study recommends supermarkets and hypermarkets to improve upon by making their stores more comfortable for aged shoppers.
Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Demography, Store preference, Discriminant analysis, Segmentation
JEL Classification Codes: L81, M31

The Relationship between Parents` Addiction Background and Domestic Violence Rate Toward Children
Mahmoud Yaghoubidoust and Masoud Ahmadinejad

This study aimed to assess the relationship between the parents` addiction background and their domestic violence toward children in Ahvaz city. It is a survey research was conducted randomly using questionnaires in Ahwaz city. The population consists of all male and female students from high school and their parents and the sample was 384 people which were selected via cluster sampling and calculated by Cochran`s formula. Child trauma questionnaire (CTQ) was used to gather data (Bernstein, 1995). Researcher-made questionnaire for parents` addiction background and demographics questionnaire were used. Statistical indexes such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, Pearson correlation, and t-test, regression analysis were used to data analyzing. the results obtained from the data analysis showed significant positive relationship between parents` addiction background and their domestic violence toward offspring. As well as a significant negative correlation was approved between parents` addiction background and family violence aspects (physically, emotionally, emotional -physical negligence) toward offspring. The findings indicated that parents` addiction background as a risk (vulnerable) factor can be effective in their tendency toward any types of domestic violence against children. So the therapeutic training and communication skills are necessary in this case for families with drug addiction.
Keywords: Domestic violence, parents` drug addiction background, Ahvaz

A Novel Image Resizing Based on Frequency Scaling Property of Discrete Cosine Transform
Pakorn Sirichotedumrong, Panwit Tuwanut, Jeerasuda Koseeyaporn and Paramote Wardkein

A resizing method presented in this paper is based on frequency scaling property of the discrete cosine transform (DCT). The proposed algorithm can be employed either in DCT or inverse DCT (IDCT) processes or in both transform domains. However, if it is applied in IDCT procedure, image resizing and image displaying is easily achieved. The experimental results show that the presented method requires lower computational cost than existing methods in most cases and generates the resized images at acceptable visual quality. In addition, the proposed method extremely has low complexity compared to other techniques. Since the proposed resizing technique can be inherited in DCT/IDCT processes thus to resize images with arbitrary factor (P/Q x R/S), no additional computation process is required.
Keywords: Arbitrary Image Resizing, Discrete Cosine Transform, Frequency Scaling

Corrective Feedback and Writing Performance of EFL Learners
Neda Fatehi Rad and Nahid Naderi Anari

Responding to student writing is one of the most controversial topics in secondlanguage (L2) instruction and theory. Do students benefit from teachers’ corrections and written comments on their writing? If so, are some types of feedback more effective than others? Just as importantly, what are students’ preferences for feedback and error Correction? Students’ beliefs about what constitutes effective feedback on writing and their expectations regarding teacher paper-making techniques may influence the effectiveness of such feedback (Schulz, 1996); therefore, it is important to investigateL2 students’ preferences for teacher feedback on writing in order to ascertain whether these preferences and expectations match those of their teachers. This paper reports on a study investigating EFL University students’ preferences for error correction andPaper-making techniques.Pervious researchers had investigated on other aspects of corrective feedback such as spoken one, but the study wants to investigate the effect of writing corrective feedback on the treatable errors in the writing of EFL learners. Researchers distribute questionnaire to 60 EFL learners at Kerman Azad University. The findings have valuable effects on language teaching and learning .The results provide effective hints for language teachers and curriculum developers.
Keywords: Corrective Feedback (C.F), Writing Skill, Written Corrective Feedback (W.C.F.)

Production Based Time Estimates for Highway Construction Projects
S.R. Kannan and R. Senthil

Estimating durations of large highway construction projects has always been a challenging task in the construction industry. It is characterized with works being taken up at different locations of the project simultaneously with varying durations. These durations depend on the production rates of individual activities which are governed by several factors such as availability of resources, environmental and geographical conditions. The current approach in road project scheduling is based on productivity in quantity of a certain item of work with a defined crew. In reality, these production rates are not achieved as per plan during execution and vary from project to project. Attempts to define probable production rates in the past have not been able to provide accurate guidelines as the linear relationship of activities in road projects have been ignored or the range of production proposed have been too wide. Variability in production rates in road projects can be attributed broadly as reasons within the control of the constructor and those beyond their control. Reasons beyond the scope of the constructor can be government policies, social and political in nature which does not really reflect the execution side in the project. Therefore, reasons within the purview of constructors has been critically analysed in this work to account for constructor’s role in such variability. The Delphi method has been adopted in reaching consensus on probable production rates of activities with predictable factors of time estimates in highway construction taking a case study of an Indian road project. The basic framework for time estimates has been proposed by adopting linear Scheduling due to limitations of network techniques in road works. A simple flowchart model of the time estimate method has been presented incorporating probable production rates defining crews and work quantities.
Keywords: Scheduling, Productivity, Linear Activities, Road Projects, Delphi

Optimization Out-of-Orbit Plane Changes using Aeroassisted Maneuvers Amended with the Solar Radiation Pressure using Lagrange Planetary Equations
F. A. Abd El-Salam and S. E. Abd El-Bar

The problem of optimizing the fuel consumption needed for orbital maneuvers is investigated. The normal to the orbit components of the atmospheric drag and lift forces , as well as the normal component due to solar radiation pressure are obtained. The temporal variations in the inclination using Lagrange planetary equation are derived, then are integrated over one revolution. The velocity variations required to perform the propulsive maneuvers due to engines on board the satellite are calculated.
Keywords: Optimization; Aeroassisted maneuvers; Atmospheric Drag and Lift, Solar Radiation Pressure.

Geopolitical Position of the Persian Gulf and Its Impact on the Foreign Policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Mohammad Abolfathi, Bahram Moradi, Heshmat Noorali and Faramarz Salehi

Since policy and practice of governments is influenced by the geopolitical environment and building equilibrium conditions at a set time and place of their behavior; Iran, despite having a strategic position involves the design and implementation of foreign policy on the geopolitical basis (location, status, resources, ideology and cultural territory) with effective interaction and mutual understanding of the time and place circumstances; Thus, However, this article is going to demonstrate favorable and unfavorable Iran’s geopolitical context accurately and deeply define field approaches and the opportunities and challenges for the presence of various international developments in the international system with the lowest cost and highest benefit important Persian Gulf region.
Keywords: International interactions geopolitics, Islamic Republic of Iran foreign policy, Persian Gulf

Effet Antiprolifératif du Dimère Réarrangé Issu de L’alcalisation du Procyanidine B2
Kouamé Bosson Antoine, Boua Boua Benson, Mamyrbékova-Békro Janat Akhanovna and Békro Yves-Alain

Nous savons que la catéchine subit une épimérisation du carbone C2 en milieu alcalin pH 11. Notre objectif est une meilleure connaissance concernant le devenir des oligomères comme le procyanidine B2 dans les mêmes conditions. Nous avons simulé les conditions alcalines qui prévalent durant la fabrication du chocolat. Quatre composés ont été isolés à partir du réarrangement du dimère B2 en milieu alcalin à savoir le produit de départ (B2), la (-)-épicatéchine, la (-)-catéchine et un nouveau dimère réarrangé qui a par ailleurs montré une bonne activité antiproliférative sur la ligné U266 comparativement au resvératrol utilisé comme référence.
Motclés: Theobroma cacao; Alcalinisation; Catéchines; Epicatéchine; Procyanidine B2; Epimérisation; U266.