European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 101 No 2
May, 2013

A Novel approach for a Secured Power Aware and Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (SPAEERP) for Wireless Sensor Networks
166-176
R.Prema and R.Rangarajan

Abstract:
Several wireless sensor network applications have to to decide the inherent discrepancy between energy efficient communication, power aware routing and the requirement to attain preferred quality of service (QoS) such as packet delivery ratio, delay and to reduce the power and energy consumption of wireless sensor nodes. In addition to that the protocols which are developed aims in providing better QoS with compromising security aspect. For addressing this challenge, we propose the Secured Power Aware and Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (SPAEERP), which attains application-specified communication delays at low energy cost by dynamically adapting transmission power and routing decisions along with incorporating a novel cryptosystem. Through extensive simulation in NS2 the results prove that the proposed SPAEERP attains better QoS and reduced power and energy consumption. Cryptool is used to test the novel proposed cryptosystem.
Keywords: Sensor networks, secured power aware routing, energy efficient routing, novel cryptosystem, robust nodes.


Scalable & Secured Route Discovery Mechanism using DSR Protocol
177-184
Anna Saro Vijendran and J. Viji Gripsy

Abstract:
MANET is emerging as one of the most important technologies in the field of ubiquitous networking. It consists of mobile nodes that do not possess limitation on mobility. Many formidable challenges in Route discovery has been associated with network performance in which important challenge is on reducing unnecessary broadcasting. Recently, many broadcasting schemes have been proposed for ad hoc network. In this paper Dynamic MPR (DMPR) scheme has been proposed for efficient route discovery which limits broadcasting in the direction of Destination. This reduces number of control packets and time required for finding routes between source and destination.
Keywords: MANET, DSR, MPR, DMPR, Watchdog.


Semantic Analysis of derivational suffixes used in Zakhireh Kharazmshahi
185-197
Zahra Ahmadi Kalateahmad

Abstract:
Every branch of science has its own specialized language in which certain terminologies will express basic concepts and meanings and what distinguishes a certain language from other languages is its lexicon. Lexicon is studied in a branch of linguistics in terms of meaning and structure and its meaningful units. This article aims to study the derivational terms (made by suffixes) used in third book of Zakhireh-e Kharazmshahi authored by Seyed Ismail Jorjani , the famous Iranian scientist in 11-12 centuries A.D. In this precious book, words are precisely utilized in their right place in sentences so that it has a very complete and determined structure even though the words are very simple and free from any redundancy. This research has been carried out by randomly selecting derivational words. After collecting certain words, they were semantically studied in terms of the word structure (adding suffixes) and the productivity of the affixes (suffixes) used in those words. Results indicated that some suffixes have high frequency and others have low frequency. Moreover, the arousal level (semantic transparency) of the understudy lexicons was studied based on the productivity of the suffixes and their active role. Among the 14 suffixes which were studied, the suffixes - (- ?) - / -i / and (- ?) / -e / had the highest frequency and the suffixes (- ??) /-nâ/, (- ????) /-gâne /, (- ???) /-gâr/, and (- ???) /-sâr/ had the lowest frequency respectively.
Keywords: Semantic Analysis, derivational suffixes, Zakhireh Kharazmshahi


Placement of Distributed Generator, Capacitor and DG and Capacitor in Distribution System for Loss reduction and Reliability Improvement
198-212
S.Chandrashekhar Reddy, P.V.N.Prasad and A.Jaya Laxmi

Abstract:
Integration of renewable energy based Distributed Generation (DG) units provides potential benefits to conventional distribution systems. The power injections from renewable DG units located close to the load centers provide an opportunity for system voltage support, reduction in power losses and emissions, and reliability improvement. Therefore, the allocation of DG units should be carefully determined with the consideration of different planning incentives. It shows the importance of installing the exact amount of DG in the best suitable location. Studies also show that if the DG units are connected at non-optimal locations or have non-optimal sizes, the system losses will increase. To accomplish the aforementioned process and to evaluate optimal location of DG and the amount of power to be generated, a new method is proposed using Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm (FGA). In this paper, the distribution load flow is run initially without capacitor placement and then the size and location of capacitor in distribution systems based on GA is determined for power loss minimization and voltage profile and reliability improvement. The proposed method is tested for IEEE 33 bus system, by connecting suitable size of DG, capacitor and DG and capacitor at the optimal location of the system. The results showed a considerable reduction in the total power loss in the system, improved voltage profiles of all the buses and Reliability Indices.
Keywords: DG, Capacitor, Genetic Algorithm, Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm, Power Loss, Reliability Indices.

Adaptive Burst Allocation Algorithm for IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Networks
213-222
Ahmed M. Husein Shabani, Ammar Abdul-Hamed Khader and Mirza Tariq Beg

Abstract:
In this study we investigate the relative ability of comprehensive income and net income to summarize firm performance as reflected in stock returns. We also examine which comprehensive income adjustments improve the ability of income to summarize firm performance. We also investigate this claim that income measured on a comprehensive basis is a better measure of firm performance than other summary income measures. The results do not show that comprehensive income is superior to net income for evaluating firm performance on the basis of stock return and price. Except for investment industrial group, In Tehran Stock Exchange, we found no evidence that comprehensive income for firm performance evaluation on the basis of cash flows prediction is superior to net income. While, we found the better results for the state companies (only in other companies group), i.e., firm performance evaluation on the basis of cash flows prediction using comprehensive income is superior to net income. Collectively, our results provide some weak evidence that show comprehensive income adjustments improve ability of income for reflecting firm performance.
Keywords: Net Income, Comprehensive Income, Performance Evaluation, Other Comprehensive Income Items

An Intelligent Algorithm for Channel Estimation of Multiband OFDM System over UWB Communication Channels
223-231
G. Joselin Retna Kumar and K. S. Shaji

Abstract:
This paper proposes an efficient channel-estimation scheme for multiband (MB) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-based Ultra Wide Band (UWB) communication systems. OFDM has recently been applied in wireless communication systems due to its high data rate transmission capability with high bandwidth efficiency and its robustness to multi-path delay. UWB OFDM communication was proposed for physical layer in the IEEE 802.15.3a standard which covers wideband communication in wireless personal area networks. A channel estimation scheme using a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy-based neural network under the time varying velocity of the mobile station in a UWB OFDM system is proposed in this paper. In our proposal, by utilizing the learning capability of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), the ANFIS is trained with correct channel state information then the trained network is used as a channel estimator. To validate the performance of our proposed method, simulation results are given and found that it gives more accurate prediction of channel coefficients as compared with Least Square(LS), Minimum Mean Square(MMS) and fuzzy channel estimators under various highly noisy multipath channel conditions.
Keywords: OFDM, UWB, ANFIS, LS, MMS, channel estimation.


A Solar Power Generation for Single Phase AC Residential Load using Boost DC – AC Inverter with Variable Structure Voltage Control
232-245
S.Rajendran and S.Senthil Kumar

Abstract:
This paper proposes a viable boost dc-ac inverter for solar power generation. In this boost dc-ac inverter converts a low output dc voltage of the photovoltaic array is boost up to 325Vm ac voltage at a fundamental frequency of 50Hz by a single stage. A simple variable structure voltage closed loop control method is proposed to keep the output voltage constant barring various abrupt load changes. This proposed control scheme is very simple and increases the efficiency of overall energy conversion even the sliding mode control scheme. Therefore the proposed power generation scheme has more desirable features such as low cost and minimum number of switches. The total harmonic distortion (THD) generated by the proposed configuration is quite reasonable. The complete system is modeled using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Keywords: Solar Power Generation, DC–AC Power Conversion Total Harmonic Distortion


Music-Speech Segregation using Feed Forward Neural Networks with C4.5 Decision Tree Algorithm
246-254
S.Rathnadevi and S.Jothilakshmi

Abstract:
This article tries to categorize aural methods by feed forward neural network and assess their appropriateness, and precision in categorization. The scheme is to optimize the neural networks so as to what coatings and information of neurons are the majority of appropriate to categorize aural .wav collections. We suggest an employ of a scheme based on a decision tree in arrange to join the future set of characteristics receiving an enhancement in the amount of exact categorizations. In consequences of a transmit broadcasting file are offered performance that the preferred characteristics beside with an employ of the decision tree classifier permits the separation of voice from tune with a sky-scraping amount of precision. Here precision is accounted higher than 96%.
Keywords: Audio classification, Feed Forward Neural Network, .WAV Format


Environmental Factors Affecting the Formation of Nanotechnology Business Clusters: Case of a Developing Country
255-264
Esmail Beigi, Mahdi Amirabadi and Behrad Seyyed Zare

Abstract:
For more than two decades, industrial development based on clustering used as a new strategy for experts, business owners, and policy-makers in both developing and developed countries. Contrary to most of the old approaches, which used to concentrate upon large firms, nowadays, small and medium sized enterprises, network communications, competitiveness and collaborations, and clusters are the main topics of interest for policy makers. On the other hand, environmental factors play a significant role in the formation of clusters, which are not sufficiently discussed in the literature of research and academic institutions. Therefore, in the present paper we identified, and prioritized the environmental factors affecting the formation of nanotechnology business clusters, and classified them in four categories: social, institutional, economic, and technological.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, Business Clusters, Environmental Factors


Review on the Attacks and Security Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
265-283
IbrihichOuafaa, Krit Salah-ddine, LaassiriJalal and El Hajji Said

Abstract:
Wireless Sensor Network has opened several research criteria related to social security, data management, networking models, distributed system, agricultural aspects, military supervision etc. With the increasing number of applications, an increment in sensor network vulnerabilities has also become noticeably higher. Thus securing the WSN has become a great challenge for the researchers. In this paper we explore the security issues and challenges regarding WSN by classifying security attackssuchasSybil, HELLO, Wormhole and Sinkhole attacks, reviewing proposed security mechanisms and clarifying essential security requirements for specific security schemes. At last, A comparison table is presented which illustrates thevarious properties held by these security protocols, includingauthentication characteristics.
Keywords: WSN, Security protocols, attacks, Data aggregation, Key management.


OFDM Peak Detection Algorithm based on Wavelet Transform
284-291
Saleh S. Saraireh (Corresponding author), Qadri J. Hamarsheh and Omar Daoud

Abstract:
This work proposes a new peak detection algorithm based on the entropy of the wavelet transforms. Moreover, this work has been applied to combat one of the major Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system’s drawbacks; namely peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). The proposed algorithm is divided into three main stages; reconstruction based on wavelet transform, predetermined thresholding, and imposing moving filter. This algorithm is called OFDM system based Entropy Wavelet Transform (O-EWT). The O-EWT performance and validity have been checked based on a numerical analysis and a conducted simulation. As a comparison with the techniques found in the literature, O-EWT gives promising results reach to around 80% improvement for the same bandwidth occupancy, which is attained at the cost of introducing additional complexity to the transceiver's structure.
Keywords: OFDM, PAPR, Wavelet Transform, Entropy, Clipping, SLM.


SEvaluation of the Cost of Management of Chronic Viral Hepatitis B and C in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
292-296
David Olorunfemi Samuel, Philip Oluleke Ibinaiye and Bello Ovosi Beatrice

Abstract:
Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine what is the cost of managing patients who are infected with Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) in their initial evaluation before commencement of treatment and to determine how much they spend yearly if on treatment with the available antiviral drugs in the country. We also compared this cost implication with that of HIV/AIDS which is a very close ally of the disease in acquisition and infectivity and to comment on the role of the media on the management of the disease. Methods: The costs of various laboratory and imaging investigations needed for the diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis were obtained from the various laboratories and tabulated. The costs of the few drugs that are available were also obtained from different pharmaceutical shops and from the pharmaceutical companies where this is not possible. The obtained information was used to calculate the estimated cost for a year for a patient who is stable and compared to the one who is not stable and would need liver transplant and maintenance for one year as well. Result: Patients with chronic viral hepatitis need to spend about #74,000.00 in a public laboratory and imaging centers or about # 230,440 in a private laboratory and imaging centers before they are treated for viral hepatitis. The cost of treatment also is dependent on the type and whether or not there are complications such as ascites or encephalopathy. Conclusion: Management of chronic viral hepatitis poses a serious burden on both the patients and their care givers.
Keywords: Cost, chronic viral hepatitis


Some Results on Locally Eventually Onto
297-302
Iftichar M.T.AL-Shara'a and May Alaa Abdul-khaleq AL-Yaseen

Abstract:
We discuss the relation between locally eventually onto and some chaotic concepts on Rn. We show that if f is continuous piecewise monotone on compact subset of Rn then f is locally eventually onto. Also, we prove if f is an equicontinuous piecewise monotone and transitive then f is locally eventually onto but if f has dense homoclinic points with above conditions (without transitive) and strongly blending then f is locally eventually onto. Finally , we prove f is locally eventually onto imply sensitive dependence on initial conditions .
Keywords: Locally Eventually Onto, Totally Transitive, Topological Transitive, Sensitive Dependence on Initial Conditions.


Ontology Based Middleware Architecture for Context Aware Service Discovery
303-317
E.Christopher Siddarth and K. Seetharaman

Abstract:
The advanced applications and services to incorporate the context awareness are required by the persisting advances in the fields of wireless network and mobile computing. In distributed mobile networks, context awareness is considered as a vital and beneficial feature. Generally, mobile devices have certain constraints such as processing, storage space etc which can be overcome by using context awareness. Context plays a major role in filtering the data and services transmitted to the devices which results in reduced processing cost. In this paper, we design ontology based middleware architecture for context aware service discovery. The architecture uses contextual ontologies to allow the semantically enhanced contextual requests for services.
Keywords: Context-aware computing, Mobility, Ontology, Service Registry, Service Discovery, Middleware, UDDI Registry.


Expatriate Parents’ Knowledge and Perception of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Vaccination Intention in Bangkok, Thailand
318-332
Melissa M. Baker and Ratana Somrongthong

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to measure expatriate (expat) parents’ knowledge and perception of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine whether these variables influence HPV vaccination intention. From January to February 2013, forty-six expat parents of children below the age of 18 years completed an online survey that measured level of knowledge, perception of HPV and the HPV vaccine, and vaccination intention. All data were analyzed anonymously using regression analysis with odds-proportional model. 39% of participants had positive vaccination intention, of whom 6.5% had vaccinated their child(ren) prior to the study. 76.1% of the study population had heard of HPV prior to the study, and 91.4% of these participants had heard of an HPV vaccine. Participants who had a higher level of knowledge of the health effects, preventative measures and treatment of HPV had a more positive vaccination intention. Furthermore, participants who knew of the susceptibility, threat and consequences of HPV, and the benefits of vaccination also had a positive vaccination intention. Knowledge and perception can influence HPV vaccination intention. These data demonstrate a need for HPV education programs that equip parents to make an informed decision of whether to vaccinate their child with the HPV vaccine.
Keywords: Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Vaccination, Expatriate, Parental Intention