European Journal of Scientific Research
 Volume 100 No 3
 May,2013
 
The Theme of Existence in Samuel Beckett and Ernest Hemingway's Oeuvre
352-358
Shahla Sorkhabi Darzikola and Saeid Rahimipoor
 
Abstract:
Twentieth century intellectuals such as Samuel Beckett, the great English playwright, and Ernest Hemingway, the illustrious novelist, have dealt with the question of existence in their oeuvre. In this research among the many characteristics revealing existence, the major ones including the themes of identity and existence have been analyzed with regard to the techniques of the two writers in their major works. It shows how the two writers ,though from two different parts of the world and maneuvering over two different genres, have delicately dealt with the question of existence by the appropriate selection of setting, and characterization.
Keywords: Existence, identity, faith, humanity, Beckett, Hemingway
 
 
Spectrum Sensing of Cognitive Radio: A Survey
359-371
Ammar Abdul-Hamed Khader, Ahmed M Husein Shabani and Mirza Tariq Beg
 
Abstract:
Cognitive Radio (CR) is a technique used to improve the utilization of the radio spectrum. It is a software controlled radio that endeavours to utilize the unused frequency spectrum at any time. The main challenge in cognitive radio is spectrum sensing. To provide a better understanding of CR, this article presents a survey and open research issues in spectrum sensing in CR. Various aspects of spectrum sensing problem are studied from a cognitive radio perspective. First, a brief overview of cognitive radio and the dynamic spectrum access (DSA) architecture is presented. Challenges associated with spectrum sensing are identified and spectrum sensing methods are reviewed. Later the paper explains the cooperative and non-cooperative sensing concept and its various forms.
Keywords: Cognitive Radio, Dynamic spectrum access, Spectrum (Sensing, sharing, decision, mobility), Cooperative & Non-Cooperative Sensing.
 
 
On the Threshold Analysis of Small Cracks and Estimation of Stress Intensity Factors
372-380
A. Vijayakumar and A. Rajadurai
 
Abstract:
Defect tolerant approaches to fatigue design are commonly employed in which the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is calculated and limits are imposed on the values using conventional LEFM methodologies. But these conventional approaches were reported to be unconservative when the crack size is very small of the order of 100 µm or less. There are two important methods, though empirical, widely used for the analysis of short cracks. The first one was proposed by Kitagawa.H and Takahashi.S and second one was by El-Haddad which was the modification of Kitagawa-Takahashi (K-T) method. This paper deals with a powerful method for the estimation of SIF, influenced by distant stress field, using distributed dislocation method and program developed (DISTRIF) in FORTRAN. After calculating the SIF, K-T and El-Haddad threshold limits can be applied to check whether ?KI is in the non-propagation region. This approach combined with the K-T and El-Haddad method gives very efficient and accurate solution for the estimation of fracture life.
Keywords: Stress Intensity Factor (SIF), Threshold Limits, Short Cracks, Distributed Dislocation Method, Fracture Life, Fatigue Fracture.
 
 
A Review on Performance Characteristics of Biodiesel
381-407
Gautam Kumar and Anoop Kumar
 
Abstract:
With the improvement in living standard of across the globe and industrialization, the demand of fossil fuel is in peak high. There is a steep rise in the price of crude oil. Petroleum reserves are concentrated in certain regions of the world and these reserves are depleting. These factors have caused concern for the researchers all over the world. Therefore, it is necessary to look for new sources of fuel, which must be renewable, locally available and fulfill the environmental norms. This paper reviews the work of different researchers, related to the performance and emission characteristics of the renewable and biodegradable biodiesel. With the view that biodiesel are made from different feedstock depending on the availability, this paper deals with biodiesel from different feedstock.
Keywords: Biodiesel, Performance, Emission, Vegetable oil
 
Trigger Agent in Core Router Based on EMMDV Protocol for MANETs
408-415
M. Geetha and R. Umarani
 
Abstract:
A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless nodes that move arbitrarily and use multi-hop protocols to communicate between each other. A recent proposal MMDV had highlighted several possible modifications of AODV routing protocol based on selected features available in other routing protocols. In this paper we proposed the EMMDV protocol for intra-net communication environment. Trigger Agent initiate the process thread in the destination node towards source node. The simulation result shows that our proposal outperforms in most of the cases than MMDV protocol.
Keywords: AODV, MMDV, EMMDV, Trigger Agent, DynMPR, Multipath Routing
 
Prediction of Machining Parameters in Machining of Composite Material
416-425
M. Muthuvel, G. Ranganath, P. Karthikeyan and M. Sakthivel
 
Abstract:
High speed machining is now acknowledge being one of the key manufacturing technologies to ensure high productivity and throughout milling of GFRP, through a challenging task, is being performed successfully at low spindle speed however high speed end milling in GFRP material has not been explored much. This paper reports an experimental investigation of a full factorial design performed on GFRP material by using end milling process by varying the machining parameters such as spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool type used. To determine the optimum cutting conditions the machined slot quality parameters analyzed includes surface roughness, delamination. Methodology used is the multi objective optimization (using MATLAB R2011b software) to find the optimum cutting conditions for defect free end milling. The machinability of composite material parameters was predicted. Cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool lives were optimized. Experimental data collected and tested with ANN techniques. Multi-layer perceptron model has been constructed with Back Propagation algorithm using the input and tool type used. Output parameters are surface roughness and delaminating of the machined components on completion of the experimental test and ANN are used to validate the results obtained and also to predict the behavior of the system under any condition with in the operating range.
Keywords: GFRP, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Optimization, End Milling.
 
 
Removal of Heavy Metals from the Abandoned Mine
426-435
Hyonseung Dho
 
Abstract:
This study has initiated to find the optimum condition to remove heavy metals from the soil in the abandoned mine. In this study an experiment was conducted by collecting soil samples from the tailing dams in the Samgwang mine – located in Chung-Nam province, South Korea –. Compared to other neighboring regions, this area is known for its high concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd elements that are detrimental to the living things. Arsenic, in particular, exceeds the standard concentration level. Statistical analyses showed that the correlation between As, Cd, and Pb was low. The potential use of flotation for the heavy metal contaminated soils was possible for using SALO as a flotation reagent. The use of both SALO and oxidation together in the tailing samples improved the selectivity of separation. In order to extract the heavy metals from the fine sized tailing sample, leaching tests were conducted with sulfuric acid. Results showed that the higher the sulfuric acid concentration, the leaching rate As, Cd, and Pb was increased. The leaching efficiency of As and Cd showed approximately 100% of the leacheate at 3M of sulfuric acid. The lecheate then was removed by the ion exchange method. The anionic ion exchange resin adsorbed As, Pb, and Cd well with increasing reaction time.
Keywords: Heavy Metal, Abandoned Mine, Correlation, Leaching Test, Ion Exchange Method
 
 
An Investigation of Effective Factors on Profitability of Corporations; Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange
436-441
Seyed Hossein Miri
 
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is investigation of effective factors on profitability of corporations in Iran. For do it, we have investigated Iranian companies in Tehran Stock Exchange during 1990-2012 period. We have used logistic regression. Estimation results indicate that Index of performance of firm, Quantity of sail, Expected profit and Ownership structure have a significant positive impact on probability of profitability of firm in TSE.
Keywords: Profitability of Corporations, Tehran Stock Exchange, Logistic Regression
 
 
Morphemic, Lexical and Semantic Comparison of Persian Bank Terminologies with their English Equivalents
442-457
Mohammad Sadeghi
 
Abstract:
The present paper studies common bank terms and expressions selected from banking and financial books and sources. Some Persian terms and expressions are chosen haphazardly from the treasury of bank terminologies derived from banking books and dictionaries and first are analyzed through first articulation process then their meaning and concepts are studied. These terms are classified in five groups according to morphemic, lexical and semantic similarities and differences. This paper is an attempt in contrastive analysis of bank terminology that shows their componential features and properties. We observe full similarity in some terms and expressions, both similarity and difference in some other terms and expressions and full difference in others. As a result, in term finding we should pay attention to this point that no terms in two languages are completely the same and they are similar or different depending on culture, religion, technology, history and background in the studied languages.
Keywords: Bank, comparison, lexical, morphemic, semantic
 
 
New Multicarrier PWM Strategies for Three Phase Asymmetrical Seven Level Inverter
458-476
R. Johnson Uthayakumar, S.P. Natarajan and B. Shanthi
 
Abstract:
This paper proposes new bipolar hybrid Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) strategies for three phase seven level Asymmetrical Multilevel Inverter (AMLI). The references used is in this work are third Harmonic Injection (THI) and Trapezoidal Amalgamated Reference (TAR). The triggering pulses required for operation of the power switches of chosen inverter are obtained by the new hybrid PWM strategies. The performance indices employed in this work are Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), Root Mean Square (RMS) value of fundamental voltage, Distortion Factor (DF), Form Factor (FF) and Crest Factor (CF) are evaluated for various modulation indices ma= 0.7-1. It is found that PDPWM with TAR reference and VF-THIPWM provide output with relatively low distortion for all ma .VRMS is relatively higher in the COPWM with THI and TAR references. Simulation of the circuit is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK.
Keywords: THD, AMLI, THIPWM, TAR reference, bipolar.
 
 
Resource Constraint QoS Based Clustering Model in Pervasive Computing
477-486
Beaulah David and P. Raviraj
 
Abstract:
Wireless network communication standards IEEE802.11 is most recently used due to its sufficient bandwidth and well-constructed infrastructures. Pervasive computing has developed through the pass few years owing to current expansions in transferable low-cost insubstantial devices and evolving diminutive range, and short power wireless communication networks. Pervasive computing conditions focused on incorporating computing and communications with the adjoining corporeal setting of routine lives to building computing obvious to the users. In pervasive computing, resource allocation plays a significant task for a better communication in wireless transmission networks. Several techniques have been presented by authors to attain a reliable resource allocation mechanism. All of the existing systems present a partial resolution in a sense that no procedure compacts with all of these confronts. So no one can be maintained as the decisive solution. Consequently to present an efficient QoS service in pervasive computing, we start a research by adapting Fault Tolerant and Resource Efficient QoS based Clustering model in pervasive computing environment for wireless network communication. In this work, we plan to present a resource efficient quality of service is achieved through divisive and conquer clustering based on nodes, energy drain rate, power and bandwidth consumption, and processing and transmission cycles. Clustering algorithm is devised with Bluetooth interfaces and distance measure is evaluated with resource requirement index. Simulation is carried out in a highly dense wireless mobile network to evaluate the performance of our proposal model for efficient communication of pervasive computing with varied topological conditions. An experimental evaluation is made to identify the best approach in terms of Mobile node density, Node energy drain rate, Communication Bandwidth.
Keywords: Wireless network communication, pervasive computing, Quality of Service, clustering, energy efficiency
 
 
An Effective Intelligent Approach for Managing the Performance of Telecommunication Networks
487-500
Ibrahiem M. M. El Emary, Bassant M. Albagoury, Bader Alyoubi and Salam A. Najim
 
Abstract:
The main objective of this article is to analyze and study briefly the management process of the computer communication network using an advanced approach based on hybrid intelligent expert system. The performance monitoring (as a critical item of the management process recommended by ISO) was carried out through predicting an error in a particular part of the network which affects negatively on the overall network performance. The management approach used in this case was developed based on Feed Forward Neural Network and Case Based Reasoning approach. The Multilayer Feed Forward NN was used to predict the next values of the network major performance parameters (as offered load, delay, throughput, utilization,….…etc), then this predicted value will produce a residual signal to compare between the actual monitored value and the desired network parameter. According to the compared results, the Expert Network will alter the network administrator with certain alarm if the difference between the actual and desired network parameter was outside a certain range (threshold value, knowing that this threshold is suggested by the network administrator). The output results indicate a highly significance in the efficiency of the hybrid intelligent system especially in investigating the time of detecting a certain fault occurred on certain part of the network.
Keywords: Expert Systems (ES), Case Based Reasoning (CBR), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), ACE, NMS, SNMP IT Guru , TCP and OPNET.
 
 
Towards Designing a Novel Multi Adjustable Robots Soccer Adopted for Humanoid Platform
501-506
Bassant Mohamed El-Bagoury, Ibrahiem M.M. El-Emary, Hans-Dieter Burkhard and Abdel-Badeeh M.Salem
 
Abstract:
Multi robot control behaviour for an autonomous humanoid robot is very complex, especially in the RoboCup domain. This is due to the dynamics of the environment and the complexity of coordination between behaviours multi robots. This paper presents an extension and too intensive work of our case-based hierarchy (HCBR) model behaviour control. Applies to goalkeeper and football robot attacker scenario. It consists of dual use of hierarchy of four levels, the first level is the role of the Android and striker or goalkeeper, and the second level is to decide which skill to implement and defend objective or goal scoring, the third level is to identify the behaviour of each skill and kicking or clearing the ball and the fourth level is the minimum level conditioning behaviours and distance to walk and kick. Probation is implemented within the framework of the Webots simulation tool for humanoid robot (NAO).
Keywords: Case-Based Reasoning, Behavior Control, Humanoid Robot.
 
 
Semantic Analysis: An Approach to Improve Spotted Words Recognition System
507-519
Mohamed Fezari and Ibrahiem El-Emary
 
Abstract:
This paper details the design and development of a voice guiding system for a robot arm (manipulator). The technique adopted is based on : combining pertinent features used in automatic speech recognition system such as Crossing Zero, energy, Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and derivatives; combining efficient classifiers such as Dynamic time warping and HMM; and finally , improving the speech recognition by including syntactic and semantic processing . The results show that by adding more computation ( combination of DTW and HMM) decrease the rate of error from 17.37% and 12.22 to 09.22%, adding the syntactic agent the error rate is reduced to 8.20 %, finally adding the semantic agent led to error rate less than 6.5 %. To implement the approach on a real-time application, a Personal Computer interface was designed to control the movements of a five degree of freedom (DOF) robot arm by transmitting the orders via radio frequency circuits. The voice command system for the robot arm is designed. The main parts of the robot are a microcontroller from Microchip PIC16F628 and a radio frequency wireless module. The possibilities to control other parts of the automatic robot arm are investigated by inserting sensors.
Keywords: Continuous Speech recognition, Robot Arm, tele-operation, speech features
 
 
Benefits of Social Networks in Developing Countries
520-533
Ibrahiem M. M. El Emary and Bader A. Alyoubi
 
Abstract:
No secret to anyone the importance of social networking sites at the moment due to its critical roles that is played in all daily life activities, the possibility of being a marketing or publishing tools beliefs or gather followers and supporters as well as the amount of fun and spend time. In fact, the gains on individuals many countless from its high speed of communication and ease of access to information as well as strengthen the social relations. But the question that arises when dealing with the importance and benefits of social networking sites, is the role that could be played by these sites in the service of education (as a major benefit of it) and teaching methods? The answer as many confirmed: Yes. So, SNS has become the first tool for the exchange of information undisputed. The major objective of this article is to light the shadow on the role of social networks in advancing the three Cs named the cooperation, coordination and collaboration to achieve tangible enhancement in the overall performance of the developing countries in terms of various applications like: education, health, economy, political gains, media broadcasting and others. It is concluded that for a large number of people social networking sites increased their contact with friends and family (53%) and increased their participation in social activities (26%). Increased social participation provides benefits to people's self-esteem and mental health suggesting that taking part in online social networking is likely to lead to positive outcomes for some people.
Keywords: SNS, Web.2, Cyber, ICT, 3Cs (Cooperation, Coordination and Collaboration), Facebook, MySpace and Twitter.