European Journal of Scientific Research
 Volume 100 No 1
Conceptual Analysis of Thoughtfulness for Sustainable Decision Making in Pakistani Universities
Musarrat Jabeen and Ayesha Khurram
Sustainable Decision Making depends on the level of thoughtfulness of decision makers. Thoughtfulness is defined as the ability to think and act thoughtfully. Thoughtfulness is abstract and composed of attitudes, beliefs, values, and politics in retrospective-perspective-prospective vis-à-vis ethical capacity of an individual. Thoughtfulness has better relationship with commitment to righteousness then with experience. Thoughtfulness demands more than just a mere acquisition of knowledge. The concept has received little attention in the domain of decision making. Sustainable decision making stands for decision making that refers to contextually relevant knowledge acquired through thoughtful analysis of the problem at hand. In management literature, many courses aim to promote sustainable decision making but there is scarcity to understand, analyze and scale the concept of thoughtfulness, a pre-requisite for sustainable decision making. Based on this concern this paper aims to assess the conceptual understanding of thoughtfulness, its existence and magnitude among the faculty/students of management Sciences in Pakistani Universities in and around Islamabad.
Keywords: Conceptual analysis, Magnitude, Reflection
Framing the Chemistry of Himalayan Water Conflict in South Asia in Perspective of Climate Change
13 - 21
Musarrat Jabeen, Tahir Mahmood and Muhammad Umar
The efficient use of water is of prime importance as the growing water scarcity warrants impending conflicts at intra and interstate levels. The study investigates the inherently political nature of cross border water resources. The objective of the study is to formulate its thrust as framing the chemistry of Himalayan water conflict in South Asia in perspective of climate change. This paper anchors water system of the Himalayas engaging India and Nepal, (upper riparian states) and Bangladesh, Pakistan, (lower riparian states) in South Asia keeping away Maldives, Sri Lanka because they are islands and Bhutan is ideally water sufficient in comparison to other states of South Asia. The authors provide four-D strategy to manage Himalayan water resources in South Asia. Decision makers are suggested to change their mindset to facilitate amicable usage of water as integral component of decision making to manage interstate relations.
Keywords: Water, Climate Change, Conflict
Equality of Per-Student Resource Allocation Leads to the Optimal usage of Resource Inputs and the Higher Quality: A Study of the Punjab Education System*
22 - 35
Muhammad Arshad Dahar and Ihtsham Ul Haq Padda
This study was conducted to investigate whether equality of the per-student resource allocation leads to the optimal usage of resource inputs and the higher quality of education. The quality of education is linked with the effective and the optimal usage of resource inputs that is possible when resource inputs per student are equally allocated to school and efficiently used. School Profile Performa was used to collect the data for per student expenditure, student teacher ratio and class size. The aggregate marks of the annual examinations of the Class VIII and Class X of the same students were collected through “Result Sheet” and were used as academic achievement. The study found a great difference in the allocation of per student expenditure, student teacher ratio and class size among schools. Likewise, the study also found two discrepancies i.e. extra burden in the over-burdened schools and highest per student expenditure in the schools with least enrollment of students. The study concluded that misallocation of these resource inputs leads to the ineffective usage of resource inputs and the lower quality of education. The equalizing per student resource allocation removes the two discrepancies and leads to the effective and optimal usage of resource inputs and the higher quality of education.
Keywords: Prior Achievement, Per Student Expenditure, Student Teacher Ratio, Class Size, Quality, Academic Achievement
Present School Leaders are Misfit for the School Management and the Stumbling Blocks for the Quality: A Case of the Punjab Education System*
36 - 42
Muhammad Arshad Dahar, Muhammad Imran Yousaf and Riffat Tahira Dahar
This study investigated whether present school leaders are misfit for school management and the stumbling blocks for quality education. The study delimited its scope to the four leadership styles i.e. autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire and transformational. The study used a questionnaire for teachers to identify the leadership styles and the extent of their use, and result sheet to identify the longitudinal data of student achievement. The between school variation was used to investigate the differential impact though Stepwise Regression Analysis. Analysis of the study show positive and significant impact for democratic and transformational styles, significant impact for autocratic style in case of only science students and insignificant impact for laissez-faire style. The study found very low score for the use of leadership styles. Likewise, most of the school leaders have no specific knowledge and proper trainings about the use of a specific style. The study also found that most of the present school leaders make the matters ambiguous and complicated instead of solving them. In this way, the study concluded that present school leaders are misfit for the school management and the stumbling blocks for the quality of education. The policy implication of this study is that democratic and transformational styles may be effective if school leaders are properly trained for their effective use.
Keywords: Leadership style, Impact, Relationship, Academic Achievement
Game Theory Attempts in Designing Defense against Sophisticated Attackers Anticipation in Vehicular ADHOC Networks
43 - 50
Prabhakar M., Deepti A.R, G. Mahadevan and R.M.S. Parvathi
Presently, Vehicular Adhoc Networks (VANET) is used in a wide variety of applications. Wide usage of Internet leads to more vulnerable to security attacks in Vehicular Adhoc Networks (VANET). In order to encounter attacks such as rapid propagation of sophisticated malwares, the fast growth of botnets, denial-of-service (DoS) attacks against business and government websites, many techniques have been presented. Always we think of designing a defense against any attack, but for good efficiency, we plan to design a defense against a sophisticated attacker who plans in anticipation of a complex defense in VANET. In addition, Game Theory can model issues of trust, incentives, and externalities that arise in security systems. With data collection and implementation using NS software, we present a Game theoretic potential for VANET security. Nash Equilibrium and Markov chains are the methods used here in this implementation. These are computed based on the game model, for VANET security. In this paper, Markov chains (MC) are used to choose the appropriate model for a given security problem in VANET and we have examined this new approach to extend the basic ideas of using game theory in VANET to predict transition rates for enhancing the security. The experimental evaluation shows that the Game theoretic approach of security measures for VANET using NE and MC perform better.
Keywords: Vehicular Adhoc Networks, Network Simulator, VANET Security, Game theoretic approach, Nash Equilibrium, Markov chains
The Role of Organizational Learning in Improving the Corporate Social Performance
51- 60
Abdelouahab Belmahdi and Khadidja Belmouhoub
This paper analyses the role of organizational learning in improving the corporate social performance, by focusing on inner social performance measured by work climate, job satisfaction, and turnover. This role has been examined empirically in some Algerian companies, basing our research on a sample of 30 economic companies using a questionnaire to get the necessary data and the SPSS to examine the hypotheses. The results reveal that organizational learning is not exploited to provide an appropriate work climate that encourages workers to offer the best they can and managers are not satisfied about the organizational learning characteristics. Finally, the turnover's reasons are in most of the cases relied with organizational learning.
Keywords: Organizational Learning, Corporate Social Performance, Work Climate, Job Satisfaction, Turnover.
Juridical and Legal Basics of Peace and War Termination
Sadeq Fani Maleki
The basics of peace and war termination from Islam’s point of view have been investigated in this article. This research is a descriptive research and documentary analysis is used to analyzing data. In this study, reconciliation and interests and methods of war termination in Islamic jurisprudence are divided to five categories based on the holy Quran. These five category are: obligatory agreement (a contract which is related to religious minority, they have 3 way in Islamic country: 1- Islam accepting, 2- war, 3- obligatory agreement), Amman agreement, ceasefire agreement (this is a type of agreement which in Islam jurisprudence, ceasefire has been stated temporary while fight state is existed yet), peace agreement and arbitration agreement. After a definition of agreements one by one, terms of utilization of them Islam has investigated. Findings show that Islam’s principle is based on peace and even Jihad has defensive nature and the aim of Islam is to publish consolidated views and governance of divine law on the universe.
Keywords: Peace, war and fight, obligatory, Amman, ceasefire and arbitration agreements.
Nuclear Magneton Theory of Mass Quantization "Unified Field Theory"
Bahjat R. J. Muhyedeen
A new theory is hereby proposed which is founded on the concept of quantized elementary discrete mass particles, called herein the Magneton and Antimagneton. The particles are conceived to be spinning magnetic dipoles with sufficient mass to produce the dipole-dipole interaction sufficient to act at ultra-short range – the source of the Nuclear Force Field (NFF) - which now has a gravitational component. Since the NFF contains this component it can be thought of as the long searched for Unified Field. The theory is termed the Nuclear Magneton Theory of Mass Quantization, or NMT.
Keywords: Nuclear Magneton Theory, Mass-Quantization-Energy-Quantization, E=mc2, E=mbc, E=mb2, Mass-Energy-Equivalence, universal particle speed constant b, Mass-Energy-Conformity-Principle, Magneton particle.
A New Cut–Through Mechanism of Scheduling Algorithm for the IEEE 802.16e Network
C. Ravichandiran, Pathuru Raj and Vaithiyanathan
Mobile WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is being touted as the most promising and potential broadband wireless technology. And the popularity rate has been surging to newer heights as the knowledge-backed service era unfolds steadily. Especially Mobile WiMAX is being projected as a real and strategic boon for developing counties such as India due to its wireless coverage acreage is phenomenally high. Mobile WiMAX has spurred tremendous interest from operators seeking to deploy high-performance yet cost-effective broadband wireless networks. The IEEE 802.16e standard based Mobile WiMAX system will be investigated for the purpose of Quality of Service provisioning. As a technical challenge, radio resource management will be primarily considered and main is the costly spectrum and the increasingly more demanding applications with ever growing number of subscribers. It is necessary to provide Quality of Service (QoS) guaranteed with different characteristics. As a possible solution the scheduling algorithms will be taken into main consideration and the present well known algorithms will be described. This paper specifically discussed about the Deficit round robin scheduling algorithm, Modified deficit round robin scheduling algorithm and Performance Evaluation.
Keywords: IEEE 802.16, Mobile WiMAX, QoS, PHY, MAC, OFDMA, OPNET
The Relationship between Cultural Consumption and Social Identity of Youth
Farshad Hajian, Najmeh-Sadat Mortaji, Hossein Nazoktabar and Ali Akbar Aghajani Afrouzi
Social identity involves personal identity family, group, religious and national identity. This paper studies the relationship between cultural consumption and social identity among young people in the city of Sari in Iran. The study is a survey study uses questionnaires for data collection. Two hundred young people residing in Sari were selected by cluster sampling. In the statistical methods, correlation coefficient is used to test the hypotheses. The results of Pearson correlation coefficient show that there is a significant relationship at confidence level of 0.95 between cultural consumption and social identity. Also, four variables of cultural consumption variables in order of importance in explaining the dependent variables have been entered into the regression equation and these variables are able to explain 57% of the variance in the dependent variable (R2=0.57). The results indicated that there is a close relationship between youth cultural consumption and their identity species.
Keywords: Cultural consumption, social identity, national identity and youth.
Dispatcher Filtering Scheme against APP-DDoS for Detecting and Preventing IP Spoofed Attack
S. Prabha and R. Anitha
Problem Definition: Application layer Distributed Denial of Service attack (App-DDoS) which attempt to avoid a server from donating the services to the equitable users. Damage can include leaking secret information, interfering messages and impersonating nodes. The majority of the current research on DDoS attack depends on collaboration of routers which is tough to achieve the real campaigns. The previous work form virtual protection rings around the hosts but still plans to extend the method to support different Intrusion prevention System (IPS) rule structures as future work. Approach: To improve the Intrusion prevention System (IPS) rule structures of the network, presented a filtering scheme based on dispatcher information to defend against various sender IP address spoofing. This Dispatcher Filtering Scheme (DFS) works independently at the potential sufferer part and accumulates the sender information of its clients such as source IP addresses, hops from the server during attacks. Results: Performance of Dispatcher Filtering Scheme (DFS) against App-DDoS attack is evaluated in terms of detection rate variation and filtering efficiency. Conclusion: Investigational outcome show that network domains are sufficient to yield 98 percent detection accuracy when compared with the present work.
Keywords: Dispatcher Filtering Scheme, App-DDoS attacks, Intrusion prevention System, IP address spoofing, Detection rate.
Three-Dimensional Honeycomb-Torus for Network-on-Chips
Vahideh Kamkar and Reza Sabbaghi-Nadooshan
In this paper, we will present addressing, routing and simulating of both two and three-dimensional (3D) honeycomb-torus networks. Simulation results show that 3D honeycomb-torus has a better performance than both mesh (which is the most famous networks on chip) and 2D honeycomb-torus, while it does not increase power consumption. We try to investigate honeycomb networks which are inspired from carbon Nanotubes and have features such as low hardware cost and low consuming power.
Keywords: NoC; honeycomb; 3-dimensional; mesh; performance; power
A Survey on Topological Design of Networks using Various Graph Theoretical Algorithms in Grid Environment
K. Periyakaruppan, T. Ravichandran and S. Karthik
Computers have become incredibly smaller, cheaper and numerous since the last decade. Interconnecting them, results in a computer network. We say that two computers are interconnected if they can exchange information. Two computers are said to be autonomous, if one does not control the other. A computer network is an interconnected collection of autonomous computers. Connection of two or more distinct networks results in internetworking. Sometimes, a computer network is also called as a distributed network. Strictly speaking, a distributed system is a computer network with a high degree of cohesiveness. Networks satisfy a broad range of purposes and meet various requirements. Facilitating communications, sharing hardware, files, data, information and software are some of the common objectives of computer communication networks. This paper presents the survey on principles on network design and topological design of the computer network.
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Nigerian Traditional Herbs and their Aphrodisiac Effect
Mohammed L., Okunade I. O., Balogun I. G., C. M. Idris and Sadiq U
In this paper ten fresh medicinal plants that are popularly believed to have aphrodisiac properties and hence used to treat sexual dysfunction were collected. Concentrations of twenty elements have been determined by INAA. Several recent researches indicate that impaired sexual function may be improved by micronutrients such as Fe, and Zn supplements among others. Our results show that Euphobia hirta recorded high Zn concentration (669 ± 34 µ gg-1) which is more than the amount (95.0 µ gg-1) in Jaipal sex tonic. The concentration of Fe in Cassytha filiformis, and Indigofera hirsute, was 599 µ gg-1 and 702 µ gg-1 respectively, these values are in good agreement with the Fe concentration in the popular aphrodisiac Panax gingseng. For three species that belong to the family Leguminoceae, the correlation coefficients are highly distinctive for each species. Quality control and quality assurance was tested by analyzing two Standard Reference Materials of biological origin (IAEA-359 and SRM-1573) simultaneously with the samples.
Keywords: Aphrodisiac, Sexual dysfunction, Mineral elements composition, NAA
Optimization of Reliability Testing using Bayesian Approach
Salima Beleulmi, Ahmed Bellaouar, Mohamed Benidir and Mohammed Lachi
The Bayesian approach is a stochastic method, it allows for trend studies on the behavior of materials between two periods or after a break in the life of these materials. It naturally integrates into account information partially uncertain for the support in modeling problem. The method is therefore particularly suitable for the analysis of the reliability tests especially for equipment and organs whose different tests are costly. Bayesian techniques are used to reduce the size of estimation tests, improving the evaluation of the parameters of product reliability by the integration of the past (data available on the product concerned) and process the case « zero » failure observed, difficult to treat with conventional statistical approach. This study will concern the reduction in the number of tests on electronic or mechanical components installed in a mechanical lift knowing their behavior-post.
Keywords: Bayesian techniques, stochastic method, Reliability test, Failure rates.